Doctor (title)

Doctor, as a title, originates from the Latin word of the same spelling and meaning.[1] The word is originally an agentive noun of the Latin verb docēre (Latin pronunciation: [dɔk'e:rɛ], 'to teach'). It has been used as an honored academic title for over a millennium in Europe, where it dates back to the rise of the university. This use spread to the Americas, former European colonies, and is now prevalent in most of the world. Abbreviated "Dr" or "Dr.", it is used as a designation for a person who has obtained a doctorate-level degree. Doctorates may be research doctorates or professional doctorates. When addressing several people, each of whom holds a doctoral title, one may use the plural abbreviation "Drs." or in some languages (for example, German) "Dres." may be used, for example, instead of Dr. Miller and Dr. Rubinstein: Drs. Miller and Rubinstein. When referring to relatives with the same surname the form "The Doctors Smith" can be used. The plural abbreviation Drs. can also mean doctorandus, a Dutch academic title.

Contents

Origins

The doctorate (Latin: doceō, I teach) appeared in medieval Europe as a license to teach (Latin: licentia docendi) at a medieval university.[2] Its roots can be traced to the early church when the term "doctor" referred to the Apostles, church fathers and other Christian authorities who taught and interpreted the Bible.[2] The right to grant a licentia docendi was originally reserved to the church which required the applicant to pass a test, to take oath of allegiance and pay a fee. The Third Council of the Lateran of 1179 guaranteed the access – now largely free of charge – of all able applicants, who were, however, still tested for aptitude by the ecclesiastic scholastic.[3] This right remained a bone of contention between the church authorities and the slowly emancipating universities, but was granted by the pope to the University of Paris in 1213 where it became a universal license to teach (licentia ubiquie docendi).[3] However, while the licentia continued to hold a higher prestige than the bachelor's degree (Baccalaureus), it was ultimately reduced to a intermediate step to the Magister and doctorate, both of which now became the exclusive qualification for teaching.[3]

The first academic degrees were law degrees, and the first law degrees were doctorates. The foundations for the first European universities were the glossators of the 11th century, which were schools of law that taught Canon law and Roman law.[4] The first European university, the University of Bologna, was founded as a school of law by four famous legal scholars in the 12th century who were students of the glossator school in Bologna. It is from this history that it is said that the first academic title of doctor applied to scholars of law. The degree and title were not applied to scholars of other disciplines until the 13th century.[5] At the University of Bologna, from its founding in the 12th century until the end of the 20th century, the only degree conferred was the doctorate, usually earned after five years of intensive study after secondary school. The rising of the doctor of philosophy to its present level is a modern novelty.[6] At its origins, a doctorate was simply a qualification for a guild—that of teaching law.[7]

The earliest doctoral degrees (theology, law, and medicine) reflected the historical separation of all university study into these three fields. Over time the D.D. has gradually become less common and studies outside theology and medicine have become more common (such studies were then called "philosophy", but are now classified as sciences and humanities - however this usage survives in the degree of Doctor of Philosophy).

Doctor as a noun

Throughout much of the academic world, the term "doctor" refers to an individual who has earned a degree of Doctor of Philosophy, or Ph.D. (an abbreviation for the Latin Philosophiæ Doctor; or alternatively Doctor philosophiæ, D.Phil., meaning Teacher of Philosophy), or other research doctorate such as the Doctor of Science, or Sc.D. (an abbreviation of the Latin Scientiae Doctor). Beyond academia and in the classical professions, such as law and medicine, professional doctorates emerged such as the Juris Doctor J.D., Doctor of Medicine M.D. (an abbreviation of the Latin Medicinæ Doctor), Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine D.O., Doctor of Dental Surgery (D.D.S.) or Doctor of Dental Medicine (D.M.D.), Doctor of Optometry (O.D.), Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D.), Doctor of Chiropractic (D.C.), Doctor of Engineering (D.Eng), Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD), Doctor of Physical Therapy (D.P.T.), and as a courtesy since the 14th century (though in the UK prohibited by section 49(1) of the Medical Act 1983 List of Privy Council Orders) Bachelor of Medicine and Surgery MBBS, MBChB, MB, BCh, etc. (an abbreviation of the Latin Medicinae Baccalaureus et Baccalaureus Chirurgiae), Bachelor of Dental Surgery BDS, BChD(an abbreviation of the Latin Baccalaureus Chirurgiae Dentium).

