- Enrico Fermi
name = Enrico Fermi
birth_date = birth date|1901|9|29|df=y
death_date = death date and age|1954|11|28|1901|9|29
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
Italy(1901-1938) United States(1944-1954)
Scuola Normale Superiore
Scuola Normale Superiorein Pisa University of Göttingen University of Leiden University of Rome La Sapienza Columbia University University of Chicago
Owen Chamberlain Geoffrey Chew Mildred Dresselhaus Jerome I. Friedman Marvin Leonard Goldberger Tsung-Dao Lee Ettore Majorana James Rainwater Marshall Rosenbluth Arthur Rosenfeld Emilio Segrè Jack Steinberger Sam Treiman
known_for = New
radioactiveelements produced by neutronirradiation
nuclear chain reaction, Fermi-Dirac statistics
Nobel Prize for Physics(1938)
Enrico Fermi (
September 29, 1901– November 28, 1954) was an Italian physicist most noted for his work on the development of the first nuclear reactor, and for his contributions to the development of quantum theory, nuclear and particle physics, and statistical mechanics. Fermi was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physicsin 1938 for his work on induced radioactivityand is today regarded as one of the top scientists of the 20th century. He is acknowledged as a unique physicist who was highly accomplished in both theory and experiment.cite book
title=The Physicists: A Generation that Changed the World
Fermium, a synthetic elementcreated in 1952 is named after him.
Enrico Fermi was born in
Rome, Italy. His father was Alberto Fermi, a Chief Inspector of the Ministry of Communications, and his mother was Ida de Gattis, an elementary school teacher. As a young boy he enjoyed learning physicsand mathematicsand shared his interests with his older brother, Giulio. When Giulio died unexpectedly of a throat abscess in 1915, Enrico was distraught, and immersed himself into scientific study to distract himself. According to his own account, each day he would walk in front of the hospital where Giulio died until he became inured to the pain. One of the first source for the study of physics was a book found at the local market of Campo de' Fioriin Roma. That book, entitled Elementorum physicae mathematicaecomprehend different subjects as for example mathematics, classical mechanics, astronomy, optics, and acoustics. Its 900 pages in Latin, written by father Andrea Caraffa, professor at the Collegio Romanoin Rome, have been deeply studied by the young Fermi, fact proved by the different notes found inside the original book. Later, Enrico befriended another scientifically inclined student named Enrico Persico, and the two together engaged in scientific projects such as building gyroscopes, and measuring the magnetic fieldof the earth. Fermi's interest in physics was further encouraged by a friend of his father, Adolfo Amidei, who gave him several books on physicsand mathematics, which he read and quickly assimilated.
Scuola Normale Superiore in Pisa
In 1918 Fermi enrolled at the prestigious
Scuola Normale Superiorein Pisa, where he was later to receive his undergraduate and doctoral degree. In order to enter the Institute, candidates had to take an entrance exam which included an essay. For his essay on the given theme "Characteristics of Sound", 17-year-old Fermi chose to derive and solve the Fourier analysisbased partial differential equation for waves on a string. The examiner, Prof. Giulio Pittato, interviewed Fermi and concluded that his essay would have been commendable even for a doctoral degree. Enrico Fermi ended up at the first place in the classification of the entrance exam. During the years at the Scuola Normale Superiore, Fermi teamed up with a fellow student named Franco Rasettiwith whom he used to indulge in light-hearted pranks. Later, Rasetti became Fermi's close friend and collaborator.
Beside attending the classes, Enrico Fermi found the time to work on with his extracurricular activities, particularly with the help of his friend Enrico Persico, who remained in Rome to attend the university. Between 1919 and 1923 Fermi studied
general relativity, quantum mechanicsand atomic physics. His knowledge of quantum mechanics reached such a high level that the head of the Physics Institute, Prof. Luigi Puccianti, asked him to organize seminars about that topic. During this time he learnt tensor calculus, a mathematical instrument invented by Gregorio Ricciand Tullio Levi-Civita, and needed to demonstrate the principles of general relativity. In 1921, his third year at the university, he published his first scientific works on the Italian magazine Nuovo Cimento: the first was entitled: "On the dynamic of a solid system of electrical charges in transient conditions"; the second: "On the electrostatic of a uniform gravitational field of electromagnetic charges and on the weight of electromagnetic charges". At first glance, the first paper seemed to point out a contradiction between the electrodynamic theory and the relativistic one concerning the calculation of the electromagnetic masses. After one year with a work entitled "Correction of severe discrepancy between electrodynamic theory and the relativistic one of electromagnetic charges. Inertia and weight of electricity", Enrico Fermi showed the correctness of his paper. This last publication was so successful that was translated into German and published in the famous German scientific magazine "Physikalische Zeitschrift".
