Liverpool Street station

Infobox London station
name = London Liverpool Street


manager = Network Rail
zone = 1
locale = Bishopsgate
borough = City of London
start = Start date|1874
platforms = 18
railexits0405 = 50.469
railexits0506 = 47.271
railexits0607 = 55.266
railcode = LST
latitude = 51.5186
longitude = -0.0813

Liverpool Street station, also called London Liverpool Street, is a major railway station and connected London Underground station in the north eastern corner of the City of London in England. It is the southern terminus of the Great Eastern Main Line (GEML), and is the main departure point from London to destinations in the East of England not served by the East Coast Main Line from King's Cross, as well as serving commuter services to parts of East London and Essex.

It is one of the busiest stations in the United Kingdom, the third busiest in London after Waterloo and Victoria with 123 million visitors each year, and one of 17 managed by Network Rail. The station has exits to Bishopsgate, Liverpool Street and the Broadgate development. It is in Travelcard Zone 1.

National Rail

Destinations

Liverpool Street serves destinations in the East of England including Stansted Airport, Cambridge, Lowestoft, Great Yarmouth, Norwich, Ipswich, Clacton-on-sea, Chelmsford, Colchester, Braintree, Southend-on-Sea and the port of Harwich, as well as many suburban stations in north-eastern London, Essex and Hertfordshire. It is one of the busiest commuter stations in London. A daily express train to Harwich connects with the ferry from Harwich to Hoek van Holland, forming the Dutchflyer service.

Trains from Liverpool Street do "not" go to Liverpool. For that city, Euston is the London terminus.

Almost all passenger services from Liverpool Street are operated by National Express East Anglia. It operates local and suburban services on the Great Eastern and West Anglia lines, express services to Colchester, Ipswich and Norwich, and local services in the East Anglia region. These routes are collectively known as the Greater Anglia network.

There are two weekday evening shuttle services to Barking, calling only at Stratford, which are operated by c2c. [c2c - " [http://www.c2c-online.co.uk/templates/Page.aspx?id=825 Changes to late evening and Liverpool Street services] "] All other c2c services depart from Fenchurch Street railway station, although Liverpool Street is also used by c2c during engineering work. Both National Express East Anglia and c2c are owned by National Express Group.

History

The station was built on the site of the original Bethlem Royal Hospital, was opened to traffic on 2 February 1874 by the Great Eastern Railway and was completely operational from 1 November 1875. From this date the original terminal, Bishopsgate, closed to passengers. It reopened as a goods station in 1881 but was destroyed by fire on 5 December 1964. The site is now being redeveloped as part of the extension of London Underground's East London line to form part of the London Overground network.

The new station was designed by the Eastern's chief engineer, Edward Wilson and was built by John Mowlem & Co. on a site which had been occupied by Bethlem Royal Hospital from the 13th Century to the 17th Century. A City of London Corporation plaque commemorating the station's construction hangs on the wall of the adjoining former Great Eastern Hotel, which was designed by Charles Barry (junior) (son of Sir Charles Barry) and his brother Edward Middleton Barry, and also built by John Mowlem & Co. The station was named after the street on which it stands, which in turn was named in honour of British Prime Minister Lord Liverpool, having been built as part of an extension of the City of London towards the end of his term in office.

The construction of the station was due to the desire of the company to gain a terminal closer to the city than the one opened by the predecessor Eastern Counties Railway, at Shoreditch, that had opened on 1 July 1840. This station was renamed "Bishopsgate" in 1846. The construction proved extremely expensive due to the cost of acquiring property and many people were displaced due to the large scale demolitions. The desire to link the GER lines to those of the sub-surface Metropolitan Railway, a link seldom used and relatively soon abandoned, also meant that the GER's lines had to drop down to below ground level from the existing viaducts east of Bishopsgate. This means that there are considerable gradients leading out of the station. Lord Salisbury, who was chairman of the Great Eastern in 1870, said that the Liverpool Street extension was "one of the greatest mistakes ever committed in connection with a railway."

The station was the first place in London to be hit by German Gotha bomber aircraft during World War I. The May 1917 bombing, when the station took a direct hit from 1,000 pounds of bombs, killed 162 people. During World War II a bomb that landed in Bishopsgate completely shattered the glass roofing.

Many Jewish refugee children arrived at Liverpool Street in the late 1930s, as part of the Kindertransport. In September 2003 the sculpture Für Das Kind Kindertransport Memorial by artist Flor Kent, who conceived the project, was installed in the station. It consisted of a specialized glass case with original objects and a bronze sculpture of a real girl, a direct descendant of a child rescued by Sir Nicholas Winton who unveiled the work. Due to lapses in maintenance the Für Das Kind collection was transferred to the Imperial War Museum. [Ruth Rothenberg, [http://www.thejc.com/home.aspx?AId=18059&ATypeId=1&search=true2&srchstr=kindertransport%20memorial&srchtxt=1&srchhead=1&srchauthor=1&srchsandp=1&scsrch=0] , "The Jewish Chronicle", 19 September 2003, accessed 18 September 2003]

The station was extensively modified between 1985 and 1992, including bringing all the platforms in the main shed up to the same end point and constructing a new underground booking office, but its façade, Victorian cast-iron pillars, and the memorial for Great Eastern Railway employees who died in the Great War were retained. The redevelopment coincided with the closure and demolition of neighbouring Broad Street station and the construction of the Broadgate development in its place. Liverpool Street was officially re-opened by HM Queen Elizabeth II in 1991. At this time the giant timetable board, which is suspended above the station concourse, was installed at great expense. However due to technical difficulties there was a long delay after the official opening before it became operational. It was one of the last remaining mechanical "flapper board" display boards at a UK railway station and certainly the largest, but was removed from service in September 2007 and replaced by electronic boards.

