Franklin County, Tennessee

Franklin County, Tennessee

Infobox U.S. County
county = Franklin County
state = Tennessee


seallink =
founded =
seat = Winchester
largest city = Tullahoma
area_total_sq_mi = 576
area_total_km2 = 1491
area_land_sq_mi = 555
area_land_km2 = 1436
area_water_sq_mi = 21
area_water_km2 = 55
area percentage = 3.69%
census yr = 2000
pop = 39270
density_sq_mi = 71
density_km2 = 27
time zone = Central
UTC offset = -6
DST offset= -5
footnotes =
web =
ex

ex image c
Winchester, Tennessee|

Franklin County is a county located in the U.S. state of Tennessee. As of 2000, the population was 39,270. The 2005 Census Estimate placed the population at 41,003 [http://www.census.gov/popest/counties/tables/CO-EST2005-01-47.xls] . Its county seat is WinchesterGR|6.

Franklin County is part of the Tullahoma, Tennessee, Micropolitan Statistical Area.

History

European settlement began around 1800, and the county was formally organized in 1807 and named for Benjamin Franklin. During the next several decades, the size of the county was reduced several times by reorganizations which created the neighboring counties of Coffee County, Moore County, and Grundy County. One of the most notable early settlers was frontiersman Davy Crockett, who came about 1812 but is not thought to have remained long.

The University of the South was organized just before the Civil War, and began to function after hostilities ceased. It remains the only institution of higher learning in the county today.

The area became strongly secessionist, and Franklin County formally threatened to secede from Tennessee and join Alabama if Tennessee did not leave the union, which it shortly did. This contrasted sharply with the situation in nearby Winston County, Alabama, which was pro-Union and discussed seceding from Alabama. The two illustrate the often divided and confused state of loyalties in the central South during this period.

During 1863, the Army of Tennessee retreated through the county, leaving it to Union control thereafter. Isham G. Harris, Confederate governor of Tennessee, was from Franklin County. He was restored to political rights after the war, and represented the state in the United States Senate.

During the temperance (anti-liquor) agitations of the late 19th century, it was discovered that by a quirk of state law, liquor could only be sold in an incorporated town. All of the county's towns abolished their charters in order to prohibit liquor sales as a consequence.

In the 20th century, Franklin County benefited from the flood control and power generation activities of the Tennessee Valley Authority. TVA helped bring new industry to the area and opened up opportunities for water recreation by its creation of new lakes, but many county residents were displaced from their homes in the process. The establishment of the federal Arnold Engineering Development Center, which lies partly in the county, also helped spur economic growth and technical development. Although the interstate highway system barely touched the county, it did provide valuable access via Interstate 24 to nearby Chattanooga.

Two notable figures who were born in the county early in the twentieth century were singer/entertainer Dinah Shore and entrepreneur/philanthropist John Templeton, later a British subject and recipient of a knighthood.

During this same period, Jim Crow laws took root in Franklin County as in most of the American South, and the Civil Rights movement made only very slow progress there. There were few violent disturbances compared to many localities, but it was not until the mid-1960s, a decade after the historic Brown v. Board of Education court decision, that the county's schools were finally desegregated.

Considerable industrial growth occurred in the county in the last decades of the century, including the construction of a large automobile engine plant by the Nissan corporation in Decherd. An emphasis on tourism also developed, based on Civil War history and local scenic attractions such as the dogwood forests, for which an annual festival is held.

Geography

Franklin is one of Tennessee's southern tier of counties and abuts the Alabama border. It has a varied geography, extending from the southeast corner of the Nashville Basin over the Highland Rim and up onto the Cumberland Plateau, for a difference in elevation of about 1300 ft. The county is well watered and forested, and except for the steeper areas of the plateau is well suited for agriculture, having a long growing season and mild winters.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 576 square miles (1,491 km²), of which, 555 square miles (1,436 km²) of it is land and 21 square miles (55 km²) of it (3.69%) is water.

Adjacent counties

*Coffee County (north)
*Grundy County (northeast)
*Marion County (east)
*Jackson County, Alabama (south)
*Madison County, Alabama (southwest)
*Lincoln County (west)
*Moore County (northwest)

Demographics

As of the censusGR|2 of 2000, there were 39,270 people, 15,003 households, and 11,162 families residing in the county. The population density was 71 people per square mile (27/km²). There were 16,813 housing units at an average density of 30 per square mile (12/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 92.20% White, 5.49% Black or African American, 0.20% Native American, 0.41% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.60% from other races, and 1.06% from two or more races. 1.58% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 15,003 households out of which 30.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.10% were married couples living together, 10.40% had a female householder with no husband present, and 25.60% were non-families. 22.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.30% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 2.92.

In the county, the population was spread out with 23.00% under the age of 18, 10.90% from 18 to 24, 26.40% from 25 to 44, 24.40% from 45 to 64, and 15.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 94.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.80 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $36,044, and the median income for a family was $42,279. Males had a median income of $31,506 versus $21,479 for females. The per capita income for the county was $17,987. About 9.60% of families and 13.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.00% of those under age 18 and 13.00% of those age 65 or over.

Cities and towns

*Belvidere (unincorporated)
*Cowan
*Decherd
*Estill Springs
*Huntland
*Sewanee (unincorporated)
*Sherwood (unincorporated)
*Tullahoma (primarily in Coffee County)
*Winchester

Geographic features

*Sewanee Natural Bridge

Notable residents

*Stephen Adams, United States Senator and Representativecite book | title = Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume, 1607-1896 | publisher = Marquis Who's Who | location = Chicago | date = 1963]
*James Patton Anderson, (1822-1873), born in Franklin County, Confederate Army general
*Phillip Fulmer, head coach of the Tennessee Volunteers football team
* Dinah Shore (1916-1994), American singer, actress, television celebrity

References

External links

* [http://freepages.history.rootsweb.com/~pearidger/history/gdsfrkln.shtml Early history of the county]
* [http://www.tngenweb.org/franklin/index.html County genealogy information]
* [http://www.leonidaspolk.org/Franklin%20County%20Secession%201%2024.html County secession]
* [http://www.franklincountychamber.com/index.html County Chamber of Commerce page]
* [http://tennesseeencyclopedia.net/imagegallery.php?EntryID=F058 Franklin County] in the Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture
*dmoz|Regional/North_America/United_States/Tennessee/Counties/Franklin/|Franklin County
* Franklin county [http://www.cs.utk.edu/~dunigan/landforms/countylf.php?county=Franklin landforms]


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