In 1922 he published his first important scientific work in the Italian magazine
I Rendiconti dell'Accademia dei Linceientitled "On the phenomena that happen close to the line of time", where he introduces for the first time the so-called "Fermi's coordinates", and proves that when close to the time line, space behaves as an euclidean one. In 1922 Fermi graduated from Scuola Normale Superiore.
In 1923, while writing the appendix for the Italian edition of the book "Foundation of Einstein's relativity" written by A. Kopff, Enrico Fermi pointed out, for the first time, the fact that hidden inside the famous Einstein equation (), there was a enormous amount of energy (nuclear energy) to be exploited.
Fermi's Ph.D advisor was
Luigi Puccianti. In 1924 Fermi spent a semester in Göttingen, and then stayed for a few months in Leidenwith Paul Ehrenfest.From January 1925 to the autumn of 1926, he stayed at the University of Florence. In this period he wrote his work on the Fermi-Dirac statistics.
Professor in Rome
When he was only 24 years old, Fermi took a professorship at the Rome (first in
atomic physicsin Italy) which he won in a competition held by Professor Orso Mario Corbino, director of the Institute of Physics). Corbino helped Fermi in selecting his team, which soon was joined by notable minds like Edoardo Amaldi, Bruno Pontecorvo, Franco Rasettiand Emilio Segrè. For the theoretical studies only, Ettore Majoranaalso took part in what was soon nicknamed "the Via Panisperna boys" (after the name of the road in which the Institute had its labs).The group went on with its now famous experiments, but in 1933 Rasetti left Italy for Canadaand the United States, Pontecorvo went to Franceand Segrè left to teach in Palermo.
During their time in Rome, Fermi and his group made important contributions to many practical and theoretical aspects of physics. These include the theory of
beta decay, and the discovery of slow neutrons, which was to prove pivotal for the working of nuclear reactors. His group systematically bombarded elements with slow neutrons, and during their experiments with uranium, narrowly missed observing nuclear fission. At that time, fission was thought to be improbable if not impossible, mostly on theoretical grounds. While people expected elements with higher atomic numberto form from neutron bombardment of lighter elements, nobody expected neutrons to have enough energy to actually split a heavier atominto two light element fragments. However, the chemist Ida Noddackhad criticised Fermi's work and had suggested that some of his experiments could have produced lighter elements. At the time, Fermi dismissed this possibility on the basis of calculations.
Fermi was well-known for his simplicity in solving problemscite book
author = Richard Rhodes
title = The Making of the Atomic Bomb
date = 1986
publisher = Simon and Schuster
isbn=978-0-684-81378-3 ] . He began his inquiries with the simplest lines of mathematical reasoning, then later produced complete solutions to the problems he deemed worth pursuing. His abilities as a great scientist, combining theoretical and applied nuclear physics, were acknowledged by all. He influenced many physicists who worked with him, such as
Hans Bethe, who spent two semesters working with Fermi in the early 1930s. From the time he was a boy, Fermi meticulously recorded his calculations in notebooks, and later used to solve many new problems that he encountered based on these earlier known problems.
When Fermi submitted his famous paper on
beta decayto the prestigious journal "Nature", the journal's editor turned it down because "it contained speculations which were too remote from reality". Thus Fermi saw the theory published in Italian and in German before it was published in English. "Nature" eventually did publish Fermi's report on beta decay on January 16, 1939.
Fermi remained in Rome until 1938.
The Manhattan Project
In 1938, Fermi won the
Nobel Prize in Physicsat the age of 37 for his "demonstrations of the existence of new radioactiveelements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons".
After Fermi received the
Nobel Prizein Stockholm, he, his wife Laura, and their children emigrated to New York. This was mainly because of the anti-Semitic laws promulgated by the fascistregime of Benito Mussoliniwhich threatened Laura, who was Jewish. Also, the new laws put most of Fermi's research assistants out of work.