The Ph.D. was originally a degree granted by a university to learned individuals who had achieved the approval of their peers and who had demonstrated a long and productive career in the field of philosophy. The appellation of "Doctor" (from Latin: teacher) was usually awarded only when the individual was in middle age. It indicated a life dedicated to learning, to knowledge, and to the spread of knowledge.

The Ph.D. entered widespread use in the 19th century at the Friedrich Wilhelm University in Berlin as a degree to be granted to someone who had undertaken original research in the sciences or humanities. From there it spread to the United States, arriving at Yale University in 1861, and then to the United Kingdom in 1921. This displaced the existing Doctor of Philosophy degree in some Universities; for instance, the D.Phil. (higher doctorate in the faculty of philosophy) at the University of St Andrews was discontinued and replaced with the Ph.D. (research doctorate). However, some UK universities such as Oxford and Sussex (and, until recently, York) retain the D.Phil. appellation for their research degrees, as, until recently, did the University of Waikato in New Zealand.

In the US, the Doctor of Science, Sc.D., is an academic research degree that was first conferred in North America by Harvard University in 1872. It has long been awarded by such leading institutions as Harvard University, Johns Hopkins University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston University and Washington University. At many of these universities, the academic requirements for the Ph.D. and Sc.D. are identical, and with identical doctoral academic regalia (though the Sc.D. hood is gold to represent Science rather than Ph.D. blue). In an effort to standardize doctoral degree conferral at these large research institutions, the Ph.D. has replaced and grandfathered the Sc.D. in certain programs, while the Sc.D. is preserved in parallel to the Ph.D. as the highest conferred research doctorate.

Healthcare

Healthcare professions such as chiropractic, clinical psychology, dentistry, medicine, nursing, optometry, podiatry, pharmacy, physical therapy, and veterinary medicine use the title doctor professionally.

In the United States, those training to become physicians complete a four-year undergraduate course of study, followed by a four-year graduate program in medicine to earn either the Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) degree or the Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.) degree. Those training to become dentists, optometrists or chiropractors also complete a four-year undergraduate course of study, followed by a four-year post-graduate program to earn the Doctor of Dental Surgery (D.D.S.) or Doctor of Dental Medicine (D.M.D.), Doctor of Optometry (O.D.), or Doctor of Chiropractic (D.C.), degrees, or Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD), respectively. Some programs offer programs with two pre-professional years followed by four professional years, while others require a four year undergraduate/bachelor's degree. Doctors of Physical Therapy complete a four-year undergraduate course of study, followed by a three plus year graduate program to earn the Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT).

In the United Kingdom and many Commonwealth countries, those training for the medical profession complete either a 5-6 year course of study or an accelerated 4-year graduate entry course of study that leads to the degree of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS or MBChB, standing for the Latin Medicinae Baccalaureus et Chirurgiae Baccalaureus).[8] The higher postgraduate degree of Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) is reserved for those who can prove a particular distinction in the field, usually through a body of published work or the submission of a dissertation.[9] To be eligible for a MD degree in the UK one must already hold an entry level medical degree (for example, MBBS, MBChB, BMed, or a North American MD degree) and usually must have had at least 5 years of post graduate training and experience. In guidance issued by Who's Who published by A & C Black,[10] it is noted that in the context of the UK, "not all qualified medical practitioner hold the (M.D.) degree" but that "those ... who have not taken it are addressed as if they had." A & C Black also note that British surgeons - a designation reserved for those who have obtained membership of the Royal College of Surgeons - are addressed as Mr, Mrs or Miss rather than Dr. This custom has been commented on in the British Medical Journal and may stem from the historical origins of the profession.[11] Those training to become dentists usually graduate with a dental degree (for example, BDS, BDent, BDentSc, BChD, and so on) and are also referred to as "doctor". In the House of Commons of the United Kingdom on January 19, 1996, health minister Gerald Malone noted that the title doctor had never been restricted to either medical practitioners or those with doctoral degrees in the UK, commenting that the word was defined by common usage but that the titles "physician, doctor of medicine, licentiate in medicine and surgery, bachelor of medicine, surgeon, general practitioner and apothecary" did have special protection in law.[12]

In India,MBBS and BDS (graduate entry) medical degree is required to become a doctor. The higher postgraduate Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) is required to become a specialist in a particular field.

