List of groups referred to as cults in government documents

This list includes groups that have been referred to as cults in government documents. Government reports have listed such groups in Austria, Belgium, Canada, France (in 1995), Germany, and the United States.

Groups appear listed alphabetically by country, with the date of their appearance in the respective government report noted in the section header.

Australia

Within Australia, the Parliament of New South Wales referred to Kenja Communication as a cult on November 24, 1992. [cite news | last =Hon. S. B. MUTCH | title =Kenja Cult
work =Parliament of New South Wales, transcript | publisher =www.parliament.nsw.gov.au | date =November 24, 1992
url =http://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/prod/PARLMENT/hansArt.nsf/V3Key/LC19921124035
accessdate =2008-08-10
] Other names identifying thegroup include: Personal Evolvment Centre; Kenja Sydney; Melbourne Centre for Effective Communication; Kenja melbourne. Human Communication Centre; Kenja Canberra. Parramatta centre for Effective Communication; Kenja Parramatta.

Austria

Federal Ministry of the Environment, Youth and the Family (1996)

In 1996, the Federal Ministry of the Environment, Youth and the Family, in Austria published a list of 200 groups it considers to be "sects". According to the United States Department of State's "International Religious Freedom Report 2006", as released by the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor [http://www.unhcr.org/home/RSDCOI/450fb0b1a.html International Religious Freedom Report 2006] , (Austria), released by the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, United States Department of State.
"The vast majority of groups termed "sects" by the Government were small organizations with fewer than 100 members. Among the larger groups was the Church of Scientology, with between 5,000 and 6,000 members, and the Unification Church, with approximately 700 adherents throughout the country. Other groups found in the country included Divine Light Mission, Eckankar, Hare Krishna, the Holosophic community, the Osho movement, Sahaja Yoga, Sai Baba, Sri Chinmoy, Transcendental Meditation, Landmark Education, the Center for Experimental Society Formation, Fiat Lux, Universal Life, and The Family."] "the vast majority" of these "sects" comprise small organizations with fewer than 100 members. Larger groups include the Church of Scientology and the Unification Church.

The report states that other groups termed "sects" by the Austrian government include the Divine Light Mission, Eckankar, Hare Krishna, Holosophic community, Osho movement, Sahaja Yoga, Sai Baba, Sri Chinmoy, Transcendental Meditation, Landmark Education, Center for Experimental Society Formation, Fiat Lux, Universal Life, and The Family, but does not specify if these groups appear in the list compiled by the Austrian Federal Ministry. The United States Department of State had similar sections in its International Religious Freedom Report on Austria, in 1999, [ [http://atheism.about.com/library/irf/irf99/blirf_austria99.htm Religious Freedom Report 1999] , Austria, Section I. Freedom of Religion.]
2000, [ [http://atheism.about.com/library/irf/irf00/blirf_austria00.htm Religious Freedom Report 2000] , Austria, Section I. Freedom of Religion.]
2002, [ [http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2002/13920.htm Religious Freedom Report 2002] , Austria, Section I. Freedom of Religion.]
2003, [ [http://atheism.about.com/library/irf/irf03/blirf_austria.htm Religious Freedom Report 2003] , Austria, Section I. Religious Demography.]
2004 [ [http://atheism.about.com/library/irf/irf04/blirf_austria.htm Religious Freedom Report 2004] , Austria, Section I. Religious Demography.] and 2005. [ [http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2005/51539.htm Religious Freedom Report 2005] , Austria, Section I. Religious Demography.]

Belgium

Parliamentary Inquiry Commission (1997)

The Justice Commission of the Belgian House of Representatives set up a parliamentary inquiry commission to work out a policy against cults. On April 28, 1997, the parliamentary commission issued its 670-page report"Enquête Parlementaire visant à élaborer une politique en vue de lutter contre les practiques illégales des sectes et le danger qu'elles représentent pour la société et pour les personnes, particulièrement les mineurs d'âge. Rapport fait au nom de la Commission d'enquête par MM. Duquesne et Willems. Partie II." [Parliamentary Inquiry with the aim of detailing a policy for combating the illegal practices of cults and the danger they represent for society and for people, especially minors. Report made in the name of the Commission of Inquiry by Messieurs Duquesne and Willems. Part 2.] [http://www.dekamer.be/FLWB/pdf/49/0313/49K0313008.pdf available online] -- bilingual report in French and Flemish, retrieved 2007-01-08.] that contained a list of 189 movements, and also stated that " [t] he fact that a movement is listed here, even if at the instigation of an official instance, does not signify that the Commission regards it as a cult". The parliament failed to adopt the report as such and only voted to accept the conclusions andrecommendations (19 pages), and not the list. Despite the lack of adoption of the list, the commission published the whole report, including the list.cite web |url=http://www.willyfautre.org/publications/2002/heidelberg.pdf |title=The Sect Issue in France and in Belgium| author= Fautré, Willy |publisher= Human Rights Without Frontiers Int.|accessdate=2007-01-23|year=2002|format=PDF] According to Human Rights Without Frontiers Int., a Brussels Appeals Court in 2005 condemned the Belgian House of Representatives on the grounds that it had damaged the image of an organization (the Universal Church of God's Kingdom) listed in the 1997 parliamentary inquiry commission on sects. [ [http://www.hrwf.net/belgium/belgium_project.html Human Rights Without Frontiers Int. Human Rights in Belgium Annual Report (Events in 2005).] ]

The Belgian list of groups (French-language naming, with numbering as in the original document):

