Royal Thai General System of Transcription

The Royal Thai General System of Transcription (RTGS) is the official system for rendering Thai language words in the Latin alphabet. It is used in road signs and government publications, and is the closest thing to a standard of transcription for Thai, though its use by even the government is inconsistent.

Features

Prominent features of the Royal Thai General System include:
* uses only unmodified letters from the Latin alphabet; no diacritics
* spells all vowels and diphthongs using only vowel letters: a, e, i, o, u
** simple letters "a", "e", "i", "o", "u" are simple vowels, having the same value as in the International Phonetic Alphabet, IPA
** combinations with "e" second as "ae", "oe", "ue", are simple vowels, similar to respective ligatures IPA| [æ, œ, ɯ] in IPA
** combinations with trailing "a", "i", "o" (or several) are diphthongs, indicated by [a, j, w] respectively in IPA
* uses consonants as in IPA, except:
** combinations with "h" as "ph", "th", "kh" are used for aspirated p, t, k, similar to IPA IPA| [pʰ, tʰ, kʰ] , to distinguish them from the separate unaspirated "p", "t", "k"
** uses "ng" for engma as in English, IPA IPA| [ŋ]
** uses "ch" for IPA IPA| [tɕʰ] and IPA| [tɕ]
** uses "y" for IPA IPA| [j]
** note that transcription of consonants in final position is according to pronunciation, not spelling

Criticism

The Royal Thai General System has been criticized as inadequate for learners of Thai, particularly because of the following shortcomings:
* it does not record tones
* it does not differentiate between short and long vowels
* notation "ch" does not differentiate between IPA IPA|/tɕ/ and IPA IPA|/tɕʰ/ (see table below)
* notation "o" does not differentiate between IPA IPA|/ɔ/ and IPA IPA|/o/ (see table below)

Letter 1Letter 2
RTGS ThaiIPADescriptionEnglish ThaiIPADescriptionEnglish
ch IPA|tɕ alveo-palatal
affricate
as "ty" in "let you" ฉ, ช, ฌ IPA|tɕʰ aspirated alveo-
palatal affricate
as "ch" in "check"
o โ–ะ, – IPA|o close-mid back
short rounded
like "oa" in "boat" เ–าะ IPA|ɔ open-mid back
short rounded
like "aw" in "raw", but shorter
โ– IPA|oː close-mid back
long rounded
like "oa" in "moan" –อ IPA|ɔː open-mid back
long rounded
like "aw" in "raw"

Transcription table

For consonants, the transcription is different depending on the location in the syllable. In the section on vowels a dash ("–") indicates the relative position of the initial consonant belonging to the vowel.

References

* [http://www.royin.go.th/upload/246/FileUpload/416_2157.pdf PDF file setting out the system (Thai language)]
* [http://www.eki.ee/wgrs/rom1_th.pdf Report on the Current Status of United Nations Romanization Systems for Geographical Names: Thai]

ee also

* ISO 11940

External links

* [http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~ananlada/ThaiRomanizeCOCOSDA99.doc Discussion of romanisation] (Microsoft Word document)
* [http://www.arts.chula.ac.th/%7Eling/tts/ Downloadable Windows-based transcription tool]
* ALA-LC: [http://www.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/romanization/thai.pdf PDF guide to romanization]


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Thai language — Thai ภาษาไทย phasa thai Pronunciation [pʰāːsǎːtʰāj] Spoken in Thailand, Northern Malaysia, Cambodia, Southern Burma, Laos, USA, Canada …   Wikipedia

  • Thai numerals — ( th. เลขไทย) are a set of numerals traditionally used in Thailand, although the Arabic numerals are more common. Thai numerals follow the Hindu Arabic numeral system commonly used in the rest of the world. In the Thai language, numerals often… …   Wikipedia

  • Thaï (langue) — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Thaï et Siamois. Thaï ภาษาไทย [phaː˥˧.saː˨˩˧.tʰɑj˥˧] …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Thai-Alphabet — Der vollständige Name Bangkoks (siehe Krungthep...) in Thai Schrift. Die Vokale sind in schwarz, die „tiefen“ Konsonanten in blau, die „mittleren“ in grün und die „hohen“ in rot dargestellt. Die Thailändische Schrift (Thai: อักษรไทย, Aussprache:… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Thai-Schrift — Der vollständige Name Bangkoks (siehe Krungthep...) in Thai Schrift. Die Vokale sind in schwarz, die „tiefen“ Konsonanten in blau, die „mittleren“ in grün und die „hohen“ in rot dargestellt. Die Thailändische Schrift (Thai: อักษรไทย, Aussprache:… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Thai alphabet — Infobox Writing system type=Abugida name=Thai fam1=Brāhmī fam2=Pallava fam3=Khmer languages=Thai time=1283 ndash;present creator=King Ramkhamhaeng the Great children=Lao unicode= [http://www.unicode.org/charts/PDF/U0E00.pdf U+0E00 ndash;U+0E7F]… …   Wikipedia

  • Thailändisches Umschrift-System — Das Allgemeine Königliche Thailändische Umschrift System (Englisch: „Royal Thai General System of Transcription“ RTGS) ist das offizielle System zur Romanisierung der thailändischen Schrift in das lateinische Alphabet. Es wird zum Beispiel für… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Romanization — For other uses, see Romanization (disambiguation). Languages can be romanized in a variety of ways, as shown here with Mandarin Chinese In linguistics, romanization or latinization is the representation of a written word or spoken speech with the …   Wikipedia

  • Thailändische Schrift — Schrifttyp Abugida Sprachen Thailändische Sprache Erfinder Ramkhamhaeng Entstehung 1282 Verwendungszeit seit 1282 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Thailändisches Umschriftsystem — Das Allgemeine Königlich Thailändische Umschriftsystem (Englisch: „Royal Thai General System of Transcription“ RTGS) ist das offizielle System zur Transkription der thailändischen Schrift in das lateinische Alphabet. Es wird zum Beispiel für… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”