In German language-speaking countries, the word Doktor always refers to a research doctorate awardee, and is distinct from Arzt, a medical practitioner.

In the Dutch language the word "dokter" refers to a physician, whereas "doctor" refers to high academic rank.

Hong Kong follows British practice in calling physicians "Doctor" even though many of them hold only an MBBS qualification. An attempt by their professional body to prevent chiropractors from calling themselves "Doctor" failed in the courts, in part because it was pointed out that practicing chiropractic physicians hold a doctorate in their discipline, and it would be anomalous to prevent them using the title when holders of doctorates in non-medical disciplines faced no such restriction.

Legal profession

Historically, lawyers in most European countries were addressed with the title of doctor, and countries outside of Europe have generally followed the practice of the European country which had policy influence through modernization or colonialization. The first university degrees, starting with the law school of the University of Bologna (or glossators) in the 11th century, were law degrees and doctorates.[13] Degrees in other fields were not granted until the 13th century, but the doctorate continued to be the only degree offered at many of the old universities up until the 20th century. As a result, in many of the southern European countries, including Portugal, Spain and Italy,[14] lawyers have traditionally been addressed as “doctor,” a practice which was transferred to many countries in South America[15] (as well as Macau in China).[16]

The title of doctor has not customarily been used to address lawyers in England or other common law countries because until 1846 lawyers in England were not required to have a university degree and were trained by other attorneys by apprenticeship or in the Inns of Court.[17] The exception being those areas where, up to the 19th century, civil law rather than common law was the governing tradition, including admiralty law, probate and ecclesiastical law, such cases were heard in the Doctor's Commons, and argued by advocates who held degrees either of doctor of civil law at Oxford or doctor of law at Cambridge. As such, lawyers practicing common law in England were not doctoral candidates and had not earned the doctorate level degree. When university degrees became a prerequisite to become a lawyer in England, the degree awarded was the undergraduate LL.B.

Though lawyers in the United States do not customarily use such a title, the law degree in that country is the Juris Doctor, a professional doctorate degree,[18] and some J.D. holders in the United States use the title of doctor in professional[19] and academic situations.[20]

In countries where holders of the first law degree traditionally use the title of doctor (for example, Peru, Brazil, Macau, Portugal, Argentina, and Italy),[21] J.D. holders who are attorneys may use the title of doctor in advertisements in Spanish.[22]

Worldwide usage

Austria

In Austria, the title "Doktor" is granted to physicians and dentists (Dr. med. univ. and Dr. med. dent., which are technically not "doctorate degrees") as well as to holders of postgraduate research degrees (Dr. techn., Dr. phil., Dr. rer. nat., etc.).[23] They are addressed as "Doktor ______", and the title is usually abbreviated to "Dr. ______". Contrary to popular belief, "Dr." is not part of the name but just an academic title like "Mag." or "Dipl.-Ing.". It is not mandatory to use the title, although it can be added to official documents (driver's license, passport, etc.), if desired.

Commonwealth countries

In the United Kingdom, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand and other areas whose cultures were recently linked to the UK, the title Doctor generally applies in both the academic and clinical fields. "Registered medical practitioners" hold the degree of Bachelor of Medicine (usually also with surgery). Cultural conventions exist, clinicians who are Members or Fellows of the Royal College of Surgeons are an exception. As a homage to their predecessors, the barber surgeons, they prefer to be addressed as Mr, Mrs, Ms or Miss, even if they do hold a medical degree. When a medical doctor passes the examinations which enable them to become a member of one or more of the Royal Surgical Colleges and become "MRCS", it is customary for them to drop the "Doctor" prefix and take up "Miss", "Mister", or and so on. This rule applies to any doctor of any grade who has passed the appropriate exams, and is not the exclusive province of consultant-level surgeons. In recent times, other surgically-orientated specialists, such as gynaecologists, have also adopted these prefixes. A surgeon who is also a professor is usually known as "Professor" and, similarly, a surgeon who has been ennobled, knighted, created a baronet or appointed a dame uses the corresponding title (Lord, Sir, Dame). Physicians, on the other hand, when they pass their "MRCP" examinations, which enable them to become members of the Royal College of Physicians, do not drop the "Doctor" prefix and remain Doctor, even when they are consultants. In the United Kingdom the status and rank of consultant surgeons with the MRCS, titled "Mister", etc., and consultant physicians with the MRCP, titled "Doctor", is identical. Surgeons in the USA and elsewhere continue to use the title "Doctor", although New Zealand uses the titles of Mr and Doctor, in the same way as the United Kingdom.