Soon after his arrival in New York, Fermi began working at
In December 1938, the German chemists
Otto Hahnand Fritz Strassmannsent a manuscript to " Naturwissenschaften" reporting they had detected the element bariumafter bombarding uraniumwith neutrons; [ O. Hahn and F. Strassmann "Über den Nachweis und das Verhalten der bei der Bestrahlung des Urans mittels Neutronen entstehenden Erdalkalimetalle" ("On the detection and characteristics of the alkaline earth metals formed by irradiation of uranium with neutrons"), "Naturwissenschaften" Volume 27, Number 1, 11-15 (1939). The authors were identified as being at the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut für Chemie, Berlin-Dahlem. Received 22 December 1938.] simultaneously, they communicated these results to Lise Meitner. Meitner, and her nephew Otto Robert Frisch, correctly interpreted these results as being nuclear fission. [Lise Meitner and O. R. Frisch "Disintegration of Uranium by Neutrons: a New Type of Nuclear Reaction", "Nature", Volume 143, Number 3615, 239-240 [http://www.nature.com/physics/looking-back/meitner/index.html (11 February 1939)] . The paper is dated 16 January 1939. Meitner is identified as being at the Physical Institute, Academy of Sciences, Stockholm. Frisch is identified as being at the Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Copenhagen. ] Frisch confirmed this experimentally on 13 January 1939. [ O. R. Frisch "Physical Evidence for the Division of Heavy Nuclei under Neutron Bombardment", "Nature", Volume 143, Number 3616, 276-276 [http://dbhs.wvusd.k12.ca.us/webdocs/Chem-History/Frisch-Fission-1939.html (18 February 1939)] . The paper is dated 17 January 1939. [The experiment for this letter to the editor was conducted on 13 January 1939; see Richard Rhodes "The Making of the Atomic Bomb" 263 and 268 (Simon and Schuster, 1986).] ] In 1944, Hahn received the Nobel Prize for Chemistryfor the discovery of nuclear fission. Some historians have documented the history of the discovery of nuclear fission and believe Meitner should have been awarded the Nobel Prize with Hahn. [ Ruth Lewin Sime "From Exceptional Prominence to Prominent Exception: Lise Meitner at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry" [http://www.mpiwg-berlin.mpg.de/KWG/Ergebnisse/Ergebnisse24.pdf Ergebnisse 24] Forschungsprogramm "Geschichte der Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft im Nationalsozialismus" (2005).] [cite book|author=Ruth Lewin Sime|title=Lise Meitner: A Life in Physics|publisher=University of California|year=1997] [ Elisabeth Crawford, Ruth Lewin Sime, and Mark Walker "A Nobel Tale of Postwar Injustice", "Physics Today" Volume 50, Issue 9, 26-32 (1997).]
Meitner’s and Frisch’s interpretation of the work of Hahn and Strassmann crossed the Atlantic Ocean with
Niels Bohr, who was to lecture at Princeton University. Isidor Isaac Rabiand Willis Lamb, two Columbia Universityphysicists working at Princeton, heard the news and carried it back to Columbia. Rabi said he told Enrico Fermi; Fermi gave credit to Lamb. Bohr soon thereafter went from Princeton to Columbia to see Fermi. Not finding Fermi in his office, Bohr went down to the cyclotron area and found Herbert L. Anderson. Bohr grabbed him by the shoulder and said: “Young man, let me explain to you about something new and exciting in physics.” It was clear to a number of scientists at Columbia that they should try to detect the energy released in the nuclear fission of uranium from neutron bombardment. On 25 January 1939, a Columbia University team conducted the first nuclear fission experiment in the United States, [ H. L. Anderson, E. T. Booth, J. R. Dunning, E. Fermi, G. N. Glasoe, and F. G. Slack "The Fission of Uranium", "Phys. Rev." Volume 55, Number 5, 511 - 512 (1939). Institutional citation: Pupin Physics Laboratories, Columbia University, New York, New York. Received 16 February 1939.] which was done in the basement of Pupin Hall; the members of the team were Herbert L. Anderson, Eugene T. Booth, John R. Dunning, Enrico Fermi, G. Norris Glasoe, and Francis G. Slack. The next day, the Fifth Washington Conference on Theoretical Physics began in Washington, D.C.under the joint auspices of The George Washington Universityand the Carnegie Institution of Washington. There, the news on nuclear fission was spread even further, which fostered many more experimental demonstrations.