* 1. Aba Vangh
* 2. Abrasax (Institut)
* 3. Action Evangelique de Pentecote (AEP)
* 4. Adventistes du 7e Jour
* 5. Amish
* 6. Ananda Marga
* 7. Ange Albert (Glaube und Hoffnung)
* 8. Anthroposophie (Societe Anthroposophique en Belgique)
* 9. Antoinisme (culte antoiniste)
* 10. Aoum
* 11. Assemblee Viens et Vois
* 12. Assemblees de Dieu
* 13. Association Centre Saint Michel A.S.B.L.
* 14. Association (du Saint Esprit) pour l'Unification du Christianism mondiale (Moon)
* 15. Association Egoique
* 16. Association Internationale pour la Conscience de Krishna (AICK ou ISKCON)
* 17. Association Maitre Supreme Ching Hai
* 18. Atlantide ou Ambassade de la Paix
* 19. Au Coeur de la Communication (ACC)
* 20. Auram
* 21. Axe Holistique
* 22. Baha'ie (La Foi Mondiale)
* 23. Ban Thai Laos
* 24. Bhagwan (ou mouvement Neo Samyas)
* 25. Brahma Kumaris
* 26. Broeder Gregorius
* 27. Caillou (La communauté du) ou les «Jeudis du Caillou» ou «La Communauté de la Cité»
* 28. Calvary Christian Center
* 29. Capital Workship Center
* 30. Celestian Church of Christ (Eglise céleste du Christ ou Eglise du Christianisme céleste)
* 31. Centre Paradigme
* 32. Centrum «De Reiziger»
* 33. Chevaliers du Lotus d'Or (Mandarom) (Association du Vajra triomphant)
* 34. Christian Church
* 35. Church Universal and Triumphant
* 36. Clier A.S.B.L.
* 37. Compagnie Chevaleresque de Saint-Michel
* 38. Contre-Reforme Catholique (ligue de)
* 39. CORAEN (Centrum voor de Opsporing, Registratie en Analyse van Elfennesten) * Cor Unum (see Ordre du Divin Sacré Coeur)
* 40. Coven Thot
* 41. Cristal A.S.B.L.
* 42. De Ark
* 43. De Geestelijke Kracht
* 44. De Groep (un psychologue)
* 45. Deva-Light
* 46. Dynarsis Institute
* 47. EBS -- De Werter Loge
* 48. ECK (Energo-chromo-kinèse) ou Energo8 internationale
* 49. Ecole de Philosophie
* 50. Ecoovie
* 51. Eglise Catholique Apostolique Gallicane Traditionnelle
* 52. Eglise de Jesus-Christ des Saints des Derniers Jours (Mormons)
* 53. Eglise de la Pentecote Bethel
* 54. Eglise de Scientologie
* 55. Eglise du Christ de Bruxelles (dépendant de l'Eglise du Christ de Boston)
* 56. Eglise Evangelique Libre
* 57. Eglise Gnostique Lucifer Christ
* 58. Eglise Internationale du Christ
* 59. Eglise Jesus-Christ de Verite
* 60. Eglise Neoapostolique
* 61. Eglise Universelle de Dieu (Eglise Mondiale du Christ)
* 62. Eglise Universelle du Royaume de Dieu
* 63. Elegance Continentale
* 64. Elewout Centrum
* 65. Emin Foundation (originally "Church of Eminent Way"
* 66. Energie Humaine et Universelle (HUE) Institut Européen de Recherche de l'Energie Humaine et Universelle IEREHU)
* 67. Evangelische Christenen
* 68. Eveil de la Conscience
* 69. Ex Deo Nascimur
* 70. Federation et Union Spirites Belges
* 71. Fellowship Friends Renaissance
* 72. Filiation Solazaref
* 73. Fraternite Blanche Universelle (FBU)
* 74. Friends Of Edo (FOF E)
* 75. Gemeente van Christus
* 76. God's River Ministries
* 77. Groep ter Verering van de Wenende Madonna van Bohan
* 78. Groupe de Recherche et de Fondation en Analyse Existentielle
* 79. Het Gereformeerde Evangelisatie Centrum Essen
* 80. Het Werk (L'Oeuvre)
* 81. Het Zwarte Licht
* 82. Horus
* 83. Humana
* 84. I Am
* 85. Iatrosophie
* 86. INDIP (Institut de développement et d'intégration de la personne) (centre primal)
* 87. Insight Benelux (intermédiaire de Insight Educational Institute, en Californie)
* 88. Institut Gnostique d'Anthropologie (IGA)
* 89. Institut Gurdjieff
* 90. Institut Yeuntenling A.S.B.L./Tibetaans Instituut V.Z.W. (Karma Sonam Gyamtso Ling)
* 91. Ishtar
* 92. IVI (Invitation à la vie intense)
* 93. Jain Association
* 94. Jiddu Krisna Murti
* 95. Kapel van het Allerheiligste Sacrament
* 96. Katalys A.S.B.L.
* 97. Kreative Energie
* 98. Kripalu Yoga
* 99. La Famille ou Association des communautés missionnaires chrétiennes indépendantes
* 100. La Licorne de Jade
* 101. La Lunaire
* 102. La Paideutique
* 103. La Parole de Jesus
* 104. La Ramonette
* 105. La Voie de la Lumiere
* 106. Landmark Education
* 107. Le Hetre
* 108. Le Mantra d'Hasom
* 109. Le Patriarche
* 110. Le Rassemblement Europeen Ouvriers du Christ
* 111. Les Adorateurs du Nombril du Soleil
* 112. Les Alchimistes
* 113. Les Amis de l'Homme (à l'origine «L'Ange de l'Eternel»)
* 114. Les Assemblees des Freres Darbystes
* 115. Les Croix de la Nouvelle Babylone
* 116. Les Matsya A.S.B.L.
* 117. Loge Noire
* 118. Longo-Mai
* 119. Maitreya (BAHA)
* 120. Meditation Transcendantale
* 121. Messias Concern
* 122. Miroir Solaire
* 123. Mission d'Ares
* 124. Mouvement du Graal
* 125. Mouvement Humaniste (Le Mouvement)
* 126. Mouvement Raelien Belge
* 127. Nacio dos Muchachos
* 128. Noire Eau
* 129. Nouvelle Acropole
* 130. Oasis of Nellie Uyldertstichting
* 131. Ogyen Kunzang Chöling (OKC)
* 132. Opstal
* 133. Opus Dei
* 134. Ordre de la Pleine Lune
* 135. Ordre de la Rose-Croix
* 136. Ordre des Chevaliers du Temple, du Christ et de Notre-Dame (OCTCND) ou Fraternité Johannite pour la résurgence templière
* 137. Ordre du Divin Sacre Coeur (Cor Unum)
* 138. Ordre du Temple Solaire
* 139. Ordre Vert Druidique et de la Fraternite du Soleil Celtique
* 140. OSMTH/OSMTJ (Ordre Souverain et Militaire du Temple de Jérusalem)
* 141. Paramahansa Yogananda
* 142. Payot Marie Blanche
* 143. Pere Samuel
* 144. Pluk De Dag (Centrum der Duizend Zonnen)
* 145. Power
* 146. Quadratoquintillia
* 147. Religieus Genootschap der Vrienden Quakers
* 148. Renouveau Charismatique
* 149. Sahaja Yoga
* 150. Satansekte
* 151. Sathya Sai Baba
* 152. Savoir pour Etre
* 153. Selfrealisation Fellowship
* 154. Servanta
* 155. Shin Boedhisme (Jodo Shinso)
* 156. Shri Ram Chandra Mission
* 157. Siddha Shiva Yoga
* 158. Sierra 21
* 159. Sint Egidiusgemeenschap
* 160. Soefi Beweging
* 161. Soka Gakkai
* 162. Ster van David (Huis Maria van Bethlehem)
* 163. Stromen van Kracht
* 164. Sûkyô Mahikari
* 165. Summit Light House
* 166. Sunnatarem Belgium Natural Dubdist Meditation Center
* 167. Szatmar
* 168. Tai Chi
* 169. Tao Yoga
* 170. Teblig
* 171. Temoins de Jehovah
* 172. Terre d'Enneille
* 173. The Elijah Mohammed Foundation
* 174. Theosofie V.Z.W. (Geüniëerde loge van Theosofen)
* 175. Theravada
* 176. Trans-Mutations
* 177. Trois Saints Coeurs
* 178. Vahali (I Am)
* 179. Thérapeute Yvo Van Orshoven (A.S.B.L. Esse)
* 180. Verbond van Vlaamse Pinkstergemeenten
* 181. Vibration Coeur
* 182. Vrij Evangelische Kerkgemeente
* 183. Wat Asokaran
* 184. World Federation For Spiritual Healing
* 185. Young Women's Christian Association (YWCA)
* 186. YSS
* 187. Zen
* 188. Zida Yoga
* 189. Zwarte Madonna - Satanskerk