In the UK, an equivalent formation to a doctorate is the NVQ 5 or QCF 8.[24] However, an NVQ 5 is less work than a doctorate and such a person is not allowed to use the prefix "Dr."

Australia

With the introduction of National Health Practitioner registration legislation on July 1, 2010, the title "doctor" is not restricted in any Australian state. The title "medical practitioner" is restricted for use by registered medical practitioners, while the title "doctor" is not restricted by law.[25]

Canada

Canada lies somewhere between British and American usage of the degree and terminology of "doctor". Research doctorates - PhDs and ScDs - are entitled to use the title "doctor". In medicine, all medical practitioners trained in Canada receive the MD degree (or MDCM in the case of graduates of McGill University) and are referred to as "Doctor". The British use of "Mr", "Mrs", and so on for surgeons is not followed in Canada. In the legal profession, graduates of almost all Canadian law schools receive the LLB degree and are not referred to as "doctor" (in a growing number of Canadian law schools the degree of Juris Doctor is conferred, but the title is not used in practice). Medicine, Dentistry, Optometry, Chiropractic and Law (as well as other first professional degree programs) are generally considered, in Canada, to be a specialized professional undergraduate program. Practitioners in veterinary medicine, optometry and dentistry have doctorate degrees and are very commonly referred to with the title "Dr" preceding the specific name, but not referred to as "a doctor". Practitioners of podiatry and alternative medicine may not be referred to with the "Dr" honorific in relation to providing the public with health care services. In Ontario, only chiropractors, dentists, medical doctors, optometrists and psychologists can use the title "doctor".[26] A registered naturopathic doctor may only use the title “doctor” in written format if he or she also uses the phrase, "naturopathic doctor" immediately following his or her name.

European Union

Double doctorates are indicated in the title by "Dr. Dr." or "DDr." and triple doctorates as "Dr. Dr. Dr." or "DDDr.". More doctorates are indicated by the addition of "mult.", such as "Dr. mult.". Honorary titles are shown with the addition of "h.c.", which stands for "honoris causa". Example: "Dr. h.c. mult."

European Union (EU) legislation recognises academic qualifications (including higher degrees and doctorates) of all member states. In Germany, a recent federal law (signed by all Cultural and Educational Ministers in accord with the EU law) confirmed the standardisation of qualifications. Until this Federal Law was introduced, there was no recognised mechanism to prevent administrators in private bodies and civil servants in public-funded bodies (such as universities) from automatically discriminating between the qualifications of people with German doctorates compared to holders of doctorates from an EU member state. The German university bureaucratic practice of using the post-nominal form, "Ph.D." (or equivalent), to distinguish non-German doctorates can be challenged legally as evidence of arbitrary discrimination and prejudice against non-German nationals (academics). All EU citizens are now "legally entitled" to use and be titled (addressed) as "Doctor" or "Dr." in all formal, legal and published communications (provided they do in fact hold the appropriate degree). For academics with doctorates from non-EU member states, the qualification must be recognised formally ("validated") by the Federal Educational Ministry in Bonn. The recognition process can be done by the employer or employee and may be part of the official bureaucracy for confirming professional status and is dependent on individual bilateral agreements between Germany and other countries.

An example of mutual recognition of Doctor titles among EU countries is the "Bonn Agreement of November 14, 1994", signed between Germany and Spain.[27]

Finland

In Finland, the term tohtori/doktor is applied only to holders of the postgraduate research doctor's degree. The most common is filosofian tohtori/filosofie doktor (Doctor of Philosophy), but more specializations are used than in English (for example, tekniikan tohtori/teknologie doktor "Doctor of Science in Technology"). The degree requisite for a physician's or dentist's license is called Licentiate of Medicine or Dentistry (lääketieteen/hammaslääketieteen lisensiaatti medicine/odontologie licentiat). The degree lääketieteen tohtori/medecine doktor is the postgraduate "professor's degree". However, in rustic or old-fashioned unofficial usage, tohtori/doktor might refer to physicians also.

