- History of Dominica
The Arawaks were guided to Dominica, and other islands of the
Caribbean, by the South Equatorial Currentfrom the waters of the Orinoco River. These descendants of the early Tainoswere overthrown by the Kalinago tribe of the Caribs.fact|date=July 2008
Caribs, who settled here in the 14th century, called the island Waitikubuli, which means 'tall is her body'. Christopher Columbusnamed the island after the day of the week on which he spotted it - a Sunday ('Doménica' in Italian) - which fell on November 3, 1493.
Daunted by fierce resistance from the Caribs and discouraged by the absence of gold, the Spanish did not settle the island. Many of the remaining Carib people live in Dominica's
Carib Reserve, a convert|3700|acre|km2|0|sing=on Territory on Dominica's east coast.
European Colony period
Franceclaimed Dominica. Shortly thereafter, French missionaries became the first European inhabitants of the island. Carib incursions continued, though, and in 1660, the French and British signed a neutrality treaty in which both Dominica and St. Vincent should be abandoned by them and in possession of the Caribs. Dominica was officially neutral for the next century, but the attraction of its resources remained; rival expeditions of British and French foresters were harvesting timber by the start of the 18th century.
Largely due to Dominica's position between
Martiniqueand Guadeloupe, France eventually became predominant, and a French settlement was established and grew. In 1761 a British expedition against Dominicaled by Lord Rollo was successful and the island was conquered. As part of the 1763 Treaty of Paris that ended the Seven Years' War, the island became a British possession. In 1778, during the American Revolutionary War, the French mounted a successful invasion with the active cooperation of the population, which was largely French. The 1783 Treaty of Paris, which ended the war, returned the island to Britain. French invasions in 1795 and 1805 ended in failure. The 1805 invasion burned much of Roseauto the ground.
In 1763, the British established a legislative assembly, representing only the white population. In 1831, reflecting a liberalization of official British racial attitudes, the
Brown Privilege Billconferred political and social rights on free nonwhites. Three Blacks were elected to the legislative assembly the following year. Following the abolition of slavery, in 1838 Dominica became the first and only British Caribbean colony to have a Black-controlled legislature in the 19th century. Most Black legislators were small holders or merchants who held economic and social views diametrically opposed to the interests of the small, wealthy English planter class. Reacting to a perceived threat, the planters lobbied for more direct British rule.
In 1865, after much agitation and tension, the colonial office replaced the elective assembly with one composed of one-half elected members and one-half appointed. The elected legislators were outmaneuvered on numerous occasions by planters allied with colonial administrators. In 1871, Dominica became part of the
Leeward Island Federation. The power of the Black population progressively eroded. Crown Colony government was re-established in 1896.
World War I, an upsurge of political consciousness throughout the Caribbean led to the formation of the representative government association. Marshaling public frustration with the lack of a voice in the governing of Dominica, this group won one-third of the popularly elected seats of the legislative assembly in 1924 and one-half in 1936. Shortly thereafter, Dominica was transferred from the Leeward Island Administration and was governed as part of the Windwards until 1958, when it joined the short-lived West Indies Federation.
In 1961, a Dominica Labor Party government led by
Edward Oliver LeBlancwas elected. After the federation dissolved, Dominica became an associated state of the United Kingdom on February 27, 1967and formally took responsibility for its internal affairs. LeBlanc retired in 1974 and was replaced by Patrick Johnwho became the islands' first Prime Minister.
1979, Hurricane David, packing winds of 150mph, struck the island with devastating force. Forty-two people were killed and 75% of the islanders' homes were destroyed or severely damaged. Hurricane David is the most powerful and devastating hurricane ever recorded in Dominica.
November 3, 1978, the Commonwealth of Dominica was granted independence by the United Kingdom.
Independence did little to solve problems stemming from centuries of economic
underdevelopment, and in mid-1979, political discontent led to the formation of an interim government, led by Oliver Seraphin. It was replaced after the 1980 elections by a government led by the Dominica Freedom Partyunder Prime Minister Eugenia Charles, the Caribbeans first female prime minister. Within a year of her inauguration she survived two unsuccessful coups and in October 1983, as chairperson of the Organization of East Caribbean States, endorsed the US invasion of Grenada.
Chronic economic problems were compounded by the severe impact of hurricanes in 1979 and in 1980. By the end of the 1980s, the economy had made a healthy recovery, which weakened in the 1990s due to a decrease in banana prices.
In 1995 the government was defeated in elections by the United Workers Party of
Edison James. James became prime minister, serving until the February 2000 elections, when the Dominica United Workers Party(DUWP) was defeated by the Dominica Labour Party(DLP), led by Rosie Douglas. He was a former socialistactivist, and many feared that his approach to politics might be impractical. However, these were somewhat quieted when he formed a coalition with the more conservative Dominica Freedom Party. Douglas died suddenly after only eight months in office, on October 1, 2000, and was replaced by Pierre Charles, also of the DLP. In 2003, Nicholas Liverpoolwas elected and sworn in as president, succeeding Vernon Shaw. On January 6 2004, Prime Minister Pierre Charles, who had been suffering from heart problems since 2003, died. He became the second consecutive prime minister of Dominica to die in office of a heart attack. The foreign minister, Osborne Riviereimmediately became prime minister, but the education minister, Roosevelt Skerritsucceeded him as prime minister and became the new leader of the Dominica Labour Party. Elections were held on May 5 2005, with the ruling coalition maintaining power.
* Rouse, Irving. "The Tainos : Rise and Decline of the People Who Greeted Columbus." New Haven & London: Yale University Press c1992.
* Honeychurch, Lennox "The Dominica Story:A History of The Island" (1995)
* [http://www.skyviews.com/dominica/history.html History of Dominica] by Lennox Honeychurch
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