Eusebius of Nicomedia

Eusebius of Nicomedia (died 341) was a bishop of Berytus (modern-day Beirut) in Phoenicia, then of Nicomedia where the imperial court resided in Bithynia, and finally of Constantinople from 338 up to his death.

Influence in the Imperial family and the Imperial court

Distantly related to the imperial family of Constantine, he not only owed his removal from an insignificant to the most important episcopal see to his influence at court, but the great power he wielded in the Church was derived from that source. In fact, during his time in the Imperial court, the Eastern court and the major positions in the Eastern Church were held by Arians or Arian sympathizers. Drake, "Constantine and the Bishops", pp.395.] With the exception of a short period of eclipse, he enjoyed the complete confidence both of Constantine and Constantius II and was the tutor of the later Emperor Julian the Apostate; and it was he who baptized Constantine the Great in May, 337. [cite web|url=http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05623b.htm|title=Eusebius of Nicomedia|work=Catholic Encyclopedia |accessdate=2007-02-18] Also during his time in the Imperial court, Arianism became more popular with the Royal family.Ellingsen, "Reclaiming Our Roots: An Inclusive Introduction to Church History, Vol. I, The Late First Century to the Eve of the Reformation", pp.121.] . It can be logically surmised that Eusebius had a huge hand in the acceptance of Arianism in the Constantinian household. The Arian influence grew so strong during his tenure in the Imperial court that it wasn't until the end of the Constantinian dynasty and the appointment of Theodosius I that Arianism lost its influence in the Empire. Young, "From Nicaea to Chalcedon", pp.92.] .

It was of particular interest that Eusebius was nearly persecuted because of his close relationship to the Emperor Licinius while serving as Bishop of Nicomedia during Licinius' reign.

Relations with Arius

Like Arius, he was a pupil of Lucian of Antioch, and it is probable that he held the same views as Arius from the very beginning; he was also one of Arius' most fervent supporters who encouraged Arius.Jones, "Constantine and the Conversion of Europe", pp.121.] It was also because of this relationship that he was the first person whom Arius contacted after the latter was excommunicated from Alexandria by Alexander. Young, "From Nicaea to Chalcedon", pp.59.] . Apparently, Arius and Eusebius were close enough and Eusebius powerful enough that Arius was able to put his theology down in writing.Young, "From Nicaea to Chalcedon", pp.61.] He afterward modified his ideas somewhat, or perhaps he only yielded to the pressure of circumstances; but he was, if not the teacher, at all events the leader and organizer, of the Arian party.

At the First Council of Nicaea, 325, he signed the Confession, but only after a long and desperate opposition in which he "subscribe with hand only, not heart"Amidon, "The Church History of Rufinus of Aquileia: Books 10 and 11", 10.5.] according to ancient sources. It was a huge blow to the Arian party since it was surmised that the participants in the First Council of Nicaea were evenly split between non-Arians and Arians.Lim, "Public Disputation, power, and social order in late antiquity", pp.183.] His defense of Arius angered the emperor, and a few months after the councilhe was sent into exile due to his continual contacts with Arius and the exiles.Drake, "Constantine and the Bishops", pp.259.] After the lapse of three years, he succeeded in regaining the imperial favor by convincing Constantine that Arius and his views do not conflict with the Nicene Creed.Roldanus, "The Church in the Age of Constantine: the Theological Challenges", pp.82.] After his return in 329 he brought the whole machinery of the state government into action in order to impose his views upon the Church.

Political and Religious career

Eusebius was more of a politician than anything else, and a good one too. Upon his return, he regained the lost ground resulted from the First Council of Nicaea, established alliances with other groups such as the Meletians and expelled many opponents.

He was described by modern historians as an "ambitious intriguer" Roldanus, "The Church in the Age of Constantine: The Theological Challenges", pp.78.] and a "consummate political player". Drake, "Constantine and the Bishops", pp.395.] He was also described by ancient sources as a high-handed person who was also aggressive in his dealings.Amidon, "The Church History of Rufinus of Aquileia: Books 10 and 11", 10.12.] ; he also used his allies to spy on his opponents.