France

In France, the title of Docteur is only used in the current language for physicians, dentists, veterinarians and pharmacists. Confusingly, the professionals from these medical domains do not hold a doctorate, which is in France only a research doctorate, but a "State Diploma of Doctor". The holders of a doctorate are only rarely referred to as "Doctors", especially by the people who are themselves from an academic environment.[citation needed]

Germany

In Germany, the most common doctoral degrees are Dr. med. (medicine), Dr. med. dent. (dentistry), Dr. med. vet. (veterinary medicine), Dr. rer. nat. (natural sciences), Dr. phil. (philosophy and many other subjects), Dr. iur. (law), Dr. rer. oec. (economics or business administration), Dr. rer. pol. (political sciences or business administration), Dr.-Ing. (engineering), and Dr. theol. (theology). All holders of doctorate degrees are appropriately addressed as "Herr/Frau Dr. _____" in all social situations. In professional situations, PhDs are recognized under the condition that the degree was granted by a university authorized to grant the degree according to the laws of the country of origin. Holders of PhDs granted in the E.U. can be addressed as "Dr." in Germany without any further addenda. According to a decision by The Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of the Länder in the Federal Republic of Germany of September 21, 2001, in the version from May 15, 2008, this also applies to PhDs that were awarded in Australia, Israel, Japan, or Canada. PhDs that were awarded in the United States are recognized if the awarding institution is classified by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching as a "Research University (high research activity)" or as a "Research University (very high research activity)." Different conditions apply for professional degrees such as the M.D. or J.D.[28]

Greece

In Greece, the term "Doctor" (Δόκτωρ, Δρ.) (pron. doktōr) is used to formally address both holders of a doctorate degree and physicians. The title "Διδάκτωρ" (didaktōr) is used to reference holders of a doctorate degree, while the term "Ιατρός" (iatros) is used for physicians of any specialty.

Hungary

Dr as part of the name

In Hungary the title of Doctor used to become a part of the name and was added as such to personal ID documents. This practice is still common and graduates after receiving their "diploma" would usually change their personal documents in order to officially indicate the achievement.

Requirements for the doctor title

Graduates of the 6 year medical schools, the 5 year law schools and the 5 year veterinary medical schools receive the doctor title at the end of their studies. Completing a PhD research programme also leads to the doctor title. A large part of Hungarians with doctor titles received their titles for research in the old academic system before introducing PhD in Hungary. Recently pharmacists have obtained the right to use the title "Dr" after successfully completed the faculty of pharmaceutical-chemistry in relevant universities.

Italy

The first university of Western civilization, the University of Bologna, is located in Italy, where until modern times the only degree granted was that of the doctorate,[4] and all other Italian universities followed that model. During the 20th century Italian universities introduced more advanced research degrees, such as the Ph.D., and now that it is part of the E.U. Bologna Process, a new 3-year first degree, or “laurea breve o triennale” (equivalent to a B.A. of other countries), has been introduced. The old-style "laurea" is now known as "laurea specialistica o magistrale" (master or specialistic degree, equivalent of a master's degree). For historical reasons, even to this day, the title of "dottore/dottoressa" (abbrev. both as dott/dott.ssa or as dr./dr.ssa [29] ) is awarded even to those who have attended a "laurea breve o triennale". Upper levels of degree are anyway shown in the title, as those who obtain a master's degree can be referred as "dottore/dottoressa magistrale" (masterly doctor) while those who achieve the relatively new program of "dottorato di ricerca" (research doctorate, equivalent of a Ph.D.), carry the title of "dottore/dottoressa di ricerca" (research doctor), which can be abbreviated as "Dott. Ric." or "Ph.D." [30]

The Philippines

In the Philippines, titles and names of occupations usually follow Spanish naming conventions which utilise gender-specific terms. "Doktór" is the masculine form, which retains the abbreviation Dr.; the feminine form is "Doktóra", and is abbreviated usually as "Dra."; others, however, some being Anglophones who wish to sound modern and Westernised (or were raised in an almost exclusively English-speaking family environment), or some who advocate gender equality, would dispense with the distinction altogether. There does exist in Filipino an equivalent, gender-neutral term for the professional that carries the more general notion of "healer", traditional (for example, an albuláryo) or otherwise: manggagámot.

Portugal

In Portugal, up to recent times after the completion of an undergraduate degree - except in architecture and engineering - a person was referred to as doutor (Dr.) - male or doutora (Dra.) - female. The architects and engineers were referred by their professional titles: arquitecto (Arq.) and engenheiro (Eng.).

