- Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty
The Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty ( _de. Helgoland-Sansibar-Vertrag) was an
1890agreement between the United Kingdomand the German Empire- hence also "Anglo-German Agreement of 1890" - concerning mainly territorial interests in Africa.
A common erroneous assumption is that Germany traded possession of
East African Zanzibarfor the North Seaisland of Heligoland. Fact|date=September 2008
Rather, Germany gained
Heligoland(Helgoland in German, originally part of Danish Holstein) in the North Sea, the Caprivi Strip(chieftainship of the Fwe people in Namibia), and a free hand to control and acquire the coast of Dar es Salaamthat would form the core of German East Africa(later Tanganyika, now the mainland component of Tanzania).
In exchange, Germany handed over to the UK the protectorate over the small
Sultanateof Wituland("Deutsch-Witu", on the Kenyan coast), parts of East-Africa (vital for the UK to build a railway to Lake Victoria), and pledged not to interfere in the actions of the UK vis-à-vis the Sultanate of Zanzibar. The UK declared a protectorateover the insular sultanate of Zanzibar (the islands of Zanzibar and Pemba) and, in the subsequent 1896 Anglo-Zanzibar War, gained full control of the state.
In addition, the treaty established the German sphere of interest in
German South-West Africa(now Namibia) and settled the borders between German Togolandand the British Gold Coast Colony and German Cameroonand British Nigeria.
German South-West Africa
Berlin Conference (1884)
Scramble for Africa
* [http://www.traditionsverband.de/helgo.html Der "Helgoland-Sansibar"-Vertrag] (German)
* [http://germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/pdf/eng/606_Anglo-German%20Treaty_110.pdf The Anglo-German Treaty (Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty) July 1, 1890]
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