- Yanam (Inde française)
"For article about Yanaon after independence, see
Yanam (India)"Infobox Former Country
conventional_long_name = Établissement français de Yanaon
common_name = India
continent = moved from Category:Asia to South Asia
region = South Asia
country = India
empire = France
status = Colony
era = Imperialism
year_start = 1816
year_end = 1954
event_start =Treaty of Paris
date_start = September 26
date_end = June 13
event_end = Coup d'État
p1 = British East India Company
flag_p1=Flag of the British East India Company (1801).svg
s1 = Yanam (India)
flag_s1 = Flag of India.svg
symbol=Coat of arms of France
symbol_type=Coat of arms
image_map_caption = Maximum extent of French influence (1741-1754)
Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité
capital = Pondichéry
common_languages = French
stat_year1 = 1948
stat_pop1 = 5,853
stat_year2 = 1936
stat_pop2 = 5,220
stat_year3 = 1885
stat_pop3 = 4,266
stat_year = 1843
stat_pop = 4,000
government_type = Republic
President of France
currency = French Indian Rupee
Yanam or Yanaon was a French colony between 1731 and 1954. Yanam has some 300 years of history and is well known as "French Yanam" after it was transferred to
Indian Unionin 1954.
The main colonial history of Yanam starts with early 18th century. It is mentioned in the book, "The botanic garden of Yanam" (Le Jardin Botanique de Yanaon) by Médecin-colonel Alfred-Alphonse-Léon Bigot (
ColonelA. Bigot), that at first, the French establishment of a warehousehere in 1723 A.D. the La Compagnie des Française Indes Orientales of Franceestablished here a trading postof theirs. Since the business became slack and commercial operations had not produced the desired results, it was given up in 1727.
In the west of Yanam, we can still find `Neelikundilu' (
Indigowells). People say that the Dutch constructed a forthere. It is being called by locals as 'saali kota' because previously weavers (In Telugu "Saalivandru") used to weave clothes after the demise of the Dutch. In this fort, they used to keep their currency, minted in the mint at Neelapalli, a nearby village.From the existing records we can say that the Dutch left Yanam before 1725. Some 25 km North they used to have a Colony at "Jagannadhapuram" (Dutch "Jaggernaikpoeram", English "Jagannaickpore"), now in Kakinadabetween (1734–1795) and (1818-1825).
Inam de Bussy
People say that this region was presented as "Inam" (gift) to the French general the Marquis de Bussy, by
VizianagaramKing Pusapati Peda Vijaya Rama Raju as a token of gratitude for the help rendered by Bussy in the fight in 1757, against the rulers of Bobbili. Even now we can see a street named after Bussy in Yanam. It is believed that Bussy had stayed in a certain building in this street. Yanam is nicknamed as "Inam de bussy" (Bussy's Gift).
Era of Bussy and Dupleix
Actually it was seized again by Dupleix in 1731 during the time of
Pierre Benoît Dumasthe then Governor Generalof French Establishments of India. A "firman" from Haji Hassan Khan, Nawab of Masulipatamauthorized the French Representative Fouquet, then chief of the Company at Machilipatnamto set up a logeat Yanam in the year 1731. Nawab Roustoum khan granted a "paravana" dated 1735 for French commerce in Yanam. But it was re-established completely in 1742 during the reign of Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah. After 1742 political motives began to overshadow the desire for commercial gain. All factories were fortified for the purpose of defence. Mr. De Choisis administered it. He died here on 27 October 1747. Monsieur Sinfraysucceeded him. The annual rent was waived off by a document in 1743 for Yanam. Mir Ahmad Ali Khan, Nawab of Arcot, granted all the rights on the lands situated before the quarters at Yanam in 1747. Unfortunately necessary details are not available for this period i.e. from 1723 to 1750. Muzaffar Jang, Nawab Subedar of the Deccan (1750–1751), confirmed the sovereignty of this territory in 31 December 1750to the French. Salabat Jang, the son of the Nizam al Mulk, who was indebted for his elevation to the throne to the French East India Company, granted the district of Kondavid to the French in return for their services, and soon afterwards the other Circars. A "firman"' was issued by the Mughal emperor, confirming all the concessions made to the French by Salabat Jang, the Subedar of Deccan. These concessions were in the shape of the donations and the name `Inam'(Gift) was changed into Yanam (Yanaon) by the French in the course of time. In December 1753, a "paravana" of Salabat Jang, Subedar of Deccan conceded to Bussy the paraganas of Chicacole, Ellore, Rajahmundryand Mustafanagar. with an annual revenue RS.2, 00,000 for the maintenance of the French troops in the Subahin recognition of the help of these Circars amounted up to 10 lakhs of Rupees per year. Bussy helped Salabat Jang to be the Subedar of Deccan. The agreement made between the French and Salabat Jang in Aurangabad bears the signature of Said Loukshur, Minister of Salabat Jang. Yanam acquired considerable importance during the occupation of the Northern Circarsby the French.