Nowadays Portugal is a signatory to the Bologna process and according to the current legislation the title of doctor (doutor, doutora) is reserved for graduate holders of an academic doctorate.[31] Physicians, graduates in lyricamedicine, are usually referred to by the title Dr. (doutor) even if they have not been awarded a doctoral degree.

However, custom gives the legislation little strength and all graduates keep their titles, and those with a doctorate are referred as Professor Doutor.

Spain

The social standing of Doctors in Spain is evidenced by the fact that only Ph.D. holders, Grandees and Dukes can take seat and cover their heads in the presence of the King.[32]

Ph.D. Degrees are regulated by Royal Decree (R.D. 1393/2007),[33] Real Decreto (in Spanish). They are granted by the University on behalf of the King, and its Diploma has the force of a public document. The Ministry of Science keeps a National Registry of Ph.D.s called TESEO.[34] Any person who uses the Spanish title of "Doctor" (or "Dr.") without being included in this Government database can be prosecuted for fraud.

Unlike other countries, Spain registers a comparatively small number of Doctor degree holders. According to the National Institute of Statistics (INE), less than 5% of M.Sc. degree holders are admitted to Ph.D. programs[citation needed]. This reinforces the prestige that Doctors enjoy in Spain's society.

Thailand

The usage of Doctor (ดอกเตอร์) or Dr (ดร.) has been borrowed from English. It can be seen as a title in academic circles and in the mass media. In contrast to other academic titles (Professor, Associate Professor and Assistance Professor), the use of Doctor as a title has not been recognized by the Royal Institute of Thailand. Therefore, this title, in theory, cannot be used officially. For example, in court of justice where strictly formal Thai language is used, Dr cannot be mentioned as a person's title.

United States

In the United States, the title Doctor is commonly used professionally by those who have earned a doctorate-level degree.[35][36][37][38] In addition, those who have been granted honorary doctorates are entitled to do so, especially in academic settings. The title is also commonly used socially by those holding a doctoral-level degree.[39] There is a division between Letitia Baldrige and Miss Manners on its social usage by those who are not physicians.[40] Baldrige sees this usage as acceptable; Miss Manners writes that "only people of the medical profession correctly use the title of doctor socially," but supports those who wish to use it in social contexts in the spirit of addressing people according to their wishes.[40][41]

The American College of Clinicians and at least one state[42] recommends that health care professionals, including physicians, in the clinical setting use identification with an appropriate badge or name tag, as patients encounter a number of different practitioners. For example, all health care professionals should identify themselves and their profession when first meeting a patient.[43][44]

Attorneys in the United States rarely use any title, but some common ones include "Esquire" ("Esq."), "Attorney," or "attorney-at-law." As the academic degree held by U.S. attorneys is the Juris Doctor, a professional doctorate,[45] some J.D. holders in the United States do use the honorific "Dr." in professional[19] and academic situations.[20]

Abbreviation

In British English it is not necessary to indicate an abbreviation with a full stop (period) after the abbreviation, when the last letter of the abbreviation is the same as the unabbreviated word,[46] while the opposite holds true in North American English. This means that while the abbreviation of Doctor is usually written as "Dr" in most of the Commonwealth, it is usually written as "Dr." in North America.[47]

Similarly, conventions regarding the punctuation of degree abbreviations vary. In the United Kingdom, it is increasingly common to omit punctuations from abbreviations that are not truncations: while the usual abbreviation of "Esquire" is "Esq.", the usual abbreviation for "Doctor of Philosophy" is "PhD". It is not incorrect to use the fully punctuated "Ph.D.", though if this pattern is used, it should be used consistently; practice in particular situations may vary, and it is always more elegant to be consistent with local patterns of usage than to deviate from them.

Honorary doctorates

An honorary doctorate is a doctoral degree awarded for service to the institution or the wider community. This service does not need to be academic in nature. Often, the same set of degrees is used for higher doctorates, but they are distinguished as being honoris causa: in comprehensive lists, the lettering used to indicate the possession of a higher doctorate is often adjusted to indicate this, for example, "Hon. Sc.D.", as opposed to the earned research doctorate "Sc.D.". The degrees of Doctor of the University (D.Univ.) and Doctor of Humane Letters (D.H.L.), however, are only awarded as an honorary degree.