Canada

Canadian Security Intelligence Service (1999)

A Canadian Security Intelligence Service report of 1999 discussed "Doomsday Religious Movements espousing hostile beliefs and having the potential to be violent..""Doomsday Religious Movements", "PERSPECTIVES", a Canadian Security Intelligence Service publication, Report # 2000/03, December 18, 1999. [http://web.archive.org/web/20050213230826/http://www.csis-scrs.gc.ca/eng/miscdocs/200003_e.html available online] , last updated November 1, 2000.] Groups classified as "Doomsday Religious Movements" included:

* the Branch Davidians
* Canada’s Order of the Solar Temple
* Aum Shinrikyo

The report referred to Aum Shinrikyo at one point as the "Aum cult".

France

In 1995, a parliamentary commission of the National Assembly of France on cults produced its [http://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/rap-enq/r2468.asp report] [http://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/rap-enq/r2468.asp French report, 1995] , [http://cftf.com/french/Les_Sectes_en_France/cults.html English translation] , National Assembly of France, Parliamentary Commission report.] (in French: compare an [http://cftf.com/french/Les_Sectes_en_France/cults.html unofficial English translation] ). The report included a list of purported cults compiled by the general information division of the French National Police ("Renseignements généraux" — a French police service) in association with cult-watching groups.

In May 2005 the then Prime Minister of France, in a "circulaire"cite web
url= http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexte.do?cidTexte=JORFTEXT000000809117&dateTexte=
title= Circulaire du 27 mai 2005 relative à la lutte contre les dérives sectaires
accessdate= 2007-07-26
last= Raffarin
first= Jean-Pierre
authorlink= Jean-Pierre Raffarin
date= 2005-06-01
work= JORF n°126 du 1 juin 2005 page 9751 texte n° 8
publisher= République Française
pages= 9751
language= French
quote=
] (which stressed that the government must exercise vigilance in continuing the fight against the cult-phenomenon [cite web
url= http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexte.do?cidTexte=JORFTEXT000000809117&dateTexte=
title= Circulaire du 27 mai 2005 relative à la lutte contre les dérives sectaires
accessdate= 2007-07-26
last= Raffarin
first= Jean-Pierre
authorlink= Jean-Pierre Raffarin
date= 2005-06-01
work= JORF n°126 du 1 juin 2005 page 9751 texte n° 8
publisher= République Française
pages= 9751
language= French
quote= ... cette activité doit alors être suivie avec une extrême vigilance de manière à prévenir tout agissement répréhensible et, s'il se produit, à engager sans délai l'action répressive [TRANSLATION: This activity should then be carried out with extreme vigilance in such a manner as to prevent any reprehensible disturbance, and if appropriate, to engage without delay in aggressive action.]
] ), said that the list of movements attached to the Parliamentary Report of 1995 had become less pertinent, based on the observation that many small groups had formed: scattered, more mobile, and less-easily identifiable, [cite web
url= http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexte.do?cidTexte=JORFTEXT000000809117&dateTexte=
title= Circulaire du 27 mai 2005 relative à la lutte contre les dérives sectaires
accessdate= 2007-07-26
last= Raffarin
first= Jean-Pierre
authorlink= Jean-Pierre Raffarin
date= 2005-06-01
work= JORF n°126 du 1 juin 2005 page 9751 texte n° 8
publisher= République Française
pages= 9751
language= French
quote= Cette vigilance doit s'exercer en tenant compte de l'évolution du phénomène sectaire, qui rend la liste de mouvements annexée au rapport parlementaire de 1995 de moins en moins pertinente. On constate en effet la formation de petites structures, diffuses, mouvantes et moins aisément identifiables, qui tirent en particulier parti des possibilités de diffusion offertes par l'internet. [TRANSLATION: We must exercise this vigilance in taking account of the evolution of the cult-phenomenon, which makes the list of movements attached to the Parliamentary Report of 1995 less and less pertinent. Indeed, one can observe the formation of small groups, scattered, mobile and less-easily identifiable, and which make use in particular of the possibilities of spreading offered by the Internet.]
] and that the government needed to balance its fight against cults with respect for public freedoms and laïcité (secularism). [cite web
url= http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexte.do?cidTexte=JORFTEXT000000809117&dateTexte=
title= Circulaire du 27 mai 2005 relative à la lutte contre les dérives sectaires
accessdate= 2007-07-26
last= Raffarin
first= Jean-Pierre
authorlink= Jean-Pierre Raffarin
date= 2005-06-01
work= JORF n°126 du 1 juin 2005 page 9751 texte n° 8
publisher= République Française
pages= 9751
language= French
quote= L'action menée par le Gouvernement est dictée par le souci de concilier la lutte contre les agissements de certains groupes, qui exploitent la sujétion, physique ou psychologique, dans laquelle se trouvent placés leurs membres, avec le respect des libertés publiques et du principe de laïcité.