First British occupation
There is again a dearth of information regarding this place from 1753 to 1765. Another important event in the history was the war between the French and the English fought at Chandurthi in 1758 in which the French were defeated.
Salabat Jangmade a treaty with British and gave the Northern Circarsunder a "firman" to the English. Later Nizamrebelled against the English. A second treaty was the result of war and Northern Circars remained permanently under the control of the British. After 1760the French lost hold in South India, especially on Northern Circars. In 1765 Lord Robert Clive, the then existing Chiefand Councilat Vizagapatamobtained from the Mughal emperor Shah Alama grant of the five Circars.
documentdated 15 May, 1765showed that the villages of Yanam and Kapulapalem (Capouloupalém) with other lands were handed over by Jean white hill and George Dolben, the Englishmen deputed by Mr. Jean Pybus, the head of the English settlement in Masulipatamto Mr. Yoan Yacques Panon, French Commissionerdeputed by Jean Law de Lauristonthe then Governor Generalof Pondicherry, for taking them over. This document mentions that Franceentered into possession of Yanam and its dependent territories with exemption from all export and import duties. Soon after taking possession of this settlement, Mr. Panon obtained a "firman" from the ruler of Rajahmundrygranting the French full liberty of trade at Yanam and another one from the Nawab Mir Nizam Ali Khan Bahadur (Asaf Jah II) calling upon the Zamindars of the Circar Mustafanagar not to hinder the commerce of the French.
After transfer of
Northern Circarsto the English, Yanam came under the province of Peddapuramin the jurisdiction of Sri Raja Vatsavaya Kala Thimma Jagapathi Bahadhoor (Timma Raja). The French had a modest building in Yanam situated a league from the sea, on the Coringa riverinto which small vessels could enter.
1765 dispute of market
The documents of 1765 throw light on a dispute of a weekly market or fair in Yanam. A weekly market used to be held here on every Tuesday (Even now market occurs in Yanam on this Tuesday only). People used to come to it for purchasing all their essential commodities once for a week. Neelapalli (Nélapilly), a neighbouring village of Yanam was under the British at that time. It is nearly 3 kilometre away from Yanam. The people in this village also used to hold a fair on Tuesday. Thus there was a clash of interests between Yanam and Neelapalli. After prolonged correspondence with the English authorities at
Madras, the French authorities in Yanam succeeded in changing the fair of Neelapalli to another day of the week, Saturday. In this way, Yanam triumphed over its neighbouring village Neelapalli.
1767 memoire by Lauriston
Jean Law de Lauriston, Governor of Pondicherry (1765–1766) stated in his "Memoire of 1767" as “It is from Yanam that we get our best ‘Guinness’ (fine cloth). It is possible to have a commercehere worth more than a million livres per year under circumstances more favorable than those in which we are placed now, but always by giving advances much earlier, which we have never been in a position to do. From this place we also procured teakwood, oils, rice and other grains both for the men as well as for the animals. A port from commerce, Yanam enjoyed another kind of importance. "The advantages which may be derived in a time of war from the alliances that we the French may conclude with several Rajas who sooner or later cannot fail to be dissatisfied with the English". Although the English gained an effective control over the Circars, Yanam enabled the French to enter into secret relations with the local chieftains. Yanam had some commercial importance”.
