East River

The East River is a tidal strait in New York City. It connects Upper New York Bay on its south end to Long Island Sound on its north end. It separates Long Island (including the boroughs of Queens and Brooklyn) from the island of Manhattan and the Bronx on the North American mainland. In reference to its connection to Long Island Sound, it was once also known as the "Sound River". [Montrésor, John (1766). " [http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/gmd:@field(NUMBER+@band(g3804n+ar110401)) A plan of the city of New-York & its environs] ". London.]

History

The river was formed approximately 11,000 years ago at the end of the Wisconsin glaciation. [ [http://www.qgazette.com/news/2005/0720/features/049.html The Queens Gazette: The East River Flows From Prehistoric Times To Today] ] The distinct change in the shape of the river channel between the lower and upper portions is evidence of this glacial activity. The upper portion (from Long Island Sound to Hell Gate, running largely perpendicular to the glacial motion, is wide, meandering, and has deep narrow bays on both banks, scoured out by the glacier's movement. The lower portion (from Hell Gate to New York Bay runs north-south, parallel to the glacial motion. It is much narrower, with straight banks. The bays that exist (or existed before being filled-in by human activity), are largely wide and shallow.

The Channel

The East River is dangerous to people who fall in or attempt to swim in it, although the water is cleaner than it has been in decades.Fact|date=February 2008 Anyone in the channel would find few places to climb out.Fact|date=February 2008 According to the marine sciences section of the city Department of Environmental Protection,Fact|date=February 2008 the channel is swift, with water moving as fast as four knots (just as it does in the Hudson River on the other side of Manhattan), a speed that can push casual swimmers out to sea.Fact|date=February 2008 A few people typically drown in the rivers around New York City each year. [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/30/nyregion/30students.html?_r=1&oref=slogin&ref=nyregion&pagewanted=print] "Welcome, Students. Now Watch It.", no byline, article in "The New York Times", "Metro Section", August 30, 2007, accessed same day] The strength of the current foiled a 2007 effort to tap it for hydroelectricity. [ [http://gothamist.com/2007/08/13/east_river_turb.php] "East River Turbines Face Upstream Battle" Gothamist]

Historically, the lower portion of the river (separating Manhattan from Brooklyn) was one of the busiest and most important channels in the world, particularly during the first three centuries of New York City's history. The Brooklyn Bridge, opened in 1883, was the first bridge to span the river, replacing frequent ferry service. (Some passenger ferry service remains between Queens and Manhattan.)

The Bronx River drains into the East River in the northern section of the strait.

North of Ward's Island, it is joined by the Bronx Kill. Along the east of Ward's Island, at approximately the strait's midpoint, it narrows into a channel called Hell Gate, which is spanned by both the Triborough Bridge and the Hell Gate Bridge. On the south side of Ward's Island, it is joined by the Harlem River.

Newtown Creek on Long Island drains into the East River, forming part of the boundary between Queens and Brooklyn.

The East River contains a number of islands, including:
*Upper section
**Riker's Island
**North Brother Island
**South Brother Island
**Mill Rock
*Lower Section
**Ward's Island and Randall's Island (joined by landfill)
**Roosevelt Island
**U Thant Island (Belmont Island)

Crossings

Bridges

The river is spanned by eight bridges, which from north to south are:
*Throgs Neck Bridge
*Bronx-Whitestone Bridge
*Rikers Island Bridge (From Queens to Rikers Island only)
*Hell Gate Bridge
*Triborough Bridge (East River Suspension Span)
*Roosevelt Island Bridge (east channel only)
*Queensboro Bridge
*Williamsburg Bridge
*Manhattan Bridge
*Brooklyn Bridge.

Tunnels

The river is spanned by thirteen tunnels. From north to south, along with uses as of July 2006:
*63rd Street Tunnel (Trains of the NYCS 63rd IND subway service)
*60th Street Tunnel (Trains of the NYCS Broadway 60th subway services)
*53rd Street Tunnel (Trains of the NYCS Queens 53rd subway services)
*Steinway Tunnel (Trains of the NYCS Flushing subway service)
*Queens Midtown Tunnel (Vehicular traffic of Interstate 495)
*East River Tunnels (Long Island Rail Road and Amtrak trains from Penn Station to points north and east)
*14th Street Tunnel (Trains of the NYCS Canarsie subway service)
*Rutgers Street Tunnel (Trains of the NYCS Sixth Rutgers subway service)
*Cranberry Street Tunnel (Trains of the NYCS Eighth Cranberry subway services)
*Clark Street Tunnel (Trains of the NYCS Broadway-Seventh Brooklyn subway services)
*Montague Street Tunnel (Trains of the NYCS Broadway south subway services)
*Joralemon Street Tunnel (Trains of the NYCS Lexington Brooklyn subway services)
*Brooklyn-Battery Tunnel (Vehicular traffic of Interstate 478)

ee also

*List of New York rivers
*Geography and environment of New York City
*Geography of New York Harbor

References

External links

* [http://www.eastrivernyc.org East River page from the Greater Astoria Historical Society]
* [http://www.licboathouse.org LIC Community Boathouse site for free paddling on the East River]
* [http://gothamist.com/2007/08/13/east_river_turb.php Hydropower turbines destroyed by East River current]
* [http://www.astoriawaterfront.org Western Queens waterfront information page]


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  • East River — a strait in SE New York separating Manhattan Island from Long Island and connecting New York Bay and Long Island Sound. * * * Navigable tidal strait in the U.S. linking Upper New York Bay with Long Island Sound in New York City. It separates… …   Universalium

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