- How Europe Underdeveloped Africa
"How Europe Underdeveloped Africa" is a book written by
Walter Rodneyin which he portrays the view that Africawas deliberately exploited and underdeveloped by European colonial regimes.
Rodney argues that a combination of
power politicsand economic exploitation of Africaby Europeans led to the poor state of African political and economic development evident in the late 20th Century. In the book's preface, Rodney praises the state of Tanzania, which had pursued the sort of Marxistpolitical ideology that Rodney advocated.
1972, the book was enormously influential in the study of African history. In the late 1990s many academics became more sharply critical of the book's central thesis and argued that the book oversimplifies the complex historical forces surrounding the colonial era.
This book was groundbreaking in that it was among the first to bring a new perspective to the question of underdevelopment in Africa. Rodney's analysis went far beyond the heretofore accepted approach in the study of Third World underdevelopment and it was met with heavy criticism.
Rodney had determined that the only path to true human development and liberation for the majority of the people of his country was through the transformation of their own lives in a struggle to replace and reshape the neo-colonialist government that dominated their society and prescribed their existence.
Rodney on the book's basic message
"The question as to who, and what, is responsible for African underdevelopment can be answered at two levels. Firstly, the answer is that the operation of the imperialist system bears major responsibility for African economic retardation by draining African wealth and by making it impossible to develop more rapidly the resources of the continent. Secondly, one has to deal with those who manipulated the system and those who are either agents or unwitting accomplices of the said system. The capitalists of Western Europe were the ones who actively extended their exploitation from inside Europe to cover the whole of Africa. In recent times, they were joined, and to some extent replaced, by the capitalists from the United States; and for many yearsnow even the workers of those metropolitan countries have benefited from the exploitation and underdevelopment of Africa." (27-28)"
"None of these remarks are intended to remove the ultimate responsibility for development from the shoulders of Africans. Not only are there African accomplices inside the imperialist system, but every African has a responsibility to understand the system and work for its overthrow." (28)"
*Some Questions on Development
*What is Development?
*What is Underdevelopment?
*How Africa Developed before the Coming of the Europeans -Up to the Fifteenth Century
*Africa's Contribution to European Capitalist Development -The Pre-Colonial Period
*How Europe became the Dominant Section of a World0Wide Trade System
*Africa's Contribution to the Economy and Beliefs of Early Capitalist Europe
*Europe and the Roots of African Underdevelopment - To 1885
*The European Slave Trade as a Basic Factor in African Underdevelopment
*Technical Stagnation and Distortion of the African Economy in the Pre-Colonial Epoch
*Continuing Politico-Military Developments in Africa 1500 to 1885
*The Coming of Imperialism and Colonialism
*Africa's Contribution to the Capitalist Development of Europe -The Colonial Period
*Expatriation of African Surplus under Colonialism
*The Strengthening of the Technological and Military Aspects of Capitalism
*Colonialism as a System for Underdeveloping Africa
*The Supposed Benefits of Colonialism to Africa
*Negative Character of the Social, Political, and Economic Consequences
*Education for Underdevelopment
*Development by Contradiction
Rodney on Power
"The decisiveness of the short period period of colonialism and its negative consequences for Africa spring mainly from the fact that Africa lost power. Power is the ultimate determinant in human society, being basic to the relations within any group and between groups. It implies the ability to defend one's interests and if necessary to impose one's will by any means available. In relations between peoples, the question of power determines maneuverability in bargaining, the extent to which a people survive as a physical and cultural entity. When one society finds itself forced to relinquish power entirely to another society, that in itself is a form of underdevelopment."
1972, Bogle-L'Ouverture Publications(ISBN 0-9501546-4-4)
1974, Howard University Press(ISBN 0-88258-013-2)
1981, Howard University Press (ISBN 0-88258-096-5)
1982, Howard University Press (ISBN 0-88258-105-8)
* [http://www.marxists.org/subject/africa/rodney-walter/how-europe/index.htm Full text of the book]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Europe, history of — Introduction history of European peoples and cultures from prehistoric times to the present. Europe is a more ambiguous term than most geographic expressions. Its etymology is doubtful, as is the physical extent of the area it designates.… … Universalium
Economy of Africa — The economy of Africa consists of the trade, industry, and resources of the peoples of Africa. As of July 2005, approximately 887 million people were living in 54 different states. Africa is the world s poorest inhabited continent. Though parts… … Wikipedia
Scramble for Africa — For the book by Thomas Pakenham, see Thomas Pakenham (historian)#The Scramble for Africa. For information on the colonization of Africa prior to the 1880s, including Carthaginian and early European colonization, see Colonization of Africa. The… … Wikipedia
Economic history of Africa — It is today believed that humanity originated in Africa and as soon as human societies formed so did economic activity. Earliest humans were hunter gatherers living in small family groupings. Even then there was considerable trade, that could… … Wikipedia
Involvement of the People's Republic of China in Africa — This article is primarily about economic relations between the PRC and Africa. For a more general overview, see Sino African relations. The People s Republic of China and Africa Chinese involvement in Africa, which began centuries ago, continues… … Wikipedia
western Africa, history of — Introduction history of the region from the 11th century to the present. A reasonable body of sources for the writing of western African history begins to be available about AD 1000. Three centuries earlier, the Arabs (Arab) had… … Universalium
Atlantic slave trade — The Atlantic slave trade, also known as the transatlantic slave trade, was the trade of African people supplied to the colonies of the New World that occurred in and around the Atlantic Ocean. It lasted from the 16th century to the 19th century.… … Wikipedia
Maafa — The word Maafa (also known as the African Holocaust or Holocaust of Enslavement) is derived from a Swahili word meaning disaster, terrible occurrence or great tragedy. [Nicole Cheeves, Denise. Legacy . 2004, page 1.] Harp, O.J. Across Time:… … Wikipedia
African slave trade — This article discusses systems of slavery within Africa, the history and effects of the slavery trade upon Africa. And also Maafa. See Atlantic slave trade for the trans Atlantic trade, and Arab slave trade for the Trans Saharan trade. See… … Wikipedia
Comercio de esclavos africanos — Este artículo discute los sistemas de esclavitud dentro de África, la historia y los efectos del comercio de esclavos sobre África y Maafa. Véase comercio árabe de esclavos para el comercio trans sahariano. Los esclavos africanos se convirtieron… … Wikipedia Español