Fermi then went to the
University of Chicagoand began studies that led to the construction of the first nuclear pile Chicago Pile-1.
Fermi recalled the beginning of the project in a speech given in 1954 when he retired as President of the
American Physical Society:
:"I remember very vividly the first month, January, 1939, that I started working at the
Pupin Laboratoriesbecause things began happening very fast. In that period, Niels Bohrwas on a lecture engagement at the Princeton Universityand I remember one afternoon Willis Lambcame back very excited and said that Bohr had leaked out great news. The great news that had leaked out was the discovery of fission and at least the outline of its interpretation. Then, somewhat later that same month, there was a meeting in Washington where the possible importance of the newly discovered phenomenon of fission was first discussed in semi- jocularearnest as a possible source of nuclear power."
In August 1939
Leó Szilárdprepared and Albert Einsteinsigned the famous letter warning President Franklin D. Rooseveltof the probability that the Nazis were planning to build an atomic bomb. Because of Hitler's September 1 invasionof Poland, it was October before they could arrange for the letter to be personally delivered. Roosevelt was concerned enough that the Uranium Committeewas assembled, and awarded Columbia Universitythe first atomic energyfunding of US$6,000. However, due to bureaucratic fears of foreigners doing secret research, the money was not actually issued until Szilárd implored Einstein to send a second letter to the president in the spring of 1940. The money was used in studies which led to the first nuclear reactor— Chicago Pile-1, a massive "atomic pile" of graphitebricks and uraniumfuel which went critical on December 2, 1942, built in a hard racquets court under Stagg Field, the football stadium at the University of Chicago. Due to a mistranslation, Soviet reports on Enrico Fermi claimed that his work was performed in a converted " pumpkinfield" instead of a "squash court", squash being an offshoot of hard racquets [ [http://www.anl.gov/Science_and_Technology/History/Anniversary_Frontiers/unisci.html The "Last Universal Scientist" Takes Charge ] ] . This experiment was a landmark in the quest for energy, and it was typical of Fermi's brilliance. Every step had been carefully planned, every calculation meticulously done by him. When the first self-sustained nuclear chain reaction was achieved, a coded phone call was made by one of the physicists, Arthur Compton, to James Conant, chairman of the National Defense Research Committee. The conversation was in impromptu code:
:Compton: The Italian navigator has landed in the New World.:Conant: How were the natives?:Compton: Very friendly.
This successful initiation of a chain-reacting pile was important not only for its help in assessing the properties of fission — needed for understanding the internal workings of an atomic bomb — but also because it would serve as a pilot plant for the massive reactors which would be created in Hanford, Washington, which would then be used to produce the
plutoniumneeded for the bombs used at the Trinity siteand Nagasaki. Eventually Fermi and Szilárd's reactor work was folded into the Manhattan Project.
Fermi moved to
Los Alamosin the later stages of the Manhattan Project to serve as a general consultant. He was sitting in the control room of the Hanford B Reactorwhen it first went critical in 1944. His broad knowledge of many fields of physics was useful in solving problems that were of an interdisciplinary nature.
He became a
naturalized citizenof the United States of America in 1944.
Fermi was present as an observer of the
Trinity teston July 16, 1945. Engineer Jack Aebysaw Fermi at work:
cquote| As the shock wave hit Base Camp, Aeby saw Enrico Fermi with a handful of torn paper. "He was dribbling it in the air. When the shock wave came it moved the confetti. He thought for a moment."
Fermi had just estimated the yield of the first nuclear explosion. It was in the ball park. [ [http://larrycalloway.com/historic.html?_recordnum=105 The Trinity Test: Eyewitnesses] ]
Fermi's strips-of-paper estimate was ten kilotons of TNT; the actual yield was about 19 kilotons [ [http://www.lanl.gov/history/atomicbomb/pdf/Enrico%20Fermis%20Observations%20at%20Trinity,%20July%2016,%201945.pdf Enrico Fermi's Observations at Trinity] ] [
Nuclear weapon yield#Milestone nuclear explosions]
In Fermi's 1954 address to the APS he also said, "Well, this brings us to Pearl Harbor. That is the time when I left Columbia University, and after a few months of commuting between Chicago and New York, eventually moved to Chicago to keep up the work there, and from then on, with a few notable exceptions, the work at Columbia was concentrated on the
isotope separationphase of the atomic energy project, initiated by Booth, Dunning and Urey about 1940".