Other uses of "Doctor"

  • In some regions, such as the Southern United States, "Doctor" is traditionally added to the first name of people holding doctorates, where it is used in either direct or indirect familiar address.[citation needed]
  • "Doc" is a common nickname for someone with a doctoral degree, in real life and in fiction — for example, the gunfighter Doc Holliday, the character "Doc" in Gunsmoke, and pulp hero Doc Savage
  • In Roman Catholicism and several other Christian denominations, a Doctor of the Church is an eminent theologian (for example, Thomas Aquinas, also known as the Angelic Doctor) from whose teachings the whole Church is held to have derived great advantage.[48]

References

  1. ^ William Whitaker. "William Whitaker's Words - Doctor". University of Notre Dame. http://www.archives.nd.edu/cgi-bin/wordz.pl?keyword=Doctor. Retrieved 21 April 2011. 
  2. ^ a b Verger, J. (1999). "Doctor, doctoratus". Lexikon des Mittelalters. 3. Stuttgart: J.B. Metzler 
  3. ^ a b c Verger, J. (1999). "Licentia". Lexikon des Mittelalters. 5. Stuttgart: J.B. Metzler 
  4. ^ a b Herbermann, et al. (1915). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Encyclopedia Press. Accessed May 26, 2008.
  5. ^ idem
  6. ^ Reed, A. (1921). "Training for the Public Profession of the Law, Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, Bulletin 15." Boston: Merrymount Press.
  7. ^ van Ditzhuyzen, R. (2005). The ‘creatio doctoris’: Diversity or convergence of ceremonial forms? Unknown publisher. Accessed May 26, 2008.
  8. ^ British Medical Association. 2007. Becoming a Doctor: Entry in 2008. Accessed May 31, 2008.
  9. ^ University of Cambridge. Statutes and Ordinances, chapter 7. Accessed May 31, 2008.
  10. ^ Titles and Forms of Address: A guide to correct use, 21st edition. (2002.) London: A & C Black. ISBN 0-7136-6265-4
  11. ^ Dobson, Roger (2005). "English surgeons may at last be about to become doctors". British Medical Journal 330 (7500): 1103. doi:10.1136/bmj.330.7500.1103. PMC 557881. PMID 15891216. http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/330/7500/1103. 
  12. ^ Hansard, January 19, 1996. Columns: 1064-1069.
  13. ^ Herbermann, et al. (1915). Catholic Encyclopedia. New May 26, 2008. García y García, A. (1992). "The Faculties of Law," A History of the University in Europe, London: Cambridge University Press. Accessed May 26, 2008.
  14. ^ E.g. Portugal: Alves Periera Teixeira de Sousa. Accessed February 16, 2009; Italy Studio Misuraca, Franceschin and Associates. Accessed February 16, 2009.
  15. ^ Peru: Hernandez & Cia. Accessed February 16, 2009; Brazil: Abdo & Diniz. Accessed February 16, 2009 (see Spanish or Portuguese profile pages); Argentina: Lareo & Paz. Accessed February 16, 2009.
  16. ^ Macau: Macau Lawyers Association. Accessed February 16, 2009
  17. ^ Stein, R. (1981). The Path of Legal Education from Edward to Langdell: A History of Insular Reaction, Pace University School of Law Faculty Publications, 1981, 57 Chi.-Kent L. Rev. 429, pp. 430, 432, 434, 436
  18. ^ Association of American Universities Data Exchange. Glossary of Terms for Graduate Education. Accessed May 26, 2008; National Science Foundation (2006). "Time to Degree of U.S. Research Doctorate Recipients," "InfoBrief, Science Resource Statistics" NSF 06-312, 2006, p. 7. (under "Data notes" mentions that the J.D. is a professional doctorate); San Diego County Bar Association (1969). "Ethics Opinion 1969-5". Accessed May 26, 2008. (under "other references" discusses differences between academic and professional doctorate, and statement that the J.D. is a professional doctorate); University of Utah (2006). University of Utah – The Graduate School – Graduate Handbook. Accessed May 28, 2008. (the J.D. degree is listed under doctorate degrees); German Federal Ministry of Education. "U.S. Higher Education / Evaluation of the Almanac Chronicle of Higher Education". Accessed May 26, 2008. (report by the German Federal Ministry of Education analysing the Chronicle of Higher Education from the U.S. and stating that the J.D. is a professional doctorate); Encyclopedia Britannica. (2002). "Encyclopedia Britannica", 3:962:1a. (the J.D. is listed among other doctorate degrees).