L'expérience a montré qu'une démarche consistant, pour les pouvoirs publics, à qualifier de « secte » tel ou tel groupement et à fonder leur action sur cette seule qualification ne permettrait pas d'assurer efficacement cette conciliation et de fonder solidement en droit les initiatives prises.

[TRANSLATION: The actions undertaken by the Government are dictated by the concern for balancing the struggle against the actions of certain groups — which exploit the physical and psychological subjection which their members find themselves in — with respect for public liberties and for the principle of "laïcité".

Experience has shown that a consistent approach in which the public authorities label such-and-such a grouping as a cult and base their actions solely on this labeling do not allow us to guarantee efficaciously this balancing or to base our actions solidly in law.] ] The Prime Minister asked his civil servants to update a number of ministerial instructions issued by previous commissions, to apply criteria set in consultation with the Interministerial Commission for Monitoring and Combating Cultic Deviances (MIVILUDES), and to avoid falling back solely on lists of groups for the identification of cultic deviances.

Subsequent French parliamentary commissions on cults reported on specific aspects of cult activity in 1999 [cite web
url= http://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/dossiers/sectes/sommaire.asp
title= Les sectes et l'argent {Cults and money]
accessdate= 3007-07-26
author= ASSEMBLÉE NATIONALE
authorlink= National Assembly of France
coauthors=
date= 1999-06-10
publisher= République Française
language= French
quote= La typologie de 1995 garde toute sa pertinence [The 1995 analysis remains totally relevant]
] and in 2006. [cite web
url= http://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/12/rapports/r3179.asp
title= RAPPORT FAIT AU NOM DE LA COMMISSION DES LOIS CONSTITUTIONNELLES, DE LA LÉGISLATION ET DE L'ADMINISTRATION GÉNÉRALE DE LA RÉPUBLIQUE SUR LA PROPOSITION DE RÉSOLUTION (n° 3107) DE M. VUILQUE ET PLUSIEURS DE SES COLLÈGUES tendant à la création d'une commission d'enquête relative à l'influence des mouvements à caractère sectaire et aux conséquences de leurs pratiques sur la santé physique et mentale des mineurs
accessdate= 2008-07-26
last= Fenech
first= Georges
authorlink= Georges Fenech
date= 2006-06-21
work=
publisher= République Française
language= French
quote=
]

French parliamentary commission report (1995)

Opinion in France varies as to the applicability of the 1995 Parliamentary report. A provincial court case noted that all such Parliamentary reports have no juridicial impact. [cite web
url= http://www.coordiap.com/Document/sectes-liste-noire.pdf
title= TRIBUNAL ADMINISTRATIF DE CAEN N° 0500913
accessdate= 2008-07-26
year= 2007
format= PDF
work=
publisher= Le Tribunal administratif de Caen, (1er Chambre)
language= French
quote= ... un rapport établi par la commission d’enquête de l’Assemblée nationale classant les Témoins de Jehovah parmi les sectes, un tel rapport étant dépourvu de valeur Juridique ...
] And as stated above, a Prime Ministerial "circulaire" warned that name-changes had impacted on the usefulness of this particular Parliamentary report. [cite web
url= http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexte.do?cidTexte=JORFTEXT000000809117&dateTexte=
title= Circulaire du 27 mai 2005 relative à la lutte contre les dérives sectaires
accessdate= 2007-07-26
last= Raffarin
first= Jean-Pierre
authorlink= Jean-Pierre Raffarin
date= 2005-06-01
work= JORF n°126 du 1 juin 2005 page 9751 texte n° 8
publisher= République Française
pages= 9751
language= French
quote= Cette vigilance doit s'exercer en tenant compte de l'évolution du phénomène sectaire, qui rend la liste de mouvements annexée au rapport parlementaire de 1995 de moins en moins pertinente. On constate en effet la formation de petites structures, diffuses, mouvantes et moins aisément identifiables, qui tirent en particulier parti des possibilités de diffusion offertes par l'internet. [TRANSLATION: We must exercise this vigilance in taking account of the evolution of the cult-phenomenon, which makes the list of movements attached to the Parliamentary Report of 1995 less and less pertinent. Indeed, one can observe the formation of small groups, scattered, mobile and less-easily identifiable, and which make use in particular of the possibilities of spreading offered by the Internet.]
]

