Demographics of Ethiopia

This article is about the demographic features of the population of Ethiopia, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

The country's population is highly diverse, containing over 80 different ethnic groups. Most people in Ethiopia speak Afro-Asiatic languages, mainly of the Semitic or Cushitic branches. The latter include the Oromo, Amhara, Tigray and Somali, who together make up three-quarters of the population.

Nilo-Saharan-speaking Nilotic ethnic minorities also inhabit the southern regions of the country, particularly in areas bordering South Sudan. Among these are the Mursi and Anuak.

Ethiopia is also a multi-religious country. Most of the Christians live in the highlands, while the Muslims mainly inhabit the lowlands. Adherents of traditional faiths are mainly concentrated in the southern regions.

Amharic is the official national language. It was also the language of primary school instruction, but has been replaced in many areas by local languages such as Oromifa and Tigrinya. English is the most widely spoken foreign language and is taught in all secondary schools.

Contents

Latest demographic statistics

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.

Population

Central Statistical Agency (CSA) census (2007): 73,918,505[1]
CIA est. (July 2011): 90,873,739[2]

note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2010 est.)

Age structure

Age range Male Female Total
0–14 years 20,990,369 21,067,961 42,058,330 (46.28%)
15–64 years 22,707,235 23,682,385 46,389,620 (51.04%)
65 years and over 1,037,488 1,388,301 2,425,789 (2.67%)
Total 44,735,092 46,138,647 90,873,739

Median age

Total: 16.8 years
Male: 16.5 years
Female: 17.1 years (2011 est.)

Population growth rate

3.194% (2011 est.)

Birth rate

42.991 births/1,000 population (2011 est.)

Death rate

11.04 deaths/1,000 population (July 2011 est.)

Net migration rate

0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2006 est.) -0.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011 est.)
note: repatriation of Ethiopians who fled to Sudan for refuge from war and famine in earlier years is expected to continue for several years; small numbers of Sudanese and Somali refugees, who fled to Ethiopia from the fighting or famine in their own countries, est.)

Urbanization

urban population: 17% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 3.8% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Sex ratio

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.83 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2006 est.)

at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2011 est.)

Infant mortality rate

77 deaths/1,000 live births[3]

total: 77.12 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 88.03 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 65.88 deaths/1,000 live births (2011 est.)

Life expectancy at birth

total population: 56.19 years
male: 53.64 years
female: 58.81 years (2011 est.)

Total fertility rate

5.4 children born/woman[3]
6.02 children born/woman (2011 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate

2.1% (2007 est.)

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS

980,000 (2007 est.)

HIV/AIDS - deaths

67,000 (2007 est.)

Nationality

noun: Ethiopian(s)
adjective: Ethiopian

Ethnic groups

Within the borders of Ethiopia lie the homelands of upwards of 80 ethnic groups, some of which number less than 1,000 reported members. No definitive list of these peoples exist, and authorities not only disagree over which are properly considered subgroups or which are artificial combinations of smaller groups, many smaller ethnic groups are omitted from every list. Despite this, an idea of this ethnic diversity can be obtained from the following list taken from the 2007 Ethiopian National Census.[1] (Population size and percentage of Ethiopia's total population follows each entry.)