It was a centre for the production of salt and this salt constituted the major part of the quantity imported by the French into
Bengalregion. It was also an important center of cotton goods and supplied a large part of the return cargoof the French ships visiting India. A few French citizens in Yanam were fully occupied by these two kinds of profitable business and they had no interest in political and administrative matters that were left entirely to the chief or commandant. Indian residents wanted nothing better than to be left in peace to carry on their trading activities.
econd British occupation
Between 1778 and 1783,
Pondicherrywas under British occupation. There is again lack of information because of its subsequent English occupation. Yanam was restored again to the French in 1785. Mr. Mallhendre took possession of it and Mr. Bluter succeeded him. It was recommended to them to favor the business of the French East India Companyand to protect the interest of some specified merchants.
During the French Revolution
French Revolutionhad its effects in different ways in all the former French settlements. The French trade at Yanam was considerable at that time.
After Bluter, Mr.
Pierre Sonneratbecame the chief in 1790 in Yanam. He was a scholar and writer. He had a profound interest in Natural Sciences. He wrote a book "VOYAGE AUX INDES ORIENTALES ET À LA CHINE” in 3 volumes. He appreciated very much the sonority and the music of the Telugu language. He administered Yanam during the time of the French Revolution.
Pierre Sonnerat, Chief of Yanam, was involved in this business along with other traders. His commercial involvement brought serious consequences to his administrative post. The petitions were made against him in this connection, to the Chevalier de Fresnethe then French Governor in Pondicherry. On 5 June 1790a Frenchman called De Mars complained about him for the first time. By that time, Pondicherryunder the influence of the French Revolution had already formed the first representative committee. But no action was taken in favor of De Mars either by the Governor or by this committee. Naturally, the French citizens in Yanam were disinterested in the affairs of Pondicherry owing to his failure.
Third British occupation
Once again French lost control over Yanam to the British. During 1793 and 1816 Pondicherry was under British control. So, Yanam fell thrice into the hands of the British. After the
Napoleonic wars, by the Treaty of Paris (1814)Yanam along with the factory at Machilipatnamwas finally returned to the French on 26 September 1816. From then it was continuously under the control of French until it got independence. The third British occupation is also called as final British occupation.
Local administration was started in Yanaon by a
royal decree(Ordonnance Royale) dated 23 July 1840during July Monarchy. According to that decree Yanaon and Mahéwere Provided with Chef de service (Service Chief) who resides in his official residence. After the merger, it is being resided by Regional Executive Officer, Yanam. [La Gazette de I'Etat de Pondichéry (Gazette of Pondicherry)]
Thus a colonial government was formed in 1840. According to "Annuaire statistique des établissements français dans l'Inde- 1843" by Pierre-Constant Sicé, the details of colonial government in 1843 were,
* Gouverneur Général de établissements français dans l'Inde - De Nourquer Du Camper (Paul)