*ALPHA Cultural Association ("Association Culturelle ALPHA") 1977
*AMPARA
*ANTHROPOS – Association for Research on the Holistic Development of Man ("ANTHROPOS - Association pour la recherche sur le développement holistique de l'homme")
*Antoinist Worship ("Culte Antoiniste")
*Apostolic Order – Therapeutic Healing Environment ("Ordre apostolique - Therapeutic healing environment")
*ASPIRAL
*Association for Defence of Freedom of Expression in the French Institution (ADLEIF) ("Association de défense des libertés d'expression dans l'institution française (ADLEIF)")
*Association for Promotion of the Industrial Arts (APPAI) ("Association pour la promotion des arts industrieux (APPAI)")
*Association for the Research and Study of Survival (APRES) ("Association pour la recherche et l'étude de la survivance (APRES)")
*Association for Unification of Christianity Worldwide ("Association pour l'unification du christianisme mondial")
*Association of Meditation in France ("Association de méditation en France")
*ATHANOR
*Azazel Institute Inc. ("AZAZEL INSTITUTE INC")
*Be-Exist-Energetics ("Etre-Exister-Energètique")
*Butcheries Community ("Communauté Les boucheries")
*Brahma Kumaris World Spiritual University ("Université spirituelle internationale des Brahma Kumaris") ["Cults, Religion & Violence" 2002 ISBN 0-521-66898-0 5 , (Listed as "Dangerous" by the French Parliamentary Commission (1996), also defined as "enemies of the state" in Greece, 1993).]
*CEDIPAC SA (formerly GEPM) ("CEDIPAC SA (ex-GEPM)"
*Centre for Mahatayana Meditation ("Centre de méditation Mahatayana")
*Centre for the Blossoming and Aid of Francis de Sales ("Centre d'épanouissement et aide François de Sales")
*Centre of Dalmatie Therapy ("Centre de thérapie Dalmatie")
*Centre of Gnostic Studies ("Centre d'Etudes Gnostiques")
*Centre of Human Development ("Centre de développement humain")
*Centre of the Djivana Prana Swan – Source of Life ("Centre du cygne Djivana Prana - Source de vie")
*Christian Life in France – Centre of Christian Life ("Vie chrétienne en France - Centre de vie chrétienne")
*Church of Paris ("L'Église à Paris")
*Church of Scientology of Paris ("Église de Scientologie de Paris")
*Communion of Satonnay ("Communion de Satonnay")
*Community for the propagation of the universal life ("Communauté pour la propagation de la vie universelle")
*Community of the Little Brothers and Little Sisters of the Sacred Heart ("Communauté des petits frères et des petites sœurs du Sacré-coeur")
*Contact, Information and Resource Centre for the Prevention of Cancer ("Centre de documentation et d'information et de contact pour la prévention du cancer")
*Cosmicia
*Cosmos - Intuition – Wings ("Cosmos - Intuition – Ailes")
*Cross Ones of the New Babylon ("Les croisés de la nouvelle Babylone")
*Cultural office of Cluny – National Federation of Total Animation ("Office culturel de Cluny - Fédération nationale d'animation globale")
*Cultural Space Being Now (ECEM) "(Espace culturel Etre maintenant (ECEM)")
*Dakpo Shampa Kadgyu
*Domain of Ephesus ("Domaine d'Ephèse")
*Eckankar France ("Eckankar France")
*Eija
*El – Be Its Body ("El - Etre son corps")
*Emissaries of the Divine Light
*Energy and Creation – Energy and Creativity ("Energie et création - Energie et créativité")
*Energy world ("Energy world")
*Evangelical Pentecostal Church of Besançon ("Eglise évangélique de Pentecôte de Besançon")
*Faculty of Parapsychology ("Faculté de parapsychologie")
*Family of Nazareth ("Famille de Nazareth")
*Foundation Elan vital ("Fondation Elan vital")
*French Federation for Krishna Consciousness ("Fédération française pour la conscience de Krishna")
*French Raëlian Movement ("Mouvement Raëlien français")
*Friends of Mary – Poor Ones of Mary ("Les amis de Marie - Les pauvres de Marie")
*Friends of the Glorious Cross of Dozule ("Amis de la croix glorieuse de Dozule")
*Friends of the St. Andréas Brotherhood ("Les amis de la confrérie Saint-Andréas")
*Gardens of Life ("Les jardins de la vie")
*Gilded Light ("Lumière dorée")
*Grail Movement in France ("Mouvement du Graal en France")
*Grand Lodge Sovereign International Magic and Theurgic, Egyptian Rite – Cagliostro ("Grande loge souveraine internationale magique et theurgique de rite égyptien - Cagliostro")
*Haidyakhan Spiritual Association ("Association spirituelle d'Haiyakhan")
*Hermitage of Christ of Peace ("Ermitage du Christ de la paix")
*Holistic Harmony ("Harmonie holistique")
*Holosophic Society of France ("Société holosophique de France")
*House of John ("La maison de Jean")
*Human and Universal Energy France – HUE France ("Energie humaine et universelle France - HUE France")
*Humana France – TVIND ("Humana France - TVIND")
*Humanist Movement ("Mouvement humaniste")
*Iesu no mitama kyokai (Church of the Holy Spirit of Jesus) ("Iesu no mitama kyokai (Eglise du Saint Esprit de Jésus)")
*Imagine
*Initiatory Circle of the Western Wicca Unicorn ("Cercle initiatique de la licorne Wicca occidentale")
*Insight seminars – Innergy
*Institute of Holistic Sciences of the West ("Institut des sciences holistiques de l'Ouest")
*Institute of Physical and Conscious Research ("Institut de recherche physique et conscience")
*Institute of Psychoanalytic Research ("Institut de recherches psychanalytiques")
*Institute of the Vedic Maharashi Science in Paris – C.P.M. – Club for Meditators (“Transcendental Meditation”) ("Institut de science vedique maharishi Paris - C.P.M. - Club pour méditants ( " Méditation transcendentale " )")
*International Centre of Parapsychology and the Scientific Research of New Age ("Centre international de parapsychologie et de recherche scientifique du Nouvel Age")
*International Churches of Christ in France ("Eglises du Christ international en France")
*International Division Communication ("Partage international communication")
*International Federation for the Development of the Instinctive Feeding (FIDALI) ("Fédération internationale pour le développement de l'alimentation instinctive (FIDALI)")
*International Society of the Analytical Trilogy ("Société internationale de trilogie analytique -sarl-")
*International Way ("La voie internationale")
*Invitation to the Intense Life ("Invitation à la vie intense")
*Jehovah's Witnesses ("Témoins de Jéhovah")
*Key of the Universe ("Clé de l'univers")
*Khristic Church of the New Jerusalem Order of Raolf, Arnold and Osmond ("Eglise Khristique de la Jérusalem Nouvelle ordre de Raolf, d'Arnold et d'Osmond")

