name = Emerald
imagesize = 225
caption = Emerald with host rock
Beryllium aluminium silicatewith chromium, Be3Al2(SiO3)6::Cr| molweight =
color = Green
habit = Hexagonal Crystals
system = Hexagonal
cleavage = Poor Basal Cleavage (Seldom Visible)
fracture = Conchoidal
Melting Poi = 1278°C
mohs = 7.5 - 8.0
luster = Vitreous
refractive = 1.576 - 1.582
pleochroism = Distinct, Blue-Green/Yellow-Green
streak = White
gravity = 2.70 - 2.78
Emeralds are a variety of the
mineral beryl(Be3Al2( SiO3)6,) colored greenby trace amounts of chromiumand sometimes vanadium. Hurlbut, Cornelius S. Jr, & Kammerling, Robert C., 1991, "Gemology", p. 203, John Wiley & Sons, New York] Beryl has a hardness of 7.5 - 8 on the 10 point Mohs scale of mineral hardness. Most emeralds are highly included, so their brittleness (resistance to breakage) is classified as generally poor. The word "emerald" comes from Latin"smaragdus", via Greek "smaragdos", its original source being a Semiticword "izmargad" or the Sanskritword, "marakata", meaning "emerald" or "green".cite book | last = Fernie M.D. | first = W.T. | title = Precious Stones for Curative Wear | publisher = John Wright. & Co. | year = 1906]
Properties determining value
Emerald, like all colored gemstones, is graded using four basic parameters, the four Cs of Connoisseurship; "Color", "Cut", "Clarity" and "Crystal". The last C, "crystal" is simply used as a synonym that begins with C for transparency or what gemologists call "diaphaneity". Prior to the 20th Century jewelers used the term "water" as in "a gem of the finest water" [Crook & Ball eds., Tavernier, J. B. The Six Voyages, Vol II, pp.44, 58] to express the combination of two qualities, color and crystal. Normally, in the grading of colored gemstones, color is by far the most important criterion. However, in the grading of emerald, crystal, is considered a close second. Both are necessary conditions. A fine emerald must possess not only a pure verdant green hue as described below, but also a high degree of transparency to be considered a top gem.Wise, R. W., Secrets Of The Gem Trade, The Connoisseur's Guide To Precious Gemstones, Brunswick House Press, 2001, pp.108]
Scientifically speaking color is divided into three components; "hue", "saturation" and "tone". Yellow and blue, the hues found adjacent to green on the spectral color wheel, are the normal secondary hues found in emerald. Emeralds occur in a range of hues from yellowish green to bluish green. The primary hue must, of course, be green. Only gems that are medium to dark in tone are considered emerald. Light toned gems are known by the species name, "green beryl". In addition the hue must be bright (vivid). Gray is the normal saturation modifier or mask found in emerald. A grayish green hue is a dull green hue. In the trade, a fine emerald will have a vivid primary green hue only slightly modified by yellow and/or blue with no visible gray mask [ibid, pp. 108-109] .
Emerald tends to have numerous inclusions and surface breaking fissures. Unlike diamond where the loupe standard, i.e. 10X magnification is used to grade clarity, emerald is graded by eye. Thus, if an emerald has no visible inclusions to the eye (assuming 20-20 vision) it is considered flawless. Stones that lack surface breaking fissures are extremely rare and therefore almost all emerald is treated, "oiled", to enhance its apparent clarity. Eye-clean stones of a vivid primary green hue (as described above) with no more than 15% of any secondary hue or combination (either blue or yellow) of a medium-dark tone command the highest prices.
Most emeralds are oiled as part of the post
lapidaryprocess, in order to improve their clarity. Cedaroil, having a similar refractive index, is often used in this generally accepted practice. Other liquids, including synthetic oils and polymers with refractive indexes close to that of emerald such as "Opticon" are also used. The U.S. Federal Trade Commissionrequires the disclosure of this treatment when a treated emerald is sold. [ [http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/guides/jewel-gd.shtm#%A7%2023.22%20Deception%20as%20to%20gemstones Guides for the Jewelry, Precious Metals, and Pewter Industries] ] The use of oil is traditional and largely accepted by the gem trade. Other treatments, for example the use of green-tinted oil, is not acceptable in the trade. The laboratory community has recently standardized the language for grading the clarity of emeralds. Gems are graded on a four step scale; "none", "minor", "moderate" and "highly" enhanced. Note that these categories reflect levels of enhancement not "clarity". A gem graded "none" on the enhancement scale may still exhibit visible inclusions. Laboratories tend to apply these criteria differently. Some gem labs consider the mere presence of oil or polymers to constitute enhancement. Others may ignore traces of oil if the presence of the material does not materially improve the look of the gemstone.
Given that the vast majority of all emeralds are treated as described above, and the fact that two stones that appear to be similar in quality may actually be quite far apart in treatment level, a consumer considering a purchase of an expensive emerald is well advised to insist upon a treatment report from a reputable gemological laboratory. All other factors being equal, a high quality emerald with an enhancement level graded "moderate" should cost 40-50% less than an identical stone graded "none".