* Gouvernement Colonial de Yanaon
** Chef de service - Jourdain (Jean-Philippe-Paul)
*** Administration - Ribeiro (Dominique-Grégoire), écrivain.
** Service de Santé - Pithois (Pamphile), officer de santé.
** Administration financière - Ticanny Tiramalaram, percepteur des revenues à mazulipatam.
*** Tribunal de prèmiere instance
**** Sicé (Eugène), procureur du Roi
**** Calmels (Jean-René-Eucher), greffier-notaire
**** Vingatramaya, interprête.
**** P.Condaya, interprête. [Annuaire statistique des établissements français dans l'Inde By Pierre-Constant Sicé]
Another pivotal incident in local administration was decree of 1872. It was dated
13 June 1872and was issued during Third Republic. According to that decree Conseil locaux (Local councils) were created at each colony. The elected member was called as Conseiller local (Local councillor). Conseil local de Yanaon had a strength of 4 local councillors. The term of office was 6 years with one half of membership renewed every 3 years. [La Gazette de I'Etat de Pondichéry (Gazette of Pondicherry)]
According to a decree dated
24 February 1878, one person can be sent as a sénateur to Sénat(French Senate). Senator will be elected by Conseil colonial (Colonial Council) and Conseil local (Local council). First election were held on 26 March 1876. [La Gazette de I'Etat de Pondichéry (Gazette of Pondicherry)]
By the decree of 1946,
French India(Inde française) became Overseas territory ( Territoire d'outre-mer) of France. Then an "Assemblée Représentative" (Representative Assembly) was created for each colony. Yanaon was provided with two assembly representatives (Equivalent to MLA).
Notable assembly representatives from Yanam were Kamichetty Venougopalarao Naidou, Kamichetty Savithiry,
Kamichetty Sri Parassourama Varaprassada Rao Naiduand Kanakala Tatayya Naidou. [La Gazette de I'Etat de Pondichéry (Gazette of Pondicherry)]
Though the French established colonies in India in seventeenth century itself, it was not until during the end of 19th century they started civil administration in
French Metropolitan Decree
A French Metropolitan Decree, dated
12 March 1880adopted a six-year term of office for Mayors (Maire), municipal councillors (Conseil Municipaux) and commune panchayats (Communes). Thus French Indiahas seen a French system of municipal administration. In the past, municipal administration was virtually the pivot of the whole administrative machinery in French India. It had several features that could serve as a role model for hassle-free administration.
Then a total of 10 communes were formed in which Yanaon became one commune with a strength of 12 Municipal Councillors (conseiller municipaux). First elections were held on
30 May 1880.
tructure of municipality
"La Mairie" (
Town Hall) in Yanaon is now called as Municipality Building. It was built in 19th century and is situated next to "Court House" in the Thiagaraja Street in Yanaon Town. During French colonial rule, Yanam Municipalityhad 12 Sièges. Then, they were called previously as Sièges instead of wards. Each ward (Siège) was represented by a municipal councilor (Conseiller Municipal). Each commune possessed a Mayor(Maire) and a Municipal council(Conseil Municipal) which managed the commune from the "Mairie". The life-span of a Municipal council was 6 six years with one half of the memebership renewed for every 3 years.
Election results of 1948
Elections held on
24 October 1948and 18 October 1954were the most crucial in the history of French India. In June 1948 the French and Indian Governments came to an agreement as to how the future of the French Settlements should be determined.
Municipal elections were held in
Pondicherry, Karikaland Yanamon 24 October 1948. The two main parties were the French India Socialist Party ( Socialists), who favoured the continuance of French rule, and the French India Congress (Congress), who favoured union with India. Socialist Party was headed by Kamichetty Sri Parassourama Varaprassada Rao Naidu, a strong pro-French leader and later MLA of Yanam. and Congress Party was headed by Yerra Jaganatha Rao. [La Gazette de I'Etat de Pondichéry (Gazette of Pondicherry)] Among the Independents was Madimchetty Satianandam who later elected as mayor and performed a key role in merging of Yanam in India.
**Independents - 09
Notable Municipal Councillors were,
Bezawada Bapa Naidou, Diwan Bouloussou Soubramaniam Sastroulou, Kamichetty Venougopala Rao Naidou, Samatam Krishnayya, Madimchetty Satianandam, Kamichetty Savithiry and Kamichetty Sri Parassourama Varaprassada Rao Naidu.
