Dual Alliance, 1879

The Dual Alliance was a defensive alliance between Germany and Austria-Hungary, which was created by treaty on October 7, 1879 as part of Bismarck's system of alliances to prevent/limit war. In it, Germany and Austria-Hungary pledged to aid one another in case of an attack by Russia. Also, each state promised benevolent neutrality to the other if one of them was attacked by another European power (generally taken to be France, especially after the Franco-Russian Alliance of 1894).

After the formation of the German Empire in 1871, German chancellor Otto von Bismarck wanted to portray his nation as a peacemaker and preserver of the European status quo, as well as gain more power for the German Empire and unify Germany. In 1878, Russia defeated the Ottoman Empire in the Russo-Turkish War; the resulting Treaty of San Stefano gave Russia considerable influence in the Balkans. This development outraged Austria-Hungary, who was Russia's chief competitor for influence in the Balkan region (despite being an ally of the Russians and the Germans in the Three Emperors' League). Hence, in 1878, Bismarck called an international conference (the Congress of Berlin) in order to sort out the problem. The Treaty of Berlin that resulted from the conference reversed Russia's gains from the Treaty of San Stefano and provided the Austrians with compensation for lost territory. Despite Bismarck's attempts to play the role of an "honest broker" at the Congress of Berlin, Russo-German relations deteriorated following the conference. The Three Emperors' League was discontinued, and Germany and Austria-Hungary were free to ally with one another against Russia.

In 1881, Italy lost in the competition with France to establish a colony in Tunis (present-day Tunisia). To enlist diplomatic support, Italy joined Germany and Austria-Hungary to form the Triple Alliance in 1882, which was the first formal war-camp in Europe, the second being the Triple Entente formed in 1907.

During World War I, however, Italy did not go to war immediately with her allies but stayed neutral. In 1915, she joined the Entente powers and declared war on Austria-Hungary, and later Germany in the subsequent year. The Dual Alliance persisted throughout the war and ended with their defeats in 1918.

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  • Dual Alliance — may refer to: The Dual Alliance (1879) between Germany and Austria Hungary The Franco Russian Alliance or Dual Alliance of 1894, between France and Tsarist Russia See also Triple Alliance (disambiguation) This disambiguation page lists articles… …   Wikipedia

  • Dual Alliance —    Anxious about the possibility of being caught between France and Russia in future military conflicts, Otto von Bismarck, chancellor of the new German Empire after 1871, began cultivating cordial relations with the Habsburg Empire soon after… …   Historical dictionary of Austria

  • Dual Alliance —    A term commonly applied alternatively to the Austro German alliance dating to 1879, which, with the later addition of Italy, became the Triple Alliance, or to the Franco Russian alliance of 1890. The first was a secret alliance, a centerpiece… …   Encyclopedia of the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1914

  • Dual Alliance — 1. the alliance between France and Russia (1890), strengthened by a military convention (1892 93) and lasting until the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917. 2. the alliance between Germany and Austria Hungary against Russia 1879 1918. * * * ▪ Europe… …   Universalium

  • Dual Alliance — /djuəl əˈlaɪəns/ (say dyoohuhl uh luyuhns) noun 1. the alliance formed in 1891–94 between France and Russia, lasting until the Bolshevik revolution in 1917. 2. the alliance between Germany and Austria, 1879–1918, more frequently called the Austro …   Australian English dictionary

  • Dual Alliance — 1. the alliance between France and Russia (1890), strengthened by a military convention (1892 93) and lasting until the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917. 2. the alliance between Germany and Austria Hungary against Russia 1879 1918 …   Useful english dictionary

  • 1879 — This article is about the year 1879. Millennium: 2nd millennium Centuries: 18th century – 19th century – 20th century Decades: 1840s  1850s  1860s  – 1870s –  1880s  189 …   Wikipedia

  • Austro-German Alliance — or Dual Alliance (1879) Pact between Austria Hungary and the German Reich in which the two powers promised each other support in case of attack by Russia, and neutrality in case of aggression by any other power. Germany s Otto von Bismarck saw… …   Universalium

  • Triple Alliance — /ˌtrɪpəl əˈlaɪəns/ (say .tripuhl uh luyuhns) noun 1. the alliance (1882–1915) between Germany, Austria Hungary, and Italy. 2. a league (1717) of France, Great Britain, and the Netherlands against Spain. 3. a league (1668) of England, Sweden, and… …   Australian English dictionary

  • South African Wars (1879-1915) — Ethnic, political and social tensions among European colonial powers, indigenous Africa, and English and Dutch settlers led to open conflict in a series of wars and revolts between 1879 and 1915 that would have lasting repercussions on the entire …   Wikipedia

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