Underworld

The Underworld is a region which is thought to be under the surface of the earth in some religions and in mythologies.[1] It could be a place where the souls of the recently departed go, and in some traditions it is identified with Hell or the realm of death. In other traditions, such as animism, it could be seen as the place from which life appears to have originated (such as plant life, water, etc.) and to which life must return at life's end, with no negative undertones. In some slang, the Underworld can be a term for the criminal groups of an area.

Contents

Underworlds by mythology

This list includes underworlds in various mythologies, with links to corresponding articles.

Altaic mythology Yerlik (see Erlik)
Aztec mythology Mictlan
Babylonian mythology Arallu (also Sumerian)
Buddhist mythology Naraka (also Niraya)
Celtic mythology Annwn, Mag Mell
Chinese mythology Yum gan (陰間) is an underworld though not necessarily negative like Diyu (地獄)
Christian mythology Sheol/Hadēs (Abode of the dead), Gehenna/Tártaros (Hell), Abaddon, Limbo, Purgatory, Annihilationism
Egyptian mythology Aaru, Duat, Neter-khertet, Amenti
Estonian mythology Toonela
Guanche mythology

Echeide, Guayota

Fijian mythology see Melanesian mythology.
Finnish mythology Tuonela
Greek mythology
Elysium, Asphodel Meadows, Hadēs, Tártaros
Hebrew mythology Sheol, Gehenna
Hindu mythology Naraka, Yamaloka, Patala
Hopi mythology Maski
Hungarian mythology Alvilág
Inca mythology Uku Pacha
Inuit mythology Adlivun
Islamic mythology Jahannam, Naar, Barzakh, Araf
Jain mythology Naraka, Adho Loka (the lower worlds)
Japanese mythology Yomi, Jigoku
Korean mythology "Ji-Ok" 지옥 地獄
Latvian mythology Aizsaule
Māori mythology Hawaiki
Mapuche mythology Pellumawida, Degin, Wenuleufu, Ngullchenmaiwe
Maya mythology Metnal, Xibalba
Melanesian mythology (includes Fijian) Bulu, Burotu, Murimuria, Nabangatai, Tuma
Norse mythology Gimlé, Hel, Niflheim, Vingólf
Oromo mythology Ekera
Philippine mythology Kasanaan
Polynesian mythology Avaiki, Bulotu, Iva, Lua-o-Milu, Nga- Atua, Pulotu, Rangi Tuarea, Te Toi-o-nga-Ranga, Uranga-o-Te-Ra
Pueblo mythology Shipap
Roman mythology Inferno, Avernus, Orcus/Hadēs, Pluto
Slavic mythology Podsvetie, Peklo, Nava
Sumerian mythology Dilmun, Kur, Irkalla, Hubur
Vodou mythology Guinee
Wagga Wagga mythology Hiyoyoa

Underworld rulers

This list includes rulers or guardians of the underworld in various mythologies, with links to corresponding articles.