  19. ^ a b American Bar Association. Model Code of Professional Responsibility, Disciplinary Rule 2-102(E). Cornell University Law School, LLI. Accessed February 10, 2009. Peter H. Geraghty. Are There Any Doctors Or Associates In the House?. American Bar Association, 2007.
  20. ^ a b E.g. University of Montana School of Business Administration. Profile of Dr. Michael Harrington. University of Montana, 2006. See also Distance Learning Discussion Forums. New wrinkle in the "Is the JD a doctorate?" debate. Distance Learning Discussion Forums, 2003-2005.
  21. ^ E.g. Peru: Hernandez & Cia. Accessed February 16, 2009; Brazil: Abdo & Diniz. Accessed February 16, 2009 (see Spanish or Portuguese profile pages); Macau: Macau Lawyers Association. Accessed February 16, 2009; Portugal: Alves Periera Teixeira de Sousa. Accessed February 16, 2009; Argentina: Lareo & Paz. Accessed February 16, 2009; and Italy Studio Misuraca, Franceschin and Associates. Accessed February 16, 2009.
  22. ^ E.g. Dr. Ronald Charles Wolf. Accessed February 16, 2009. Florida Bar News. Debate over 'doctor of law' title continues. Florida Bar Association, July 1, 2006.
  23. ^ help.gv.at: Akademische Grade
  24. ^ http://www.ofqual.gov.uk/qualification-and-assessment-framework/89-articles/250-explaining-the-national-qualifications-framework.
  25. ^ http://www.legislation.qld.gov.au/LEGISLTN/ACTS/2009/09AC045.pdf
  26. ^ Regulated Health Professions Act, 1991. [1].
  27. ^ Boletín Oficial del Estado. Texto del Documento
  28. ^ "Führung ausländischer Hochschulgrade". http://www.kmk.org/wissenschaft-hochschule/internationale-hochschulangelegenheiten/fuehrung-auslaendischer-hochschulgrade.html. 
  29. ^ http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dottore#Abbreviazione
  30. ^ L. n. 240 - 30 December 2010, G.U. n. 10–14 January 2011, Art. 8-bis.
  31. ^ Decreto-Lei n.º 107/2008, de 25 de Junho
  32. ^ Raíces de las normas y tradiciones del protocolo y ceremonial universitario actual: las universidades del Antiguo Régimen y los actos de colación. Protocolo y Etiqueta
  33. ^ (in Spanish)
  34. ^ Base de Datos TESEO
  35. ^ Oregon Law http://oregon.gov/OMB/MD-DO_Application/DrTitleLaw.pdf
  36. ^ New York Ruling http://www.op.nysed.gov/speechguidedoctor.htm
  37. ^ Kentucky Law http://www.lrc.state.ky.us/KRS/311-00/375.PDF
  38. ^ Washington Ruling http://www.psychboard.wa.gov.au/documents/policy5.pdf
  39. ^ Post (1997). Etiquette. New York: HarperCollins. pp. 306, 307, 335-336.
  40. ^ a b Kiplinger Washington Editors, Inc. (July 1988). Kiplinger's Personal Finance. Kiplinger Washington Editors, Inc.. p. 84. ISSN 15289729. http://books.google.com/books?id=QgUEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA84. Retrieved 14 April 2011. 
  41. ^ Judith Martin (26 April 2005). Miss Manners' guide to excruciatingly correct behavior. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 105. ISBN 9780393058741. http://books.google.com/books?id=FOodocaTLsMC&pg=PA105. Retrieved 14 April 2011. 
  42. ^ http://www.mass.gov/legis/laws/mgl/111-70e.htm
  43. ^ http://www.apctoday.com/pages.asp?id=7059
  44. ^ http://www.asahq.org/news/asanews070606.htm
  45. ^ Association of American Universities Data Exchange; National Science Foundation (2006); San Diego County Bar Association (1969); University of Utah (2006); German Federal Ministry of Education; Encyclopedia Britannica (2002).
  46. ^ Abbreviations
  47. ^ Chambers Reference Online
  48. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia - Doctors of the Church

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