The Great Eastern Hotel was extensively refurbished between 1997 and 1999, re-opening as a boutique hotel. The hotel incorporates three restaurants: "Aurora" and "Fishmarket" cater to the higher-price expense account business lunch market while "Terminus" is a mid-range brasserie to service the City workers. The complex includes a sushi bar and two pubs.

The station has been twinned with Amsterdam Centraal Station since 1993, and there is a plaque marking this fact on the concourse close to the main entrance to the Underground.

Notable events

In April 1993, a Provisional IRA truck bomb in Bishopsgate, 200 metres away, caused some damage to the station.

In fiction

* In the years following the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States, fictional docu-drama portrayals of how a terrorist organisation might seek to attack London twice chose Liverpool Street station as the specific target. "London Under Attack", first shown by the BBC One "Panorama" programme in May 2004 [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/panorama/3686201.stm] , had a lorry containing chlorine gas explode at the junction of Shoreditch High Street and Commercial Street, just north of Liverpool Street station. The gas cloud hung over the station, and killed 3,000 people. The British Government denounced the programme as "irresponsible and alarmist". [cite news
title = Terror programme 'irresponsible'
work = BBC News
publisher = bbc.co.uk
date = 2004-05-15
url = http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/3716785.stm
accessdate = 2007-06-16
quote = 'We are disappointed to learn that the BBC appears to have adopted an irresponsible and alarmist approach over what is understandably an emotive and frightening subject for the public,' a Home Office spokesman told BBC News Online. He said the programme depicted a situation that was 'simply not realistic'.
] The BBC said that the programmes was backed by research, and that Liverpool Street was used because of its position on the border between the City of London and the East End of London. The second programme was the drama "Dirty War", also produced by the BBC and first shown in October 2004, in which a suicide terrorists detonate a "dirty bomb" just outside the Underground station, killing 200 people and rendering the area uninhabitable for 30 years. Since the programme aired, the spot at which the fictional bomb-carrying vehicle parked has become pedestrianised.
* Andy McNab's fictional novel "Dark Winter" makes the station the target of a similar attack.
* In the 1988 children's book Groosham Grange the main character is sent from London Liverpool street to groosham grange.
* Liverpool Street Station is one of the four railway stations on the London version of the Monopoly game.
* A CIA safe house features above the Old Broad Street entrance to Liverpool Street tube station in the film "". In the movie, the lead character played by Tom Cruise leaves the safe house and enters the main line concourse to use a payphone situated under the double staircase (since removed, with cash machines now at the spot). Cruise can also be seen looking out of a window located in the safe house.
* In fiction author Anthony Horowitz's "Alex Rider" series, the headquarters of MI6 is near Liverpool Street station.
* In the film "Stormbreaker", the lead character runs through the station to find a photo booth whereupon he is then transported to MI6.

Future developments

Current plans for the Crossrail service would see a new station at Liverpool Street with full mainline and underground connections.


Future Development

###@@@KEYEND@@@###

London Underground

London stations
name = Liverpool Street
railcode = ZLS


manager = London Underground
zone = 1
locale = Bishopsgate
borough = City of London
platforms = 4
tubeexits05 = 50.67
tubeexits07 = 61.317
years = 1 February 1875
events = Open (using mainline)
years1 = 12 July 1875
events1 = Opened (Bishopsgate)
years2 = 1 November 1909
events2 = Renamed (Liverpool Street)
years3 = July 28, 1912
events3 = Central Line opens (terminus)
years4 = 4 December 1946
events4 = Central Line extends(through)
Liverpool Street Tube Station is the fifth busiest station on the Underground network with 4 lines passing through; 3 sub-surface and one deep level. The station has sub-surface platforms (opened by the Metropolitan Railway as "Bishopsgate" on 12 July 1875) on the Circle, Metropolitan and Hammersmith & City lines. The Metropolitan had served main-line platforms of the GER station from 1 February 1875, but this through link had only a short life. The station was renamed Liverpool Street from 1 November 1909. A disused west-facing bay platform once used by terminating Metropolitan and occasional District line trains running via Edgware Road is still visible.

The deep-level Central Line platforms opened on July 28, 1912, at the eastern end of the Central London Railway. The Central line was extended eastwards, as part of the Second World War-delayed London Passenger Transport Board's "New Works Programme 1935 - 1940", on 4 December 1946.

Notable events

On 7 July 2005, terrorist Shehzad Tanweer exploded a bomb on a London Underground train shortly after it left Liverpool Street towards Aldgate station on the Circle Line, killing seven people.

Gallery

ee also

* Broad Street railway station

External links

* [http://www.networkrail.co.uk/aspx/897.aspx Station information] on Liverpool Street station from Network Rail
* [http://www.geocities.com/londondestruction/liverpoolstreet.html Old Liverpool Street] Tribute to the old decor.
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/panorama/3686201.stm BBC Panorama programme featuring Liverpool Street station]
* [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2004/10/03/ndirty03.xml&sSheet=/news/2004/10/03/ixhome.html Daily Telegraph article about the furor following the "Dirty War" documentary featuring Liverpool St.]
* [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1473208/Blunkett-clashes-with-BBC-chief-over-%27Dirty-War%27.html David Blunkett condemns docudrama]
* [http://lltv.libsyn.com/index.php?post_id=300194 London Landscape TV episode (7 mins) about Liverpool Street station]

References

*
* cite book | author = Alan A Jackson | year = 1969 | title = London's Termini | publisher = David & Charles | id = ISBN 0-330-02747-6


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