Dominatrix (plural dominatrixes or dominatrices) or mistress is a woman or women who takes the dominant role in bondage, discipline and sadomasochism, or BDSM. A common form of address for a submissive to a dominatrix is "mistress", "ma'am", "domina" or "maîtresse". Note that a dominatrix does not necessarily dominate a male partner; a dominatrix may well have female submissives.
The term "domme" ( //) is a coined pseudo-French female variation of the slang dom (short for dominant). It stems from the Latin words "dominus" = master, "domina" = mistress. The pronunciation is identical to the term "dom", by analogy to one-syllable French-derived words like femme or blonde.
As fetish culture is increasingly becoming more prevalent in Western media, depictions of dominatrices in film and television have become more common.
Dominatrix is the feminine form of the Latin dominator, a ruler or lord, and was originally used in a non-sexual sense. Its use in English dates back to at least 1561. Its earliest recorded use in the prevalent modern sense, as a female dominant in S&M, dates to 1967.
Although the term "dominatrix" was not used, the classic example in literature of the female dominant-male submissive relationship is portrayed in the 1870 novella Venus in Furs by Austrian writer Leopold von Sacher-Masoch. The term masochism was later derived from the author's name by Richard von Krafft-Ebing in the latter's 1886 forensic study Psychopathia Sexualis.
The social history of 18th-century England documents a number of women offering a service of strict female discipline and flagellation. Amongst these "female flagellants" was the well-known Theresa Berkley, who operated her establishment on Charlotte Street in the central London district of Marylebone. She is often cited as one of the earliest dominatrices, although she herself used the title of "Governess". She is recorded to have used implements such as whips, canes and birches, to chastise and punish her male clients, as well as the Berkley Horse, a specially designed flogging machine, and a pulley suspension system for lifting them off the floor. Such historical use of corporal punishment and suspension, in a setting of domination roleplay, connects very closely to the practices of modern-day professional dominatrices.
Professional versus personal
The term dominatrix is sometimes used to describe a professional dominant (or "pro-domme") who is paid to engage in BDSM with a submissive. An appointment or roleplay is referred to as a "session", and is often conducted in a dedicated professional play space which has been set up with specialist equipment, such as a "dungeon". In the contemporary era of technological connectivity, sessions may also be conducted remotely by phone, email or online chat.
Women who engage in female domination typically promote and title themselves under the terms "Dominatrix", "Mistress", "Lady", "Madame","Herrin" or "Goddess", with the capitalization of these terms being a signifier to their identification in the dominant role. A study of German dominatrices by Andrew Wilson has noted the trend for dominatrices choosing names aimed at creating and maintaining an atmosphere in which class, femininity and mystery are key elements of their self-constructed identity.
Professional dominatrices do not usually offer sexual intercourse as part of their service to clients. The Canadian dominatrix Terri-Jean Bedford, who was one of three women who initiated an application in the Ontario Superior Court seeking invalidation of Canada's laws regarding brothels, sought to differentiate for clarity her occupation as a dominatrix rather than a prostitute to the media, due to frequent misunderstanding and conflation by the public of the two terms.
While dominatrices come from many different backgrounds, it has been noted that a considerable number are very well-educated, with a recent survey of New York dominatrices revealing that 39% had attended graduate school / university, including well-regarded institutions such as Columbia University.
Professional dominatrices may take pride or differentiation in their psychological insight into their client's "needs" and fetishes, as well as their technical ability to perform complex BDSM practices, such as Japanese shibari and other forms of bondage, suspension, torture roleplay, and corporal punishment, and other such practices which require a high degree of knowledge and competency to safely oversee. From a sociological point of view, Danielle Lindemann has noted the "embattled purity regime" in which many pro-dommes emphasise their specialist knowledge and professional skills, while distancing themselves from economic criteria for success, in a way which is comparable to avant-garde artists.
To differentiate women who identify as a dominatrix but do not offer paid services, non-professional dominants may be referred to as a "lifestyle" dominatrix or mistress. It should also be noted that some professional dominatrices are also lifestyle dominatrices, which means that they are paid for sessions by submissive clients, as well as incorporating power exchange within their own private lives and relationships.
The dominatrix is a female archetype which operates on a symbolic mode of representation, associated with particular attire and props that are drawn on within popular culture to signify her role—as a strong, dominant, sexualised woman—linked to but distinct from images of sexual fetish.