Fermi was widely regarded as the only physicist of the twentieth century who excelled both theoretically and experimentally. The well-known historian of physics,
C. P. Snow, says about him, "If Fermi had been born a few years earlier, one could well imagine him discovering Rutherford's atomic nucleus, and then developing Bohr's theory of the hydrogen atom. If this sounds like hyperbole, anything about Fermi is likely to sound like hyperbole". Fermi's ability and success stemmed as much from his appraisal of the art of the possible, as from his innate skill and intelligence. He disliked complicated theories, and while he had great mathematical ability, he would never use it when the job could be done much more simply. He was famous for getting quick and accurate answers to problems which would stump other people. An instance of this was seen during the first atomic bomb test in New Mexicoon July 16 1945. As the blast wave reached him, Fermi dropped bits of paper. By measuring the distance they were blown, he could compare to a previously computed table and thus estimate the bomb energy yield. He estimated that the blast was greater than 10 kilotons of TNT, the measured result was 18.6. (Rhodes, page 674). Later on, this method of getting approximate and quick answers through back-of-the-envelope calculations became informally known as the 'Fermi method'.Fermi's most disarming trait was his great modesty, and his ability to do any kind of work, whether creative or routine. It was this quality that made him popular and liked among people of all strata, from other Nobel Laureates to technicians. Henry DeWolf Smyth, who was Chairman of the Princeton Physics department, had once invited Fermi over to do some experiments with the Princeton cyclotron. Walking into the lab one day, Smyth saw the distinguished scientist helping a graduate student move a table, under another student's directions. Another time, a Du Pontexecutive made a visit to see him at Columbia. Not finding him either in his lab or his office, the executive was surprised to find the Nobel Laureatein the machine shop, cutting sheets of tin with a big pair of shears.
After the war, Fermi served for a short time on the General Advisory Committee of the Atomic Energy Commission, a
scientific committeechaired by J. Robert Oppenheimerwhich advised the commission on nuclear matters and policy. After the detonation of the first Soviet fission bombin August 1949, he, along with Isidor Rabi, wrote a strongly-worded report for the committee which opposed the development of a hydrogen bomb on moral and technical grounds. But Fermi also participated in preliminary work on the hydrogen bomb at Los Alamos as a consultant, and along with Stanislaw Ulam, calculated that the amount of tritiumneeded for Edward Teller's model of a thermonuclear weaponwould be prohibitive, and a fusion reaction could not be assured to propagate even with this large quantity of tritium.
In his later years, Fermi did important work in particle physics, especially related to
pionsand muons. He was also known to be an inspiring teacher at the University of Chicago, and was known for his attention to detail, simplicity, and careful preparation for a lecture. Later, his lecture notes, especially those for quantum mechanics, nuclear physics, and thermodynamics, were transcribed into books which are still in print.
Also in these later years he mused about a proposition which is now referred to as the "
Fermi Paradox". This absurd contradiction or proposition is this: that with the billions and billions of star systems in the universe, one would think that intelligent life would have contacted our civilization by now; yet this has not happened since it takes only about 600 years for a civilization to reach potential for annihilating itself with weapons of mass destruction as it grows in knowledge exponentially.
Fermi died at age 53 of stomach cancer and was interred at
Oak Woods Cemeteryin Chicago, Illinois. Two of his graduate students who assisted him in working on or near the nuclear pile also died of cancer. Fermi and his team knew that such work carried considerable risk but they considered the outcome so vital that they forged ahead with little regard for their own personal safety. [cite book
title=Strange Beauty: Murray Gell-Mann and the Revolution in Twentieth Century Physics
Eugene Wignerwrote: "Ten days before Fermi had died he told me, 'I hope it won't take long.' He had reconciled himself perfectly to his fate".
A recent poll by "Time" magazine listed Fermi among the top twenty scientists of the century.
