Election

An election is a formal decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office.[1] Elections have been the usual mechanism by which modern representative democracy operates since the 17th century.[1] Elections may fill offices in the legislature, sometimes in the executive and judiciary, and for regional and local government. This process is also used in many other private and business organisations, from clubs to voluntary associations and corporations.

The universal use of elections as a tool for selecting representatives in modern democracies is in contrast with the practice in the democratic archetype, ancient Athens.As the Elections were considered an oligarchic institution and most political offices were filled using sortition, also known as allotment, by which officeholders were chosen by lot.

Electoral reform describes the process of introducing fair electoral systems where they are not in place, or improving the fairness or effectiveness of existing systems. Psephology is the study of results and other statistics relating to elections (especially with a view to predicting future results).

To elect means "to choose or make a decision"[2] and so sometimes other forms of ballot such as referendums are referred to as elections, especially in the United States.

Contents

History

Roman coin depicting election

Elections were used as early in history as ancient Greece and ancient Rome, and throughout the Medieval period to select rulers such as the Holy Roman Emperor and the Pope.[1] In ancient India, around 920 AD, in Tamil Nadu, Palm leaves were used for village assembly elections. The palm leaves with candidate names, will be put inside a mud pot, for counting. This was called Kudavolai system.[3][4][5] Elections were also used to select rajas by the gana. Ancient Arabs also used election to choose their caliph, Uthman and Ali, in the early medieval Rashidun Caliphate;[6] and to select the Pala king Gopala in early medieval Bengal.[7] The modern "election", which consists of public elections of government officials, didn't emerge until the beginning of the 17th century when the idea of representative government took hold in North America and Europe.[1]

Questions of suffrage, especially suffrage for minority groups, have dominated the history of elections. Males, the dominate cultural group in North America and Europe, often dominated the electorate and continue to do so in many countries.[1] Early elections in countries such as the United Kingdom and the United States were dominated by landed or ruling class males.[1] However, by 1920 all Western European and North American democracies had universal male suffrage (except Switzerland) and many countries began to consider women's suffrage.[1] Despite legally mandated universal suffrage for males, political barriers were sometimes erected to prevent fair access to elections (See Civil Rights movement).[1]

Characteristics

Suffrage

The question of who may vote is a central issue in elections. The electorate does not generally include the entire population; for example, many countries prohibit those judged mentally incompetent from voting, and all jurisdictions require a minimum age for voting.

Historically, other groups of people have also been excluded from voting. For instance, the democracy of ancient Athens did not allow women, foreigners, or slaves to vote, and the original United States Constitution left the topic of suffrage to the states; usually only white male property owners were able to vote. Much of the history of elections involves the effort to promote suffrage for excluded groups. The women's suffrage movement gave women in many countries the right to vote, and securing the right to vote freely was a major goal of the American civil rights movement. Extending voting rights to excluded groups (such as convicted felons, members of certain minorities, and the economically disadvantaged) continues to be a goal of voting rights advocates.

Suffrage is typically only for citizens of the country, though further limits may be imposed. However, in the European Union, one can vote in municipal elections if one lives in the municipality and is an EU citizen; the nationality of the country of residence is not required.

Campaigners working on posters in Milan, Italy, 2004

In some countries, voting is required by law; if an eligible voter does not cast a vote, he or she may be subject to punitive measures such as a small fine.

Nomination

A representative democracy requires a procedure to govern nomination for political office. In many cases, nomination for office is mediated through preselection processes in organized political parties.[8]

Non-partisan systems tend to differ from partisan systems as concerns nominations. In a direct democracy, one type of non-partisan democracy, any eligible person can be nominated. In some non-partisan representative systems no nominations (or campaigning, electioneering, etc.) take place at all, with voters free to choose any person at the time of voting—with some possible exceptions such as through a minimum age requirement—in the jurisdiction. In such cases, it is not required (or even possible) that the members of the electorate be familiar with all of the eligible persons, though such systems may involve indirect elections at larger geographic levels to ensure that some first-hand familiarity among potential electees can exist at these levels (i.e., among the elected delegates).

As far as partisan systems, in some countries, only members of a particular political party can be nominated. Or, an eligible person can be nominated through a petition; thus allowing him or her to be listed on a ballot.