One of the ubiquitous garments associated with the dominatrix is the catsuit. Historically, the black leather female catsuit entered dominant fetish culture in the 1950s with the AtomAge magazine and its connections to fetish fashion designer John Sutcliffe. The spill-over into mainstream culture, occurred with catsuits being worn by strong female protagonists in popular 1960s TV programs like The Avengers, and in the comic super-heroines such as Catwoman, in which the catsuit represented the independent woman capable of "kick-ass" moves and antics, enabling complete freedom of movement. On another level, the one-piece catsuit accentuated and exaggerated the sexualized female form, providing visual access to a woman's body, while simultaneously obstructing physical penetrative access. "You can look but you can't touch" is the mechanism of this operation, which plays upon the BDSM practice known as "tease and denial".
Other common signifying footwear of the dominatrix are thigh-high boots, in leather or shiny PVC, which have long held a fetishistic status, along with the very high stiletto heel. Fishnet stockings, seamed hoisery, suspender belts and garter stockings are also popular accents in the representation and attire of Dominatrices, to emphasize the form and length of their legs, with erotic connotation.
The corset is another staple garment of the dominatrix signification. Gloves—whether long opera gloves or fingerless gloves—are often a further accessory to emphasize the feminine role.
Materials such as PVC, leather and rubber latex, are amongst the most common to immediately take on the signifying work of fetish attire. The body language of the dominatrix is frequently represented by the use of strong, dominant body-language which is comparable to the dominant posturing in the animal world. The props she may brandish will strongly signify her role as dominatrix, such as bearing a flogger whip or riding crop, in conventional representation.
Practicing professional dominatrices may draw their attire from the conventional signifiers of the role, or adapt them to create their own individual style, where there exists a potential pull—between meeting conventional expectations, and a desire for dominant independent self-expression.
Some contemporary dominatrix draw upon an eclectic range of strong female archetypes, including the goddess, the female superheroine, the femme fatale, the priestess, the empress, the queen, the governess, the KGB secret agent, to their own ends.
- List of dominatrices in popular culture
- Fetishes (documentary)
- Fetish fashion
- Session wrestler
- Feminization (activity)
- Sadism and masochism in fiction
- BDSM in culture and media
- Master (BDSM)
- Tomi Ungerer: Schutzengel der Hölle, Diogenes 1986, ISBN 3257020163
- Annick Foucault, Françoise maîtresse, Gallimard 1994, ISBN 2070738345
- Shawna Kenney, I Was a Teenage Dominatrix: A Memoir, Last Gasp 2002, ISBN 0867195304
- Melissa Febos, Whip Smart, St. Martin's Press 2010, ISBN 0312561024
- Susan Winemaker Concertina: The Life and Loves of a Dominatrix, Pocket Books 2007, ISBN 9781416526896
- ^ OED, "Dominatrix." http://dictionary.oed.com/cgi/entry/50068518?query_type=word&queryword=dominatrix&first=1&max_to_show=10&single=1&sort_type=alpha
- ^ Simons, G. L. "The Illustrated Book of Sexual Pleasures" Putnam Publishing Group, UK (1983).
- ^ Beresford, Edwin (Chancellor) "The pleasure haunts of London during four centuries" Constable, London (1925)
- ^ Hughes, Kathryn "The Victorian governess" The Hambledon Press, London and Rio Grande (2001) p.137
- ^ Ashbee, Henry Spencer (aka Pisanus Fraxi) "Index of Forbidden Books" Sphere Publishing, London (1969) pp.147-151
- ^ Wilson, Andrew "German dominatrices' choice of working names as reflections of self constructed social identity" in Sexuality and Culture, Volume 9, Number 2, 2005, pp.31-41 (see p.40)
- ^ Transcript of discussion between Lisa Mullins speaks with Terri-Jean Bedford on "Canadian Prostitution law" article for PRI's "The World", September 29, 2010. http://www.theworld.org/2010/09/29/canadian-prostitution-law/ (Accessed 15 December 2010)
- ^ Glass, Clare "The Dungeon Economy" in the New York Press, 2 March 2011 - http://www.nypress.com/article-22165-the-dungeon-economy.html and see also Lindemann, Danielle "Dominatrix: Gender, Eroticism and Control in the Dungeon" In press
- ^ Lindemann, Danielle "Will the Real Dominatrix Please Stand up: Artistic Purity and Professionalism in the S&M Dungeon" in Sociological Forum, Volume 25, issue 3 (2010) pp.588-606
- ^ Sex in advertising: perspectives on the erotic appeal. Routledge. 2003. p. 77. ISBN 0805841180.
- ^ Tseëlon, Efrat (2004). Masquerade and Identities: Essays on Gender, Sexuality and Marginality. Routledge. p. 75. ISBN 0203164822.
- ^ Wilson, Andrew "German dominatrices' choice of working names as reflections of self-constructed identity" in Sexuality and Culture, Volume 9, issue 2, (2005) pp.31-41
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