Fermilabparticle accelerator and physics lab in Batavia, Illinois, is named after him in loving memory from the physics community. Fermi 1& Fermi 2 nuclear powerplants in Newport, Michiganare also named after him, as are many schools such as Enrico Fermi High School in Enfield, Connecticut.
Fermi Court in
Deep River, Ontariois named in his honour.
In 1952, element 100 on the
periodic table of elementswas isolated from the debris of a nuclear test. In honor of Fermi's contributions to the scientific community, it was named fermiumafter him.
Since the 1950s, the United States Atomic Energy Commission has named its highest honour, the
Fermi Award, after him. Recipients of the award include well-known scientists like Otto Hahn, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Freeman Dyson, John Wheeler and Hans Bethe.
Laura and Enrico Fermi Family Legacy
Enrico Fermi's mother built her own pressure cooker [cite book|author=
Emilio Segrè|title=Enrico Fermi—Physicist|publisher=The University of Chicago Press|isbn=0-226-74473-6|year=1970] and perhaps this inspired Enrico to build the first nuclear reactor in 1942. A pressure cooker is metal containing steam pressure. Enrico's pile was graphite containing uranium from exploding (copyright Olivia Fermi 2001-2008, unpublished manuscript). In 1928, Fermi married Laura Capon. They had two children while living in Rome, Italy: a daughter Nella Fermi Weiner, PhD (1931–1995), artist and feminist; and a son Giulio ("Judd") Fermi, PhD (1936–1997). Laura and Enrico's son Giulio worked with the Nobel laureate Max Perutzon the structure of hemoglobin.
Toward the end of his life, Enrico realized his faith in society at large to make wise choices about nuclear technology was questionable [cite book|title=Fermi Remembered|coauthors=Cronin, ed|publisher=University of Chicago Press|year=2004] . Enrico Fermi said [Enrico Fermi, The Future of Nuclear Physics, unpublished address, Rochester, NY, January 10, 1953, EFP, box 53.] :
:"Some of you may ask, what is the good of working so hard merely to collect a few facts which will bring no pleasure except to a few long-haired professors who love to collect such things and will be of no use to anybody because only few specialists at best will be able to understand them? In answer to such question [s] I may venture a fairly safe prediction.
:History of science and technology has consistently taught us that scientific advances in basic understanding have sooner or later led to technical and industrial applications that have revolutionized our way of life. It seems to me improbable that this effort to get at the structure of matter should be an exception to this rule. What is less certain, and what we all fervently hope, is that man will soon grow sufficiently adult to make good use of the powers that he acquires over nature."
His wife, Laura Fermi (1907–1977), early environmentalist, systems thinker, prolific writer and New York Times bestselling author of "Atoms in the Family: Life with Enrico Fermi, Architect of the Atomic Age" [cite book|author=
Laura Fermi|title=Atoms in the Family: My Life with Enrico Fermi|location=Chicago|publisher=University of Chicago Press|year=1954|isbn=0-226-24367-2] said, of our nuclear dilemma [cite book|title=Reminiscences of Los Alamos|coauthors=Lawrence Badash,J.O. Hirschfelder,H.P. Broida|isbn=902771097X|year=1980] :
:"But above all, there were the moral questions. I knew scientists had hoped that the bomb would not be possible, but there it was and it had already killed and destroyed so much. Was war or was science to be blamed? Should the scientists have stopped the work once they realized that a bomb was feasible? Would there always be war in the future? To these kinds of questions there is no simple answer."
Rachel Fermi (1964–), photographer and teacher, Laura and Enrico Fermi's 3rd grandchild, continued to question the sanity of nuclear weapons in her book, "Picturing the Bomb" [cite book|title=Picturing the Bomb: Photographs from the Secret World of the Manhattan Project|first=Rachel|last=Fermi|coauthors=Esther Samra, Richard Rhodes|isbn=0810937352|year=1995] . The authors juxtapose photos from the top secret world of the Manhattan Project with family photos from Los Alamos and Hanford.