Electoral systems

Electoral systems are the detailed constitutional arrangements and voting systems that convert the vote into political decision. The first step is to tally the votes, for which various vote counting systems and ballot types are used. Voting systems then determine the result on the basis of the tally. Most systems can be categorized as either proportional or majoritarian. Among the former are party-list proportional representation and additional member system. Among the latter are First Past the Post (FPP) (relative majority) and absolute majority. Many countries have growing electoral reform movements, which advocate systems such as approval voting, single transferable vote, instant runoff voting or a Condorcet method; these methods are also gaining popularity for lesser elections in some countries where more important elections still use more traditional counting methods.

While openness and accountability are usually considered cornerstones of a democratic system, the act of casting a vote and the content of a voter's ballot are usually an important exception. The secret ballot is a relatively modern development, but it is now considered crucial in most free and fair elections, as it limits the effectiveness of intimidation.

Scheduling

The nature of democracy is that elected officials are accountable to the people, and they must return to the voters at prescribed intervals to seek their mandate to continue in office. For that reason most democratic constitutions provide that elections are held at fixed regular intervals. In the United States, elections are held between every three and six years in most states, with exceptions such as the U.S. House of Representatives, which stands for election every two years. There is a variety of schedules, for example presidents: the President of Ireland is elected every seven years, the President of Finland every six years, the President of France every five years, the President of Russia and President of United States every four years.

Pre-determined or fixed election dates have the advantage of fairness and predictability. However, they tend to greatly lengthen campaigns, and make dissolving the legislature (parliamentary system) more problematic if the date should happen to fall at time when dissolution is inconvenient (e.g. when war breaks out). Other states (e.g., the United Kingdom) only set maximum time in office, and the executive decides exactly when within that limit it will actually go to the polls. In practice, this means the government remains in power for close to its full term, and choose an election date it calculates to be in its best interests (unless something special happens, such as a motion of no-confidence). This calculation depends on a number of variables, such as its performance in opinion polls and the size of its majority.

Elections are usually held on one day. There are also advance polls and absentee voting, which have a more flexible schedule. In Europe, a substantial proportion of votes are cast in advance voting.

Election campaigns

When elections are called, politicians and their supporters attempt to influence policy by competing directly for the votes of constituents in what are called campaigns. Supporters for a campaign can be either formally organized or loosely affiliated, and frequently utilize It is common for political scientists to attempt to predict elections via Political Forecasting methods.

Lack of open political debate or an informed electorate
The electorate may be poorly informed about issues or candidates due to lack of freedom of the press, lack of objectivity in the press due to state or corporate control, or lack of access to news and political media. Freedom of speech may be curtailed by the state, favoring certain viewpoints or state propaganda.
Unfair rules
This can include Gerrymandering, exclusion of opposition candidates from eligibility for office, and manipulating thresholds for electoral success are some of the ways the structure of an election can be changed to favor a specific faction or candidate.
Interference with campaigns
Those in power may arrest or assassinate candidates, suppress or even criminalize campaigning, close campaign headquarters, harass or beat campaign workers, or intimidate voters with violence.
Tampering with the election mechanism
This can include confusing or misleading voters about how to vote, violation of the secret ballot, ballot stuffing, tampering with voting machines, destruction of legitimately cast ballots, voter suppression, fraudulent tabulation of results, and use of physical force or verbal intimation at polling places.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "Election (political science)," Encyclpoedia Britanica Online. Accessed August 18, 2009
  2. ^ Wiktionary - Elect
  3. ^ "Panchayat Raj, Policy notes 2011-2012". Rural development & panchayat raj department, TN Government, India. http://www.tn.gov.in/policynotes/pdf/rural_development.pdf. Retrieved 3 November 2011. 
  4. ^ "Pre-Independence Method of Election". Tamil Nadu State Election Commission, India. http://tnsec.tn.nic.in/historical/Pre%20Independence.html. Retrieved 3 November 2011. 
  5. ^ "Handbook on Kongu archaeological treasures". The Hindu (Coimbatore, India). 27 June 2005. http://www.hindu.com/lf/2005/06/27/stories/2005062701170200.htm. 
  6. ^ Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World (2004), vol. 1, p. 116-123.
  7. ^ History of Buddhism in India, Translation: A. Shiefner.
  8. ^ Reuven Hazan, 'Candidate Selection', in Lawrence LeDuc, Richard Niemi and Pippa Norris (eds), Comparing Democracies 2, Sage Publications, London, 2002