Aboriginal mythology Baiame (Kamilaroi), Eingana
Akkadian mythology Allu, Anu, Anunnaku, Ereshkigal, Etemmu, Gallu, Humbaba, Mamitu, Nergal, Utnapishtim
Albanian mythology E Bukura e Dheut
Altaic mythology Erlik
Armenian mythology Spandaramat
Aztec mythology Mictlantecuhtli, Mictecacihuatl, Chalmecacihuilt, Chalmecatl
Babylonian mythology Erra, Nergal, Ninlil, Sursunabu, Ur-shanabi, Utnapishtim
Balinese mythology Batara Kala, Setesuyara
Bon mythology gNyan
Buddhist mythology Yama, Emma-O-, Yanluo
Canaanite mythology Mot
Celtic mythology Aed, Arawn, Cwn Annwn, Donn, Gwyn ap Nudd, Manannán mac Lir, Pwyll
Chinese mythology Gui, Yanluo
Christian mythology Satan
Egyptian mythology Aken, Aker (strictly only the gatekeeper), Am-heh, Amunet, Ammit, Andjety, Anubis, Apep, Apis, Astennu, Ha, Imiut (if the Imiut was ever considered a god), Isis, Mehen, Naunet, Nehebkau, Nephthys, Nun, Nut, Osiris, Ptah, Soker, Thoth
Elamite mythology Jabru
Estonian mythology Vanapagan
Etruscan mythology Charun, Culsu, Februus, Mania, Mantus, Nethuns, Tuchulcha, Vanth
Finnish mythology Kalma, Kipu-Tyttö, Kivutar, Lovitar, Surma, Tuonen akka, Tuonetar, Tuoni, Vammatar
Greek mythology Cerberus, Charon, Hadēs, Keres, Persephone, Thánatos, Tártaros
Georgian mythology sasuleti
Haida mythology Ta'xet, Tia
Hinduism Yamaraja
Hopi mythology Kachina
Ibo mythology Ala
Incan mythology Supay, Vichama
Indonesian mythology Dewi Shri, Ndara
Inuit mythology Pana, Sedna
Islamic mythology Mala'ikah
Japanese mythology Hisa-Me, Hotoke, Ika-Zuchi-no-Kami, Jikininki, Shiko-Me, Shiti Dama, Shi-Ryo, Yama
Kassite mythology Dur
Khmer mythology Preas Eyssaur
Latvian mythology Veļi, Velu mate, Zemes mate
Levantine mythology Mot
Lunda mythology Kalunga
Maori mythology Kewa
Maya mythology Xibalba
Melanesian mythology (includes Fijian mythology) Degei, Ratumaibulu, Samulayo
Narragansett mythology Chepi
Navaho mythology Estanatelhi
Niquiran mythology Mictanteot
Norse mythology Garmr, Hel, Ran
Orokolo mythology Kiavari
Persian mythology Angra Mainyu, Azhi Dahaka, Peri
Philippine mythology (Look to the Christian Mythology for more information) ""Bathala", Demonyo Demon, Lucifer, Dyablo Diablo, Satan, Diyos God
Phoenician mythology Horon
Phrygian mythology Men
Polynesian mythology Hikuleo, Hina, Hine-nui-te-Po, Kanaloa, Kiho-tumu, Makea Tutara, Mahiuki, Mahu-ike, Marama, Mauri, Merau, Milu, Miru, Rimu, Rohe, Whiro
Prussian mythology Picullus
Pueblo mythology Iyatiku
Roma (Gypsy) mythology
Roman mythology Cerberus, Dea Tacita, Dis Pater, Egestes, Fames, Inferi Dii, Larenta, Letum, Libitina, Mors, Orcus, Pluto, Proserpina, Viduus
Romanian mythology Diavolu, Satana, Necuratu, Scaraoschi
Russian mythology Dyavol, Satanaya
Saami mythology Yambe-akka
Salish mythology Amotken
Siberian mythology Chebeldei, Kul
Slavic mythology Crnobog, Flins, Marzana, Nyia
Sumerian mythology Edimmu, Ekimmu, Endukugga, Enmesarra, Ereshkigal, Gidim, Gula, Irkalla, Kur, Namtar, Nergal, Neti, Nindukugga, Ninlil, Urshanabi, Ziusudra
Syrian mythology Reshep
Tamil mythology Cur
Thracian mythology Heros
Turkic mythology Erlik
Vodou Baron Cimetière, Baron La Croix, Baron Samedi, Ghede, Maman Brigitte, Marassa Jumeaux
Wagawaga mythology Tumudurere
Yoruba mythology Oya
Yurak mythology Nga
Zuni mythology Uhepono
Classicism Stuades Davies

See also

  • World Tree—A tree that connects the heavens, the earth, and the underworld in a number of spiritual belief systems

References

  1. ^ "Underworld". The free dictionary. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/underworld. Retrieved 1 July 2010. 



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