*Knights of the Lotus of Gold ("Chevaliers du Lotus d'or")
*Knowing how to Change Now ("Savoir changer maintenant")
*Kofuku no kagaku (Institute for Research of Happiness of Man) ("Kofuku no kagaku (institut pour la recherche du bonheur de l'homme)")
*Landmark Education International/The Forum ("Landmark education international - Le forum")
*Lectorium rosicrucianum (Gold Rosicrucian Brotherhood) ("Lectorium rosicrucianum (Rose-Croix d'or)")
*Leisure and Health - The Body Mirror ("Loisirs et santé - Le corps miroir")
*Light of Maat ("Lumière du Maat")
*Lucien J. Engelmajet Association ("Association Lucien J. Engelmajet")
*MAEV
*Maha Shakti Mandir
*Mandala 33
*Mary’s Arch ("Arche de Marie")
*Methodical Ontology Culture and Tradition ("Ontologie méthodique culture et tradition")
*Mission Swmi Atmananda Atma Bodha Satsanga ("Mission Swmi Atmananda Atma Bodha Satsanga")
*Monastic Order of Avalon ("Ordre monastique d'Avallon")
*Natale Institute ("Institut Frank Natale")
*Neo-Apostolic Church of France ("Eglise néo-apostolique de France")
*New Acropolis Association of France (ANAF) ("Association Nouvelle Acropole France (ANAF)")
*New Era ("La nouvelle ère")
*Notre Dame Fraternity ("Fraternité Notre Dame")
*Ogyen Kunzang Choling
*Order of Scientific Scribes and Initiatory Mysteries ("Ordonnance des scribes scientifiques et des mystères initiatiques")
*Order of the Burning Grail ("Ordre du Graal ardent")
*Order of the Knights of France and of the Holy Trinity ("Ordre des chevaliers de France et de la Trinité Sainte")
*Order of the Lily and the Eagle ("Ordre du lys et de l'aigle")
*Order of the Universal Temple ("Ordre du temple universel")
*Ordo Templi Orientis
*OSHO Information Centre ("Centre d'information OSHO")
*Oxygen Comets – The Mill of the Sun ("Comètes oxygènes - Le moulin du soleil")
*Oxyon 777 (ex-Harmonia) ("Oxyon 777 (ex-Harmonia)")
*Paris Dharma Sah – Lotus Sangha of European Social Buddhism ("Paris Dharma Sah - Lotus Sangha of European social buddhism")
*Philosopher of Nature ("Philosophe de la nature")
*Philosophic Church of Lucifer ("Eglise philosophique Luciférienne")
*Prelude to the Golden Age Club ("Club prélude à l'Age d'or")
*Psychanimie Institute ("Institut de psychanimie")
*Queen of Peace – Order of the Immaculate Heart of Mary and of Saint Louis de Montfort ("Reine de la paix - Ordre du coeur immaculé de Marie et de Saint Louis de Montfort")
*Raphaël Centre of Psychic Applications ("Centre d'applications psychiques "Raphaël")
*Red Concept Limited ("Red concept limited")
*Reiyukai
*Renovated Order of the Temple (ORT) ("Ordre rénové du Temple (ORT)")
*Revelation of the 7th Hour ("Révélation de la 7ème heure")
*Right of Survival Association ("Association Le Droit de survie")
*Rosicrucians
*Saint Bani ("Saint Bani")
*Saman
*Sanctuary
*School for Preparation for Extraterrestrial Evacuation ("Ecole de la préparation de l'évacuation extra terrestre")
*School of Essentialism Association ("Association de soutien à l'oeuvre de Sundari - L'Ecole de l'essentialisme")
*Science of the Mental One ("La science du mental")
*Seimeikyo Europe ("Seimeikyo Europe")
*Shinji Shumeikai France ("Shinji Shumeikai France")
*Shri Ram Chandra Mission France ("Shri Ram Chandra Mission France")
*Siderella
*Silva Method Mind Control ("Méthode Sylva de contrôle mental")
*Sister Rasta Movement ("Sister mouvement rasta")
*Soka Gakkai International France ("Soka Gakkai internationale France")
*Spiritual Emergence Network France – Holotropic Breathing ("Spiritual Emergence Network France - Respiration holotropique")
*Sri Chinmoy Association of Paris ("Association Sri Chinmoy de Paris")
*St. Germain Foundation ("Fondation Saint-germain")
*St. Preux Institute ("Institut de Saint-Preux")
*Star's Edge International – Avatar Method ("Star's edge international - Méthode Avatar")
*Study, Tradition and Research in Energetics (E.T.R.E.) ("Etude tradition et recherche en énergétique (E.T.R.E.)")
*Subud Association of France – Susila Dharma France ("Association Subud de France - Susila Dharma France")
*Suicide of the River Banks ("Le suicide des rives")
*Sukyo Mahikari – Light of Truth ("Sukyo Mahikari - Lumière de vérité")
*Supermen Club ("Le club des surhommes")
*Supreme Paravidya Wisdom ("Paravidya sagesse suprême")
*Teaching and Therapy of Evolutionary Search ("Enseignement et thérapie de recherches évolutives")
*The Eye Opens ("L'oeil s'ouvre")
*The Family (formerly Children of God) ("La Famille (ex-Enfants de Dieu)")
*The Grand Lodge ("Le grand logis")
*The Paraclete Centre ("Centre du Paraclet")
*Thébaide Community ("Communauté de la Thébaide")
*Theological Institute of Nimes ("Institut théologique de Nîmes")
*Timothy Mission ("Mission Timothée")
*Tradition Family Property ("Tradition Famille Propriété")
*Trans-Mutations ("Trans-mutations")
*Tree in the Environment ("L'arbre au milieu")
*Union of Sri Sathya Sai Associations, Centres and Groups ("Union des associations centres et groupes Sri Sathya Sai")
*Universal Alliance ("Alliance universelle")
*Universal Church of God ("Eglise universelle de Dieu")
*Universal Church of God's Kingdom ("Eglise universelle du royaume de Dieu")
*Universal White Fraternity ("Fraternité blanche universelle")
*Venture
*Village of Aquarius ("Le village du verseau")
*Vishwa Nirmala Dharma – Sahaja Yoga ("Viswa Nirmala Dharma - Sahaja Yoga")
*Vital Harmony SA ("Vital Harmony SA")
*Viveka
*Vo Vi Association of France – Friends of the Science of Non-being of France ("Association Vo Vi de France - Amis de la Science du non être de France")
*Way of Light (Unity of Research Projects for the Evolution of Light) ("La voie de la lumière (unité de recherches pour l'évolution de la lumière)")
*Word of Faith – World Evangelisation ("La parole de foi - Evangélisation mondiale")