Bibliography

  • Arrow, Kenneth J. 1963. Social Choice and Individual Values. 2nd ed. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
  • Benoit, Jean-Pierre and Lewis A. Kornhauser. 1994. "Social Choice in a Representative Democracy." American Political Science Review 88.1: 185-192.
  • Corrado Maria, Daclon. 2004. US elections and war on terrorism – Interview with professor Massimo Teodori Analisi Difesa, n. 50
  • Farquharson, Robin. 1969. A Theory of Voting. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
  • Mueller, Dennis C. 1996. Constitutional Democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Owen, Bernard, 2002. "Le système électoral et son effet sur la représentation parlementaire des partis: le cas européen.", LGDJ;
  • Riker, William. 1980. Liberalism Against Populism: A Confrontation Between the Theory of Democracy and the Theory of Social Choice. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.
  • Ware, Alan. 1987. Citizens, Parties and the State. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

External links


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Synonyms:

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Election — • In its broadest sense election means a choice among many persons, things, or sides to be taken. In the stricter juridical sense it means the choice of one person among many for a definite charge or function Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight.… …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • élection — [ elɛksjɔ̃ ] n. f. • 1135; lat. electio « choix », du supin de eligere → élire 1 ♦ Vx Choix. Mod. (Dr.) Élection de domicile. Théol. Choix préférentiel de Dieu. Le peuple d élection : le peuple élu, les Juifs. Cour. La patrie d élection, celle… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • election — elec·tion n 1 a: the act or process of electing b: an instance of the electorate voting for candidates for an elective office c: the fact of being elected 2: the right, power, or privilege of making a choice: as a: the right of a spouse to choose …   Law dictionary

  • élection — ÉLECTION. s. fém. Action d élire. Choix fait par plusieurs personnes, Corps ou Communes, au concours des suffrages. Faire une élection. Approuver, confirmer une élection. L élection de l Empereur se fit un tel jour. Il donna sa voix pour l… …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie Française 1798

  • election — Election. s. f. v. Choix. Faire une bonne election. approuver, confirmer une election. je vous en laisse l election. l election de l Empereur se fit un tel jour. il donna sa voix pour l election de. assister à une election. faire une election. On …   Dictionnaire de l'Académie française

  • election — e‧lec‧tion [ɪˈlekʆn] noun 1. [countable] when people vote to choose someone for a job: • She was nominated to stand for election as a Coca Cola director. • Mr Morrow is also up for election to the board of directors at a rival Chicago bank. 2.… …   Financial and business terms

  • Election — E*lec tion, n. [F. [ e]lection, L. electio, fr. eligere to choose out. See {Elect}, a.] 1. The act of choosing; choice; selection. [1913 Webster] 2. The act of choosing a person to fill an office, or to membership in a society, as by ballot,… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • election — Election, Electio. Election libre, Soluta optio eligendi. Election premiere, faisant jugement à la deuxiesme, Praerogatiua tribus. L election des Preteurs, Praetoriana comitia …   Thresor de la langue françoyse

  • election — [ē lek′shən, ilek′shən] n. [ME eleccioun < OFr election < L electio, a choice, in LL(Ec), the election of believers: see ELECT] 1. a choosing or choice 2. a) a choosing or being chosen for office by vote b) a voting, as in a municipality,… …   English World dictionary

  • election — (n.) late 13c., from Anglo Fr. eleccioun, O.Fr. elecion choice, election, selection (12c.), from L. electionem (nom. electio), noun of action from pp. stem of eligere pick out, select, from ex out (see EX (Cf. ex )) + ligere, comb. form of legere …   Etymology dictionary

  • election — selection, option, *choice, preference, alternative Analogous words: deciding or decision, determining or determination, settling or settlement (see corresponding verbs at DECIDE) …   New Dictionary of Synonyms

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