Emeralds in antiquity were mined by the Egyptians and in
Austria, as well as Swat in northern Pakistan. [Giuliani et al (2000): “Oxygen Isotopes and Emerald Trade Routes Since Antiquity.” Gaston Giuliani, Marc Chaudisson, Henri-Jean Schubnel, Daniel-H. Piat, Claire Rollion-Bard, Christian France-Lanord, Didier Giard, Daniel de Narvaez, Benjamin Rondeau. "Science", January 28, 2000, pp. 631-633.] [Giuliani et al (2000b): “La route des emeraudes anciennes.” Gaston Giuliani, Michèle Heuze, Marc Chaudisson. "Pour la Science", November 2000, pp. 58-65.]
A rare type of emerald known as a
trapicheemerald is occasionally found in the mines of Colombia. A trapiche emerald exhibits a "star" pattern; it has raylike spokes of dark carbon impurities that give the emerald a six-pointed radial pattern. It is named for the "trapiche", a grinding wheel used to process sugarcanein the region. Colombian emeralds are generally the most prized due to their transparency and fire. Some of the most rare emeralds come from three main emerald mining areas in Colombia: Muzo, Coscuez, and Chivor. Fine emeralds are also found in other countries, such as Zambia, Brazil, Zimbabwe, Madagascar, Pakistan, India, Afghanistanand Russia. In the US, emeralds can be found in Hiddenite, North Carolina. In 1998, emeralds were discovered in the YukonTerritory, Canada. [http://www.geology.gov.yk.ca/special/index.html]
Emerald is a rare and valuable gemstone and, as such, it has provided the
incentivefor developing synthetic emeralds. Both hydrothermal and "flux-growth" synthetics have been produced, and a method has been developed for producing an emerald overgrowth on colorless beryl. The first commercially successful emerald synthesis process was that of Carroll Chatham. Because Chatham's emeralds do not have any water and contain traces of vanadate, molybdenum and vanadium, a lithium vanadate flux process is probably involved. The other large producer of flux emeralds is Pierre GilsonSr., which has been on the market since 1964. Gilson's emeralds are usually grown on natural colorless beryl seeds which become coated on both sides. Growth occurs at the rate of 1 mm per month, a typical seven-month growth run producing emerald crystals of 7 mm of thickness (Nassau, K. "Gems Made By Man", 1980).
Hydrothermal synthetic emeralds have been attributed to
IG Farben, Nacken, Tairus, and others, but the first satisfactory commercial product was that of Johann Lechleitnerof Innsbruck, Austria, which appeared on the market in the 1960s. These stones were initially sold under the names "Emerita" and "Symeralds", and they were grown as a thin layer of emerald on top of natural colorless beryl stones. Although not much is known about the original process, it is assumed that Leichleitner emeralds were grown in acid conditions. Later, from 1965 to 1970, the Linde Division of Union Carbideproduced completely synthetic emeralds by hydrothermal synthesis. According to their patents (US3,567,642 and US3,567,643), acidic conditions are essential to prevent the chromium (which is used as the colorant) from precipitating. Also, it is important that the silicon containing nutrient be kept away from the other ingredients in order to prevent nucleation and confine growth to the seed crystals. Growth occurs by a diffusion-reaction process, assisted by convection. Typical growth conditions include pressures of 700-1400 bars at temperatures of 500 to 600 °C with a temperature gradient of 10 to 25 °C. Growth rates as fast as 1/3 mm per day can be attainedFact|date=March 2007
ultraviolet lightis considered a supplementary test when making a natural vs. synthetic determination, as many, but not all, natural emeralds are inert to ultraviolet light. Many synthetics are also UV inert. [Hurlbut, Cornelius S. Jr, & Kammerling, Robert C., 1991, Gemology, p. 81, John Wiley & Sons, New York]
Synthetic emeralds are often referred to as "created", as their chemical and gemological composition is the same as their natural counterparts. The
U.S. Federal Trade Commission(FTC) has very strict regulations as to what can and what cannot be called "synthetic" stone. The FTC says: "§ 23.23(c) It is unfair or deceptive to use the word "laboratory-grown," "laboratory-created," " [manufacturer name] -created," or "synthetic" with the name of any natural stone to describe any industry product unless such industry product has essentially the same optical, physical, and chemical properties as the stone named." [ [http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/guides/jewel-gd.htm Guides for the Jewelry, Precious Metals, and Pewter Industries ] ]
Wispy veil-like inclusions are common in flux-grown synthetic emeralds.