Germany

Berlin Senate report (1997)

An official report of a Senate Committee of the city and state of Berlin in Germany listed and discussed cults ( _de. Sekten), emphasizing with its sub-title their categorization as "entities espousing a world view and new religions". The 1997 Berlin Senate report — entitled "Cults: Risks and Side-effects: Information on selected new religious and world-view espousing Movements and Psycho-offerings"cite book
last=Rũhle (ed.)
first=Anne
coauthors=Ina Kunst
title= "Sekten": Risiken und Nebenwirkungen: Informationen zu ausgewählten neuen religiõsen und weltanschaulichen Bewegungen und Psychoangeboten." [Cults: Risks and Side-effects. Information on selected new religious and world-view Movements and Psycho-offerings]
origdate=
origyear=1994
origmonth=October
url=http://www.ariplex.com/ama/amasenat.htm
accessdate=2007-02-06
accessyear=
accessmonth=
edition=2nd edition
series=
volume=1
year=1997
month=December
publisher= Senatsverwaltung für Schule, Jugend and Sport. [Senate Administration for School, Youth and Sport]
location=
language= German
isbn=
quote=
] — subdivided "selected suppliers" ("ausgewählte Anbieter") of its objects of interest as:

* 7.1: Groups with a Christian background ("Gruppen mit christlichem Hintergrund")
** 7.1.1 Fiat Lux
** 7.1.2 Parish on the Road Evangelical Free Church (registered association) ("Gemeinde auf dem Weg Evangelische Freikirche e.V")
** 7.1.3 Parish of Jesus Christ (registered association) Boston Church of Christ ("Gemeinde Jesu Christi e.V. (Boston Church of Christ)")
** 7.1.4 Universal Life (Re-gathering of Jesus Christ) ("Universelles Leben (Heimholungswerk Jesu Christi/HHW)")
** 7.1.5 Unification Church (Moon movement) ("Vereinigungskirche (Mun-Bewegung)")
* 7.2 Groups with a pagan background ("Gruppen mit heidnischem Hintergrund")
** 7.2.1 Teutonic Belief Association (registered association) ("Germanische Glaubengemeinschaft e.V. (GGG)")
** 7.2.2 Pagan Association (registered association) ("Heidnische Gemeinschaft e.V. (HG)")
* 7.3 Groups with a Hinduistic background ("Gruppen mit hinduistischem Hintergrund")
** 7.3.1 International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON) ("International Society of Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON)")
** 7.3.2 OSHO-Movement (Bhagwan) ("OSHO-Bewegung (Bhagwan)")
** 7.3.3 Ruhani Satsang of Thakar Singh ("Ruhani Satsang des Thakar Singh")
** 7.3.4 Transcendental Meditation (TM) ("Transzendentale Meditation (TM)")
* 7.4 Suppliers of Life-Help ("Anbieter von Lebenshilfe")
** commercial: ("kommerziell:")
** 7.4.1 The Circle of Friends of Bruno Gröning ("Bruno Gröning-Freundeskreise")
** 7.4.2 Context Seminar Company Limited ("Kontext Seminar GmbH")
** 7.4.3 Landmark Education (LE) ("Landmark Education (LE)")
** 7.4.4 Art Reade
** 7.4.5 Scientology
** 7.4.6 The Natale Institute (TNI)
** non-commercial: ("nicht kommerziell:")
** 7.4.7 Union for the Enhancement of the psychological Knowledge of Mankind ("Verein zur Förderung der psychologischen Menschenkenntnis (VPM)")
* 7.5 Occultism/Satanism ("Okkultismus/Satanismus")
* 7.6 So-called Multi-level Marketers ("Sogenannte Strukturvertriebe")