  • Afar 1,276,374 1.73%
  • Agaw-Awi 631,565 0.85%
  • Agaw-Hamyra 267,851 0.36%
  • Alaba 233,299 0.32%
  • Amhara 19,870,651 26.89%
  • Anuak 85,909 0.12%
  • Argobba 140,134 0.19%
  • Aari 290,453 0.29%
  • Arbore 6,840 0.01%
  • Bacha 2,632 < 0.01%
  • Basketo 78,284 0.11%
  • Bench 353,526 0.48%
  • Berta 183,259 0.25%
  • Bodi 6,994 0.01%
  • Brayle 5,002 0.01%
  • Burji 71,871 0.10%
  • Bena 27,022 0.04%
  • Chara 13,210 0.02%
  • Daasanach 48,067 0.07%
  • Dawro 543,148 0.74%
  • Debase/ Gawwada 68,600 0.09%
  • Dirashe 30,081 0.04%
  • Dime 891 < 0.01%
  • Dizi 36,380 0.05%
  • Donga 35,166 0.05%
  • Fedashe 3,448 < 0.01%
  • Gamo 1,107,163 1.50%
  • Gebato 1,502 < 0.01%
  • Gedeo 986,977 1.34%
  • Gedicho 5,483 0.01%
  • Gidole 41,100 0.06%
  • Goffa 363,009 0.49%
  • Gumuz 159,418 0.22%
  • Gurage 1,867,377 2.53%
  • Hadiya 1,284,373 1.74%
  • Harari 31,869 0.04%
  • Hamer 46,532 0.06%
  • Irob 33,372 0.05%
  • Kafficho 870,213 1.18%
  • Kambaata 630,236 0.85%
  • Konta 83,607 0.11%
  • Komo 7,795 0.01%
  • Konso 250,430 0.34%
  • Koore 156,983 0.21%
  • Koyego 1,974 < 0.01%
  • Kunama 4,860 0.01%
  • Karo 1,464 < 0.01%
  • Kusumie 7,470 0.01%
  • Kwegu 4,407 0.01%
  • Male 98,114 0.13%
  • Mao 43,535 0.06%
  • Mareqo 64,381 0.09%
  • Mashola 10,458 0.01%
  • Mere 14,298 0.02%
  • Me'en 151,489 0.20%
  • Messengo 10,964 0.01%
  • Majangir 21,959 0.03%
  • Mossiye 19,698 0.03%
  • Murle 1,469 < 0.01%
  • Mursi 7,500 0.01%
  • Nao 9,829 0.01%
  • Nuer 147,672 0.20%
  • Nyangatom 25,252 0.03%
  • Oromo 25,489,024 34.49%
  • Oyda 45,149 0.06%
  • Qebena 52,712 0.07%
  • Qechem 2,585 < 0.01%
  • Qewama 298 < 0.01%
  • Shekecho 77,678 0.11%
  • Sheko 37,573 0.05%
  • Shinasha 52,637 0.07%
  • Sidama 2,966,474 4.01%
  • Silt'e 940,766 1.27%
  • Somali 4,581,794 6.20%
  • Surma 27,886 0.04%
  • She 320 < 0.01%
  • Shita/Upo 1,602 < 0.01%
  • Tigray 4,483,892 6.07%
  • Tembaro 98,621 0.13%
  • Tsamai 20,046 0.03%
  • Welayta 1,707,079 2.31%
  • Werji 13,232 0.02%
  • Yem 160,447 0.22%
  • Zeyese 17,884 0.02%
  • Zelmam 2,704 < 0.01%

Religions

Ethiopian Orthodox 63.5%, Protestant 18.6% (which include Ethiopian Orthodox Tehadeso Church and the Ethiopian Evangelical Church Mekane Yesus), Muslim 33.9%, traditional (2.6%) Catholic 0.7%, all others 0.6%.[1] Small Ethiopian Jewish community, although most have migrated to Israel.

Languages

Amharic 32.7% (as a first language), Oromigna 31.6%, Tigrinya 6.1%, Somali 6.0%, Guragigna 3.5%, Sidamo 3.5%, other local languages; Arabic, English (major foreign language taught in schools),[4] Italian (only spoken by Italian minority).

Literacy

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 42.7%
male: 50.3%
female: 35.1% (2003 est.)

References

  1. ^ a b c 2007 Ethiopian census, first draft, Ethiopian Central Statistical Agency (accessed 6 May 2009)
  2. ^ The World Factbook. "Ethiopia." 2011.
  3. ^ a b Macro International Inc. 2008. "Ethiopia Atlas of Key Demographic and Health Indicators, 2005." Calverton, Maryland, USA: Macro International Inc. (accessed 6 May 2009)
  4. ^ (?The is nothing stated on the reference if 32.7% speakers of Amharic Language speak it as a first language-Additional reference please or correction please)The World Factbook, "Ethiopia." 2006. (The preliminary draft of the 2007 national census does not provide figures on language speakers.)

 This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook document "2006 edition".

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