The Big Six (Ghana)
- The Big Six (Ghana)
The Big Six were six leaders of the
United Gold Coast Convention(UGCC), the leading political party in the British colony of the Gold Coast. They were detained by the colonial authorities in 1948 following disturbances leading to the killing of three World War II veterans. They are pictured on the front of the new Ghana cedinotes.
The Big Six
*Dr. Ebenezer Ako-Adjei - founding member of the UGCC
Edward Akufo-Addo- founding member of the UGCC and later chief justice and then president of Ghana
*Dr. Joseph Boakye Danquah - founding member of the UGCC
*Dr. Kwame Nkrumah - later first prime minister and first president of Ghana
*Emmanuel Odarkwei Obetsebi-Lamptey - founding member of the UGCC
William Ofori Atta- founding member of the UGCC
A chief of the
Ga peopleof Osu-Alata, a suburb of Accra, the Osu Alata Mantse, Nii Kwabena Bonne III (nicknamed "Boycotthene" meaning "Boycott King"), organized a boycott of European imports in January 1948. The aim was to get the foreign traders known as the Association of West African Merchants (AWAM) to reduce the prices of their goods.cite web |url=http://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/features/artikel.php?ID=120440 |title=The "Big Six", Myth or Reality? |accessdate=2007-04-03 |author=Kosi Dedey |date=8 March, 2007 |work=Feature article |publisher=Ghana Home Page] This was followed by a series of riots in early February 1948.cite web |url=http://www.info-ghana.com/history.htm |title=Ghana before Independence |accessdate=2007-04-03 |author=Allan D. Ohene |date=March 2002 |work=Ghana General Info-History |publisher=Lion's Den Ltd] The boycotts were scheduled to end on February 28, 1948, a day that has become significant in the history of Ghana. AWAM has become a term synonymous with cheating or profiteering in Ghana.
Christiansborg cross-roads shooting
February 20, 1948, Dr. Nkrumah and Dr. J.B. Danquah met and addressed second world warveterans who had been agitating for their end of service benefits following World War II at the Palladium Cinema, Accra. These veterans had fought with the Gold Coast Regimentof the Royal West African Frontier Forceand had not been paid their gratuities on their return home.cite web |url=http://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/NewsArchive/artikel.php?ID=139954 |title=Christianborg Crossroad Shooting Incident marked |accessdate=2008-02-28 |work=General News of Thursday, 28 February 2008 |publisher=Ghana Home Page] Dr. Nkrumah and Dr. J.B. Danquah both gave their support and encouraged the veterans in their protest over their post-war neglect.cite news |url=http://www.thestatesmanonline.com/pages/editorial_detail.php?newsid=159§ion=0 |title=Ghana is 50, UGCC is 60, too |accessdate=2007-04-03 |date=26 March, 2007 |work=News:Editorials |publisher=The Statesman]
Later on February 28, what became known as the "Christiansborg Cross-Roads shooting" occurred. Some of the second world war veterans marched to the Christiansborg Castle, the seat of the colonial government. They intended submitting a petition to the Governor, Sir
Gerald Creasyabout their poor conditions,unpaid war benefits and neglect.cite web |url=http://www.businessghana.com/portal/aboutghana/index.php?op=indepen |title=Independence |accessdate=2007-04-03 |work=History of Ghana |publisher=BusinessGhana] Police Superintendent Colin Imray, a British police officer, ordered the veterans to disperse but they refused. He then ordered his men to open fire on the unarmed soldiers and when they refused, did so himself killing three of them, namely Sergeant Cornelius Frederick Adjetey, Private Odartey Lamptey and Corporal Attipoe. This led to another round of riots and looting in Accra during which foreign (European and Asian) stores were looted. This went on for five days.
Arrest of the Big Six
On the same day, following these disturbances, the UGCC leaders sent a cable to the Secretary of State in London.
"...unless Colonial Government is changed and a new Government of the people and their Chiefs installed at the centre immediately, the conduct of masses now completely out of control with strikes threatened in Police quarters, and rank and file Police indifferent to orders of Officers, will continue and result in worse violent and irresponsible acts by uncontrolled people.
"Working Committee United Gold Coast Convention declare they are prepared and ready to take over interim Government. We ask in name of oppressed, inarticulate, misruled and misgoverned people and their Chiefs that Special Commissioner be sent out immediately to hand over Government to interim Government of Chief and People and to witness immediate calling of Constituent Assembly"They also blamed Sir Creasy whom they called "Crazy Creasy" for the riots due to his handling of the country's problems. The Riot Act was read on
March 1, 1948. A Removal Order was issued by Sir Creasy for the arrest of the six leaders of the UGCC. They were held in the remote northern part of the Gold Coast following their arrests. A commission of enquiry chaired by Mr. Aiken Watson, was set up to look into the riots. Other members of the Watson commission were Dr. Keith Murray, Mr. Andrew Dalgleish and Mr. E. G. Hanrott.
Following their incarceration, the nationalists have become known as the Big Six. Their popularity also increased. On
March 8, 1948some teachers and students demonstrated against the detention of the Big Six. The demonstrators were dismissed. On his release, Dr. Nkrumah set up a secondary school, Ghana National College, for the dismissed staff and students.
*Pictures of "The Big Six":* [http://www.africawithin.com/nkrumah/big_six.htm AfricaWithin.com] :* [http://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/features/dsp_image.php?id=60272765 GhanaWeb.com] :* [http://bp3.blogger.com/_zqpA7o7qIBI/RcxXA_8mgnI/AAAAAAAAAGY/LVg-t-6PvVg/s1600-h/ghanacedi.jpgTen Thousand Cedis note]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.