Emerald in different cultures, and emerald lore
Emerald is regarded as the traditional birthstone for May, as well as the traditional gemstone for the
astrological signs of Taurus, Cancer and sometimes Gemini. One of the more quaint anecdotes on emeralds was by the 16th-century historian Brantome, who referred to the many impressive emeralds the Spanish under Cortezhad brought back to Europe from Latin America. On one of Cortez's most famous emeralds he had the text engraved "Inter Natos Mulierum non sur-rexit mayor" (Among them borne of woman there hath not arisen a greater Man. XI, 11) which referred to John the Baptist. Brantome considered engraving such a beautiful and simple product of nature sacrilegious and considered this act the cause for Cortez's loss of an extremely precious pearl (to which he dedicated a work "A beautiful and incomparable pearl") and even for the death of King Charles IXwho died soon after. cite book | last = Kunz | first = George Frederick | title = Magic of Jewels and Charms | publisher = Lippincott Company | year = 1915 Page 305 ]
High Priest Breastplate
Exoduschapters 28 and 39, a number of precious stones are mentioned to be placed in the High Priest's Breastplate, representing the different tribes of Israel. This is generally considered to be (one of) the origin(s) of our present day tradition of birthstones.
According to Rebbenu Bachya, and the
King James Version, the Hebrew word "Nofech" in Exodus28:18 means "Emerald", and was the stone on the Hoshenrepresenting the tribe of Judah. However, the Septuaginttranslates the word as "Anthrax", meaning " coal", probably in reference to the colour of burning coal, and therefore many rabbinical sources, and most scholars, consider "Nofech" to mean a red garnet– traditionally called a "carbuncle", which happens to be the Vulgate's translation of the word.cite book | last = Farrington, PhD. | first = Oliver Cummings | title = Gems and Gem Minerals | publisher = Chicago, Mumford | year = 1903 page 61. Oliver C. Farringtonalso clearly states the exchange/confusion of the "Carbuncle" and the "Emerald" in the different translations over time] There is a wide range of views among traditional sources about which tribe the stone refers to.cite book | last = Kunz | first = George Frederick | title = A Curious Lore of Precious Stones, Chapter 8: High Priest Breastplate | publisher = Lippincott. Co. | year = 1913 URL: [http://www.farlang.com/gemstones/kunz-curious-lore-stones/page_324 Emeralds and High Priest Breast Plate] , page 275. George Frederick Kunzdiscusses different interpretations of the "Emerald" in this chapter. 1) Emeralds were known and used by the Egyptians and at that time dug in Nubia. 2) The *size* of the stones on the breastplate make it very unlikely to be Emeralds, since they were not found at that size in those times. 3) Emerald is a fairly hard material to engrave and the tools existing in that era may probably have not been able to work with Emeralds; another reason why Emeralds are less likely to have been used]
There are many complexities to identifying the Emerald as being the third stone or perhaps another stone on the breast plate. Multiple translations of the bible have created confusion about the nomenclature of the different stones. Another important fact is that in actuality there are two different breastplates made within a period of 800 years, and where it is assumed the first breastplate did not carry an emerald but a green
felspar, and a real emerald in the second breastplate. Finally the twelfth stone in the Breastplate (which in the original text was actually listed as the 6th stone) has more generally been identified as "beryl" which was already included in the group of stones generally referred to as "Smaragdus" by Theophrastusin the Greek era.cite book | last = Caley | first = Earle | title = Theophrastus On Stones | publisher = Ohio State University | year = 1956 ] Further unreferenced claims regarding the possibility of what gemstone the Emerald could really have been include jasper, and even rubies.
In some cultures, the emerald is the traditional gift for the 55th
wedding anniversary. It is also used as a 20th and 35th wedding anniversary stone.
Gachala Emerald(origin: Colombia)
Chalk Emerald(origin: Colombia)
List of minerals
*Cooper, J.C. (Ed.) (1992). "Brewer's Myth and Legend". New York: Cassell Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-304-34084-7.
*Sinkankas, John (1994). "Emerald & Other Beryls". Geoscience Press. ISBN 0-8019-7114-4
*Hurlbut, Cornelius S.; Klein, Cornelis (1985). "Manual of Mineralogy" (20th ed.). New York: John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 0-471-80580-7
*Weinstein, Michael (1958). "The World of Jewel Stones". Sheriden House.
*Nassau, Kurt (1980). "Gems made by man". Gemological Institute of America. ISBN 0-87311-016-1
*Ali, Saleem H. (2006). The Emerald City: Emerald mining in Brazil (+Gemstone mining in other countries) http://www.uvm.edu/envnr/gemecology/brazil.html
*Wise, Richard W., "Secrets of the Gem Trade, The Connoisseur's Guide To Precious Gemstones" (2001), Brunswick House Press. ISBN: 0-9728223-8-0. Website: [http://www.secretsofthegemtrade.com]
*Ball, V., & Crooke, W., "Travels In India by Jean-Baptiste Tavernier", Oriental Reprint Corporation, New Delhi, India.
* [http://www.farlang.com/gemstones/emeralds Historical References of Emeralds] (full texts on) Famous Emeralds, and many of full text references used here.
* [http://www.gemstone.org/gem-by-gem/english/emerald.html ICA's Emerald Page] International Colored Stone Emerald Page
* [http://www.mindat.org/min-1375.html Mindat Emerald Page] Mindat on Emerald with locality information
* [http://webmineral.com/data/Beryl.shtml Webmineral Beryl Page] Webmineral with crystallographic and mineralogical information
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