Cession of Yanam
Actually, Yanam had an extremely dominant
pro-Frenchatmosphere prevailing in its people and its leaders. But in due course of time due to nationalist struggle by some leaders, conditions became intolerable in Yanam after its mayor and other representatives of Yanam adopted the merger resolution. The mayor, deputy mayor, and over 200 people took refuge in the adjacent areas of the Indian Union. Police and hired hoodlums from Yanam assaulted refugees on Indian soil. It was then that the refugees marched into Yanam under the leadership of Dadala Raphael Ramanayyaand aided by then Maire De Yanaon, Monsieur Madimchetty Satianarayanamourty alias Satia and took over the administration. After hoisting the Indian National Flag, they formed the revolutionary provisional governmentof Yanam headed by Dadala Raphael Ramanayya and adopted a resolution declaring "Yanaon A Libéré" (Yanam liberated). The coup d’etat of Yanam was announced by All India Radioand Press.
coup d’etathad enraged the French authorities of Pondicherry. Rumours were spread to the effect that the French governmentwere despatching a cruiserto Yanam to capture Merger Leaders and to re-establish their authority. After the Coup, last administrator of Yanam, George Sala was recalled by André Ménard, then Governor General of Pondicherryin June 1954. Dadalawas also appointed as Acting Commisoner for Yanam for 14 Days. Towards the end of June 1954, Sri Kewal singh paid a visit to Yanam and requested Dadala's return to Pondicherry to continue his activities there. On 3 July, on Kewal Singh’s request, Dadala left Yanam, after making all arrangements for its proper administration.
De facto transfer
Yanam remained under French control till
June 13 1954, when it joined the Republic of India by Indian Military Action. On November 1, 1954, after long years of freedom struggle the " de factotransfer" (Vāstavikāntaraṇa) of the four enclaves of Pondicherry, Yanam, Mahe, and Karikalto the Indian Unionwas occurred.
Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehruhad visited Pondicherryon 16 January 1955. Messrs Edouard Goubert, S. Perumal , Dadalaand Sri Pakirisamy Pillai presented addresses to Pandit Nehruin a public meeting in the maidan of Gorimedu.
Treaty of Cession
A treaty of cession was signed by the two countries in
28 May 1956. The " de jure" transfer was delayed until the end of the Algerian War. The treaty was ratified by the French parliament in May 1962. On August 16, 1962(De Jure Day) India and France exchanged the instruments of ratification under which France ceded to India full sovereignty over the territories it held.
De jure transfer
Treaty of cession was signed by the two countries in May 1956 was ratified by the
French parliamentin May 1962. On August 16 1962 Indiaand Franceexchanged the instruments of ratificationunder which France ceded to India full sovereignty over the territories it held. Every year on 16 August, the "De-jure Transfer Day" (Vidhitāntaraṇa Dinamu in Telugu) is celebrated throughout PondicherryUnion Territory.
Merger in Pondicherry U.T
Puducherryand the other enclaves of Karaikal, Maheand Yanam came to be administered as the Union Territoryof Pondicherryfrom July 1 1963.
Date of events
Famous people in colonial Yanaon
"First Laurel Poet of
Andhra", Chellapilla Venkata Kavi (1870-1950), One of the duo of the famous " Tirupati Venkata Kavulu" lived here. Many poets such as the late Villa Reddi Naidu, V.Venkataswami Naidu. Some important politicians include Kanakala Tatayya Naidou and Md. Abdul Razzaq.
Guiry Soubaraw (Sergent-chef)
Bezawada Bapa Naidou
Bouloussou Soubramaniam Sastroulou
Kamichetty Venugopala Rao Naidou
Dadala Rafael Ramanayya
Kamichetty Sri Parassourama Varaprassada Rao Naidu
Marquis de Bussy-Castelnau
Causes for Liberation of French colonies in India
Municipal Administration in French India
Coup d'État de Yanaon
* [http://yanam.nic.in/ District website]
* [http://www.telugudiaspora.com/telugu_countries_article5.htm Pravasandhrulu in France: identity and integration by Jonnalagadda Anuradha, France]
* [http://pondicherry.nic.in/ Official website of the Government of the Union Territory of Pondicherry]
* [http://meaindia.nic.in/treatiesagreement/1956/chap133.htm Indian Ministry for External Affairs - 1956 Treaty of Cession]
* [http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1467-923X.1955.tb02588.x/ THE FRENCH AND PORTUGUESE SETTLEMENTS IN INDIA]
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