Olivia Fermi (1957–), formerly Alice Caton, M.A. A.B.S. - Leadership in Human Systems, ConRes Cert, photoartist, writer and business consultant, Laura and Enrico's first grandchild, is currently researching the legacy of her grandparents for a series of books she plans to publish. [cite web|url=http://fermieffect.com|title=Enrico Fermi Effect|accessdate=2008-08-28] On September 29, 2001, shortly after the destruction of the World Trade Center in New York City, Olivia flew to Rome, Italy to deliver a speech to the International Conference: Enrico Fermi and the Universe of Physics. She had been invited to speak to this gathering of physicists as a representative of the Laura and Enrico Fermi family. Olivia said [Olivia Fermi (formerly Alice Caton), "Enrico Fermi in the Family", Speech presented at: Proceedings of the International 'Enrico Fermi and the Universe of Physics' Rome, Sept 29 – Oct 2, 2001" Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei Istitutio Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, 2003). Her speech was translated into Italian and published by Promoteo, the Italian journal of arts and letters in the December 2001 issue. ("Fermi in Famiglia", Alice Caton (now Olivia Fermi), Promoteo Anno 19, Numero 76, Arnoldo Mondadori Editore, Dicembre 2001)] :
:"All of us alive today, and all who will come after us, are heirs to Enrico Fermi’s scientific legacy. We all have a stake in it. Since the end of World War II, humanity has had knowledge of nuclear energy and its incredible potential for benefit as well as harm.
:"Enrico Fermi gave us a lot. And there is more to be done. Enrico Fermi’s work, and the work of other scientists, exists in a world full of people who, in a certain way, are like Enrico... [funny anecdotes about occasional Enrico errors] ... He, like all of us, was both brilliant and fallible.
:"We have a collective, developmental task. We must learn to integrate our scientific knowledge and our human experience to find the answers to the nuclear dilemma, and to the many other dilemmas facing us today. ... Our world has yet to find the right nuclear recipe – how to harness nuclear power for the benefit of all living things.
:"We will need all of our human gifts to survive and flourish on this planet. From here, it looks to me like Enrico contributed all of his gifts. Now it’s up to us to contribute ours. We can look back to Enrico for inspiration, if we look to ourselves for the future."
The two male grandchildren of Laura and Enrico are Olivia's brother: Paul Weiner, PhD (1959–), mathematician and professor; and Rachel's brother: Daniel Fermi (1971–). Between Paul and Rachel, there are four great-grandchildren of Laura and Enrico Fermi. These two children, four grandchildren and four great-grandchildren are all the direct descendents of Laura and Enrico Fermi.
* — "Process for the Production of Radioactive Substances", filed October, 1935, issued July, 1940
* — "Neutron Velocity Selector", filed September, 1945, issued October, 1950
* — "Neutronic reactor", with
Leó Szilárd, filed December, 1944, issued May, 1955
* — "Testing Material in a Neutronic Reactor", filed August, 1945, issued October, 1956
* — "Test Exponential Pile", filed May, 1944, issued February 1957
* — "Method of Operating a Neutronic Reactor", filed December 1944, issued July, 1957
* — "Neutronic Reactor", filed October 1945, issued September, 1957
* — "Neutronic Reactor Shield", filed January 1946, issued September, 1957
* — "Method of Sustaining a Neutronic Chain Reacting System", filed November, 1945, issued November, 1957
* — "Air Cooled Neutronic Reactor"
* — "Chain Reacting System"
* — "Neutronic Reactor"
* — "Neutronic Reactor"
* — "Method of Testing Thermal Neutron Fissionable Material for Purity", filed November 1945, issued January 1961
Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope
Fermi's golden rule
Scuola Normale Superiore
* [http://www-news.uchicago.edu/fermi/resources.html Fermi's audio biography on University of Chicago website]
*cite journal | author= Zinn W. E. | title= Fermi and Atomic Energy| journal= Review of Modern Physics | year= 1955 | volume= 27 | pages= 263–268 | doi= 10.1103/RevModPhys.27.263|url=http://prola.aps.org/pdf/RMP/v 27/i3/p263_1|format=pdf
* [http://www.osti.gov/cgi-bin/rd_accomplishments/display_biblio.cgi?id=ACC0044&numPages=51&fp=N "The First Reactor: 40th Anniversary Commemorative Edition"] ,
United States Department of Energy, (December 1982).
*Fermi, E. [http://www.osti.gov/cgi-bin/rd_accomplishments/display_biblio.cgi?id=ACC0043&numPages=9&fp=N "The Future of Atomic Energy"] ,
United States Department of Energy(through predecessor agency the Atomic Energy Commission, (May 1946).
