- Automobile industry in China
automobile industryis in rapid development since year 2000. In 2006, 7.189 million motor vehicles were manufactured in China, surpassing Germany as the third largest automobile maker.
China is set to become the world's second largest new
automobilegrowth market by the end of 2006 and this growth is spurring demand for automotive parts, services, and after-care products. China is presently capable of manufacturing a complete line of automobile products and large automotive enterprises. Major domestic firms include the China First Automobile Group Corp. (FAW), Dongfeng Motor Corp. (DMC) and Shanghai Automotive Industry (Group) Corp. (SAIC).
China had a total of 6322 automotive enterprises by the end of November 2006. The total output value of the automotive sector for the first three quarters of 2006 was US$143 billion. Since 2002, 50% of all motor vehicles (cars and trucks) in China had been purchased by individuals. As incomes increase the high annual growth rate of private ownership is expected to accelerate.
Alternative fuel vehicles
China encourages the development of clean and fuel efficient vehicles in an effort to sustain continued growth of the country’s automobile industry (see
Fuel economy in automobiles). By the end of 2007, China plans to reduce the average fuel consumption per 100 km for all types of vehicles by 10%. The proportion of vehicles burning alternative fuelwill be increased to help optimize the country's energy consumption. Priority will be given to facilitating the research and developmentof electric and hybrid vehicles as well as alternative fuel vehicles, especially CNG/ LNG. Major cities like Beijingand Shanghaialready require Euro III emission standards.
auto partsand accessories enjoy lower levels of tariffs than cars (the average tariff is 10-13% for parts/accessories and 25% for cars). China has agreed to lower tariffs on imported auto parts and accessories to 10%. Although this difference in duty rate was initially responsible for an increase in car kit imports, the loophole has been tightened. Now, only replacement parts and accessories enter China under the lower duty level.....
Used motor vehicles and used/refurbished auto parts
Although there are case-by-case exceptions for
antiques and diplomats, it is currently illegal to import used motor vehicles into China. Refurbished heavy construction equipment can be imported with a special permit. Used and refurbished auto parts are not allowed to be imported into China.
Automotive after-sales products and services
Although improvements have been made in this field in the past decade, China's after-sales products and services still lag far behind those of
developed countries. However, WTOcommitments have brought about significant changes in the after-sale market. China’s aftercare market now faces the following challenges:
* Establishing an information
feedbacksystem with end-users in order to improve service;
* Modernizing outdated
* Increasing the competitiveness of domestic auto parts and accessories;
* Clamping down on
Zhang Xueliangfounded his arsenal to make one truck called "Ming Sheng" in 1931
Yang Hucheng, patronized the inventor Tang Zhongmingto make a new type of mobile energized by charcoal.
* 1956: The first modern automobile factory
First Automobile Worksbegan production.
* March 10, 1958: The first 2½ tonnes light duty truck (NJ130), which was based on the Russian GAZ (GAZ-51?), was produced in Nanjing. Named 'Guerin' brand by China's First Ministry of Industrial Machinery.
* June 1958: Nanjing Automobile Work, which previously was a unit in the Third Field Army, was established. The truck production continued until the last truck (NJ134) rolled off the assembly line on July 9, 1987. Cumulative production was 161,988 (Includes versions like: NJ130, 230, 135 and 134).
* late 1950s to 1960s: Several automobile factories were set up in
Nanjing(today is Nanjing Automobile (Group) Corporation, Shanghai(today is Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation), Jinan(evolving into China National Heavy Duty Truck Group), and Beijing(today is Beijing Automotive Industry Holding Corporation).
* 1968: The Second Automobile Works (later
Dongfeng Motor Corporation) was founded.
Three big joint-ventures and three small joint-ventures:
Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation- Volkswagen: Santana mid-size/compact car.
First Automobile Works- Volkswagen: Volkswagen Jettacompact car.
Dongfeng Motor Corporation- Citroën: Citroën Fukangcompact car.
* Beijing Automotive Industry -
DaimlerChrysler: Jeep Cherokee.
Guangzhou Automobile Industry Group- Peugeot: Peugeot 504(subsequently defunct). (However, in the 90s, Honda replaced Peugeot as the partner of Guangzhou Auto, and producing the Accord and the Fit with huge success. And in 2006, it started to manufacture Toyota Camry, with huge success also. Making Guangdongprovince the center of Japanese makes auto manufacturing in China now.)
* Tianjin Automotive Industry -
Daihatsu: Daihatsu Charade(merged with FAW/ Toyotajoint-venture).
Several enterprises entered the automobile industry since 1994. Some of them are originated from defense industry, such as
Chang'an Motors, Changhe, and Hafei Motor; some were developed from old state-owned companies, such as Brilliance China Auto, BYD Auto, Chery Automobile, and Changfeng Automobile. Others are private-owned companies, such as Geely Automobile, Great Wall Motors.
* [http://www.hg.org/articles/article_457.html China: New Car Industry Policy] - Deacons - Published October 1, 2004 - Hong Kong
* [http://www.chinacarforums.com/ China Car Forums] - information on Chinese auto manufacturers
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