The current (2002) Senate report (published as risiken_und_nebenwirkungen2.pdf), which bears the title-page "Alles Sekte -- oder was?", does not contain such a list: its structure and title differ thoroughly from the 1997 report. [The publishing history appears in:cite book
last=Rühle (ed.)
first=Anne
coauthors=Gudrun Seyffert
others=Anne Rühle
title="Alles Sekte - oder was?": Konfliktträchtige Anbieter auf dem Lebenshilfemarkt religiöser, weltanschaulicher, psychologischer, therapeutischer und sonstiger lebenshelfender Prägung: Risiken und Nebenwirkungen
url=http://www.berlin.de/imperia/md/content/sen-familie/sog_psychogruppen_sekten/risiken_und_nebenwirkungen_2.pdf
format=PDF
accessdate=2008-07-26
edition=
series=
volume=
year=2002
month=
publisher=Senatsverwaltung für Bildung, Jugend und Sport
location=
language=German
isbn=
pages= 3
chapter=
chapterurl=
quote=Der erste Bericht ist bis zum 31. Dezember 1994 dem Abgeordnetenhaus vorzulegen.“Hierzu wird berichtet:Der erste Bericht ist mit Drucksache 12/4905 im Oktober 1994, der zweite Bericht mit Drucksache12/2272 im Dezember 1997 vorgelegt worden. Zum vorliegenden Bericht wurde mit den Drucksachen14/897 im Dezember 2000 und im November 2001 Zwischenberichte vorgelegt.Nunmehr wird erneut berichtet.Die Senatsverwaltung für Schule Jugend und Sport kommt dem Auftrag des Abgeordnetenhauses mit derVorlage des in der Anlage beigefügten Berichts„Alles Sekte - oder was?“ Konfliktträchtige Anbieter auf dem Lebenshilfemarkt religiöser, weltanschaulicher, therapeutischer und sonstiger lebenshelfender Prägung Risiken und Nebenwirkungen nach.
] The list appeared in the Senate report of 1997, which bore the title-page: "Sekten: Risiken und Nebenwirkungen".

United States

Committee on Government Reform (August 1999)

;"Suspect Organizations and Individuals Possessing Long-Range Fifty Caliber Sniper Weapons"A report to the United States House of Representatives, Section VI is entitled "Montana Doomsday Religious Cult - "Church Universal and Triumphant".
*Church Universal and Triumphant [ [http://www.democrats.reform.house.gov/Documents/20040830103758-73537.pdf Suspect Organizations and Individuals Possessing Long-Range Fifty Caliber Sniper Weapons] , United States House of Representatives, Committee on Government Reform, August 17, 1999., VI: Additional Cases: "Montana Doomsday Religious Cult - "Church Universal and Triumphant", Page 8.

The GAO investigators found a 1989 case in Montana in which members of a "doomsday religious cult" had stockpiled many weapons, including several fifty caliber weapons. The cult is called the "Church Universal and Triumphant" (C.U.T.), and its leader is Elizabeth Clare Prophet. The cult was in the process of building underground bunkers to prepare for the end of the world. This investigation began because Ms. Prophet's and another cult member used birth certificates of deceased individuals to obtain driver's licenses so that they could purchase and stockpile weapons.
In an ATF crackdown, agents found that the cult members had illegally acquired hundreds of weapons and thousands of rounds of ammunition. Among this stockpile was ten semi-automatic fifty caliber weapons purchased with false identifications. The cult members were convicted of illegally purchasing firearms. According to GAO, Ms. Prophet continues to lead the cult and was not charged in connection with these offenses.

]

Project Megiddo (October 1999)

Project Megiddo was an FBI report, released on October 20, 1999. [http://permanent.access.gpo.gov/lps3578/www.fbi.gov/library/megiddo/megiddo.pdf Project Megiddo] , FBI Strategic Assessment, October 20, 1999, retrieved 3/7/07.] The report warned against: "the potential for extremist criminal activity in the United States by individuals or domestic groups who attach special significance to the year 2000." Its analysis focused on apocalyptic religious groups, doomsday cults and (New World Order) conspiracy theories.

The report stated that certain groups it called "biblically-driven cults" were potentially violent. The report then went on to warn that "less time spent on “Bible study” and more time spent on “physical training” - indicate that the cult may be preparing for some type of action." Groups singled out and analyzed in the report under the heading "Apocalyptic Cults" included the Branch Davidians and the Concerned Christians.

Assessing the Threat (December 1999)

On December 15, 1999 the Advisory Panel to Assess Domestic Response Capabilities for Terrorism Involving Weapons of Mass Destruction presented a report called "Assessing the Threat" to the President of the United States and to the United States Congress.cite book | last =Advisory Panel to Assess Domestic Response Capabilities for Terrorism Involving Weapons of Mass Destruction | first = | authorlink = | coauthors = | title =Assessing The Threat: First Annual Report to The President and The Congress of the Advisory Panel to Assess Domestic Response Capabilities for Terrorism Involving Weapons of Mass Destruction | publisher =DIANE Publishing | date =December 15, 1999 | location = | pages =18, 24, 26, 28, 38, 40, 46-51 | url =http://www.rand.org/nsrd/terrpanel/terror.pdf | doi = | id = | isbn = 1428981128|format=PDF] The report discusses the 1984 contamination of salad bars in Oregon by the Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh group, and the Aum Shinrikyo Sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway of 1995. Both groups are referred to as cults in the report.

The Advisory Panel was created through an Act of the United States Congress, Public Law 105-261 (H.R. 3616, 105th Congress, 2nd Section, October 17, 1998), and was directed to submit three annual reports to the President and the Congress, beginning in December 1999.cite journal | last =Staff | first = | authorlink = | coauthors = | title =Forging America’s New Normalcy: Securing Our Homeland, Protecting Our Liberty | journal = | volume =5 | issue = | pages = | publisher =GlobalSecurity.org | location = | date =December 15, 2003 | url =http://www.globalsecurity.org/security/library/report/2003/gilmore-commsion_vol5_15dec2003.htm | doi = | id = | accessdate = 2007-11-16 ] The Act of Congress establishing the Advisory Panel is titled Section 1405 of the National Defense Authorization Act for 1999. The Advisory Panel was also referred to as the Gilmore Commission, after its chair former Governor of Virginia James S. Gilmore III. [cite news | last = Staff | first = | coauthors = | title =News Release: GILMORE COMMISSION CALLS FOR IMPROVED HOMELAND SECURITY STRATEGY | work =RAND | pages = | language = | publisher =GlobalSecurity.org | date =December 15, 2003 | url =http://www.globalsecurity.org/security/library/news/2003/12/sec-031215-gilmore01.htm | accessdate = 2007-11-16 ]

ee also

* Cults and governments
* Jehovah's Witnesses and governments

References

Further reading

*
* Whittier, Charles H., "", "Addendum II: Religious Cults in U.S. and Abroad.", Page CRS-45., Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, Report No. 79-24 GOV., January 24, 1979.


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