*Jones, E.M. [http://www.osti.gov/cgi-bin/rd_accomplishments/display_biblio.cgi?id=ACC0055&numPages=20&fp=N "Where is everybody?" An account of Fermi's question"] ,
Los Alamos National Laboratory(LANL), United States Department of Energy, (March 1, 1985).
*Myers, W.D. & W.J. Swiatecki. [http://www.osti.gov/cgi-bin/rd_accomplishments/display_biblio.cgi?id=ACC0060&numPages=44&fp=N "The nuclear Thomas-Fermi model"] ,
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory(LBNL), United States Department of Energy, (August 1, 1994).
*Beckerley, J.G. [http://www.osti.gov/cgi-bin/rd_accomplishments/display_biblio.cgi?id=ACC0040&numPages=103&fp=N "Neutron Physics. A revision of I. Halpern's notes on E. Fermi's lectures in 1945"] ,
United States Department of Energy(through predecessor agency the Atomic Energy Commission), (October 1951).
*Fermi, E. [http://www.osti.gov/cgi-bin/rd_accomplishments/display_biblio.cgi?id=ACC0039&numPages=33&fp=N "Summary of the activities of the experimental section of the Nuclear Physics Division in the past month"] ,
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, United States Department of Energy(through predecessor agency the Atomic Energy Commission), (June 1943).
*Fermi, E., Pasta, J. & S. Ulam. [http://www.osti.gov/cgi-bin/rd_accomplishments/display_biblio.cgi?id=ACC0041&numPages=20&fp=N "Studies of Nonlinear Problems. I"] ,
Los Alamos National Laboratory(through predecessor agency Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, (May 1955).
*Fermi, E. [http://www.osti.gov/cgi-bin/rd_accomplishments/display_biblio.cgi?id=ACC0042&numPages=16&fp=N "Taylor instability of incompressible liquids"] ,
Los Alamos National Laboratory(through predecessor agency Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, (September 1951).
*Compton, A. H. [http://www.osti.gov/cgi-bin/rd_accomplishments/display_biblio.cgi?id=ACC0038&numPages=3&fp=N "Establishing Site X: Letter, Arthur H. Compton to Enrico Fermi, September 14, 1942"] ,
United States Department of Energy(through predecessor agency the Atomic Energy Commission, (September 1942).
* [http://www.osti.gov/accomplishments/fermi.html Biography and Bibliographic Resources] , from the
Office of Scientific and Technical Information, United States Department of Energy
* [http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0929.html Obituary, NY Times, November 29, 1954, "Enrico Fermi Dead at 53; Architect of Atomic Bomb"]
* [http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1938/ Nobel prize page for the 1938 physics' prize]
* [http://www.nobel-winners.com/Physics/enrico_fermi.html About Enrico Fermi]
* [http://keynes.scuole.bo.it/ipertesti/fermi/ Life and works of Enrico Fermi] (in Italian)
* [http://alsos.wlu.edu/qsearch.aspx?browse=people/Fermi,+Enrico Annotated bibliography on Enrico Fermi from the Alsos Digital Library]
* [http://www.atomicarchive.com/History/firstpile/index.shtml The Story of the First Pile]
* [http://dspace.library.cornell.edu/handle/1813/62 E-Book Enrico Fermi: The Master Scientist ]
Samuel Abraham Goudsmiton the [http://www.lorentz.leidenuniv.nl/history/spin/goudsmit.html discovery of electron spin]
* [http://fermi.lib.uchicago.edu/fermicommemoration.htm Fermi Commemorative Events]
* [http://www.fi.edu/learn/case-files/fermi/ Enrico Fermi's Case File] at The Franklin Institute with info about his contributions to theoretical and experimental physics.
* [http://www.physicstoday.org/vol-55/iss-6/p38.html Enrico Fermi in America] by Valentine L. Telegdi
* [http://www.thefeldons.com/musicmusings.cfm "Fermi's Pile"] by The Feldons
SHORT DESCRIPTION=Nobel Prize-winning physicist
DATE OF BIRTH=birth date|1901|9|29|mf=y
PLACE OF BIRTH=
DATE OF DEATH=death date|1954|11|28|mf=y
PLACE OF DEATH=
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
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