Longshan culture


Longshan culture

Longshan culture (zh-cp|c=龍山文化|p=Lóngshān wénhuà) was a late Neolithic culture in China, centered on the central and lower Yellow River and dated from about 3000 BC to 2000 BC. Longshan culture is named after Longshan of eastern Jinan in Shandong Province, the first archaeological find and excavated site of this culture.

The distinctive feature of Longshan culture was the high level of skill in pottery making, including the use of pottery wheels. Longshan culture was noted for its highly polished black pottery (or egg-shell pottery). This type of thin-walled and polished black pottery has also been discovered in the Yangzi River valley and as far as the southeastern coast of China proper.Fairbank, 32.] It is a clear indication that neolithic agricultural sub-groups of the greater Longshan Culture had spread out across China proper.Fairbank, 33.]

Life during the Longshan culture marked a transition to the establishment of cities, as rammed earth walls and moats began to appear; the site at Taosi is the largest walled Longshan settlement. Rice cultivation was clearly established by that time. Small-scale production of silk by raising and domesticating "bombyx mori" in early sericulture was also known.

The Neolithic population in China reached its peak during the Longshan culture. Toward the end of the Longshan culture, the population decreased sharply; this was matched by the disappearance of high-quality black pottery found in ritual burials.

ub-periods

The early period of the Longshan culture is considered to be 3000 to 2600 BC, while the late period is 2600 to 2000 BC. [http://books.google.com/books?id=sP-PN2StH2cC&pg=PA88&dq=longshan+wei&sig=Ao5b3uZHsmphlQ-dW1b8Kp Kwang-chih Chang, "The Formation of Chinese Civilization: An Archaeological Perspective", 2005, Yale University Press, 384 pages ISBN 0300093829] ] A variety of geographic regions of China are involved among the various sub-periods of the Longshan civilisation, particularly for the Late Longshan period. [http://books.google.com/books?id=sP-PN2StH2cC&pg=PA88&dq=longshan+wei&sig=Ao5b3uZHsmphlQ-dW1b8Kp Kwang-chih Chang, "The Formation of Chinese Civilization: An Archaeological Perspective", 2005, Yale University Press, 384 pages ISBN 0300093829] ] For example middle reaches of the Jing River and Wei River evince settlement known as the Shaanxi Longshan. [http://books.google.com/books?id=sP-PN2StH2cC&pg=PA88&dq=longshan+wei&sig=Ao5b3uZHsmphlQ-dW1b8Kp Kwang-chih Chang, "The Formation of Chinese Civilization: An Archaeological Perspective", 2005, Yale University Press, 384 pages ISBN 0300093829] ] The Wei River valley would participate in key historic events in China as the North Silk Road developed in that same area.

ee also

* List of Neolithic cultures of China
* Yangshao culture
* Prehistoric Beifudi site

Notes

References

*Fairbank, John King and Merle Goldman (1992). "China: A New History; Second Enlarged Edition" (2006). Cambridge: MA; London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-01828-1
* Liu, Li. "The Chinese Neolithic: Trajectories to Early States", ISBN 0-521-81184-8


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