He was able to dislodge and exile three key Arian opponents who espoused the First Council of Nicaea: Eustathius of Antioch in 330, Athanasius of Alexandria in 335 and Marcellus of Ancyra in 336. This was no small feat since Athanasius was regarded as a "man of God" by Constantine.Roldanus, "The Church in the Age of Constantine: the Theological Challenges", pp.84.] and both Eustathius and Athanasius held top positions in the church.

Another major feat was his appointment as the Patriarch of Constantinople by expelling Paul I of Constantinople; Paul would eventually return as Patriarch after Eusebius' death.

Even outside the empire, Eusebius had great influence. He brought Ulfilas into the Arian priesthood and sent the latter to convert the heathen Goths.

Eusebius baptised Constantine the Great in his villa in Nicomedia, on May 22, 337 just before the death of the Emperor.

Death and aftermath

He died at the height of his power in the year 342.Drake, "Constantine and the Bishops", pp.393.]

He was so influential that even after his death, Constantius II heeded his and Eudoxus of Constantinople's advice to attempt to convert the Roman Empire to Arianism by creating Arian Councils and official Arian Doctrines.Guitton, "Great Heresies and Church Councils", pp.86.]

It was because of Eusebius that "On the whole, Constantine and his successors made life pretty miserable for Church leaders committed to the Nicene decision and its Trinitarian formula."Ellingsen, "Reclaiming Our Roots: An Inclusive Introduction to Church History, Vol. I, The Late First Century to the Eve of the Reformation", pp.119.]

Unfortunately for him, his dream of having Arianism accepted by the masses never came to pass, since Arianism did not penetrate beyond the elite in society.Dubious|date=March 2008

Eusebius of Nicomedia is not to be confused with his contemporary Eusebius of Caesarea, the author of a well-known early book of Church History.

Notes

References

* cite book
last = Amidon
first = Philip R.
title = The Church History of Rufinus of Aquileia: Books 10 and 11
location = New York
publisher = Oxford University Press
year = 1997

* cite book
last = Bright
first = William
title = The Age of the Fathers
location = New York
publisher = AMS Press
year = 1970

* cite book
last = Chadwick
first = Henry
title = The Church in Ancient Society: From Galilee to Gregory the Great.
location = Oxford
publisher = Oxford University Press
year = 2003

* cite book
last = Chadwick
first = Henry
title = The Early Church.
location = London
publisher = Penguin Group
year = 1993

* cite book
last = Drake
first = H.A.
title = Constantine and the Bishops: The Politics of intolerance
location = Baltimore
publisher = The Johns Hopkins University Press
year = 2000

* cite book
last = Ellingsen
first = Mark
title = Reclaiming Our Roots: An Inclusive Introduction to Church History, Vol. I, The Late First Century to the Eve of the Reformation
location = Pennsylvania
publisher = Trinity Press International
year = 1999

* cite book
last = Guitton
first = Jean
title = Great Heresies and Church councils
location = New York
publisher = Harper & Row Publishers
year = 1963

* cite book
last = Jones
first = A.H.M.
title = Constantine and the Conversion of Europe
location = Toronto
publisher = University of Toronto Press
year = 1978

* cite book
last = Lim
first = Richard
title = Public Disputation, power, and social order in late antiquity.
location = Berkeley
publisher = University of California Press
year = 1995

* cite book
last = Roldanus
first = Johannes
title = The Church in the Age of Constantine: the Theological Challenges.
location = Oxfordshire
publisher = Routledge
year = 2006

* cite book
last = Young
first = Frances
title = From Nicaea to Chalcedon.
location = Philadelphia
publisher = Fortress Press
year = 1983

External links

Correspondence of Eusebiusof Nicomedia:
* [http://www.fourthcentury.com/index.php/urkunde-1/ Arius to Eusebius]
* [http://www.fourthcentury.com/index.php/urkunde-2/ Eusebius to Arius]
* [http://www.fourthcentury.com/index.php/urkunde-8/ Eusebius to Paulinus of Tyre]
* [http://www.fourthcentury.com/index.php/urkunde-21 Eusebius to the Council of Nicaea]
* [http://www.fourthcentury.com/index.php/urkunde-27 Constantine on Eusebius' deposition]
* [http://www.fourthcentury.com/index.php/urkunde-31 Eusebius' confession of faith]


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