Peking University

Peking University

infobox University
name= Peking University
北京大学



established= 1898
type= Public
president= Xu Zhihong (许智宏)
city= Beijing
country= China
undergrad = 15,128
postgrad = 15,039
faculty = 4,206
campus= Urban, 273 ha
affiliations=IARU, APRU, BESETOHA
website= [http://www.pku.edu.cn/ www.pku.edu.cn]

Imperial University of Peking

Peking University (zh-tsp|t=北京大學|s=北京大学|p=Běijīng Dàxué) of Beijing, colloquially known in Chinese as Beida (北大, "Běidà"), is the first formally established university, and the first national university of China. It was founded as Imperial Capital University in 1898 as a replacement of the ancient Guozijian (國子監 guózǐjiàn) [ [http://hi.baidu.com/yiyi/blog/item/ec385c60a0da9cde8db10d19.html] ] . By 1920 it had become a center for progressive thought. Today, most national and international rankings place Peking University amongst the top universities in China. [ [http://www.arwu.org/rank/2006/ARWU2006_TopAsia.htm] ] [ [http://www.chinaeducenter.com/en/universityranking1.php] ] [ [http://66.102.9.104/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=zh-CN%7Cen&u=http://rank2008.netbig.com/cn/rnk_1_0_0.htm&usg=ALkJrhg-R6R1hxyclErwaWM5azZaXdUeDA] ] [ [http://www.china-university-ranking.com/] ] [ [http://www.universitymetrics.com/tiki-index.php?page=Top+300+Universities+2006&PHPSESSID=097539296a56ac89458242de5a67e6bf] ] [ [http://www.ensmp.fr/Actualites/PR/EMP-ranking.html] [http://gse.sjtu.edu.cn/kxyj/articles/en/ELW2005003--Univ%20ranking%20in%20China%202005%20HEE_30_02%20p10.pdf] ] In addition to its academics, the Peking University is especially renowned for the beauty of its traditional Chinese architecture at its campus ground. [ [http://bschool.nus.edu.sg/NUSPKUMBA/AboutPekingUniversity/Overview/tabid/412/Default.aspx About Peking University.] National University of Singapore]

Throughout its history, the university has distinguished himself from the peers in terms of intellectual freedom and have produced and hosted many of modern China's top thinkers, including Lu Xun, Mao Zedong, Hu Shih, Li Dazhao, Gu Hongming, and Chen Duxiu [ [http://www.pku.edu.cn/about/about/beida/mingren.htm] ] . The Peking University was the among the birthplaces for China's New Culture Movement, May Fourth Movement, the Tiananmen Square protest of 1989 and many other significant events.cite web|url=http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/449011/Peking-University#tab=active~checked%2Citems~checked&title=Peking%20University%20--%20Britannica%20Online%20Encyclopedia|title=Peking University|publisher="Encyclopædia Britannica"|date=2008-08-21]

History

Peking University was established in Beijing in December 1898 during the Hundred Days Reform and was originally known as the Imperial Capital University (zh-tsp|t=京師大學堂|s=京师大学堂|p=Jīngshī Dàxuétáng) to replace the ancient Guozijian (國子監 guózǐjiàn). In 1902, the Imperial Capital University's Faculty of Education was spinned off to become today's Beijing Normal University, the best teacher's college in China. In 1912, following the Xinhai Revolution, the Imperial University was renamed the National Peking University (zh-ts|t=國立北京大學|s=国立北京大学). The famous scholar Cai Yuanpei was appointed president on January 4 1917 and helped transform the university into the country's largest institution of higher learning, with 14 departments and an enrollment of more than 2,000 students. Cai, inspired by the German model of academic freedom, recruited an intellectually diverse faculty that included Hu Shi, Chen Duxiu, and Lu Xun. In 1919 students of Peking University formed the bulk of the protesters of the May Fourth Movement. Efforts by the Beiyang government to end to protests by sealing off the Peking University campus led to Cai's resignation. In 1920 Peking University became the second Chinese university to accept female students, after Nanjing University.After the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937 (and the resulting expansion of Japanese territorial control in east China), Peking University moved to Changsha and formed the Changsha Temporary University along with Tsinghua University and Nankai University. In 1938, the three schools moved again, this time to Kunming, and formed the National Southwestern United University. In 1946, after World War II, Peking University moved back to Beijing. At that time, the university comprised six schools (Arts, Science, Law, Medicine, Engineering, and Agriculture), and a research institute for humanities. The total student enrollment grew up to 3,000.

In 1952, three years after the People's Republic of China was established, the Yenching University was merged into Peking University and Peking University lost its "national" appellation to reflect the fact that all universities under the new socialist state would be public. In 1952 Peking University moved from downtown Beijing to the former Yenching campus. The first disturbances of the Cultural Revolution began at Peking University in 1966; education there ceased between 1966 and 1970. Since then, the university has reasserted its position as one of the leading universities of China.

In 2000, Beijing Medical University was merged into Peking University and became the Peking University Health Science Campus. Beida now has eight affiliated hospitals and 12 teaching hospitals.

In 2001, Peking University set up a satellite campus in Shenzhen. The university's second business school openned its door on this campus in 2004, and was renamed Beida HSBC School of Business in 2008.

Academic reputation

Most national and international rankings of Chinese universities place Peking University amongst top universities in China [ [http://www.arwu.org/rank/2006/ARWU2006_TopAsia.htm] ] [ [http://www.chinaeducenter.com/en/universityranking1.php] ] [ [http://66.102.9.104/translate_c?hl=en&langpair=zh-CN%7Cen&u=http://rank2008.netbig.com/cn/rnk_1_0_0.htm&usg=ALkJrhg-R6R1hxyclErwaWM5azZaXdUeDA] ] [ [http://www.china-university-ranking.com/] ] [ [http://www.universitymetrics.com/tiki-index.php?page=Top+300+Universities+2006&PHPSESSID=097539296a56ac89458242de5a67e6bf] ] [ [http://www.ensmp.fr/Actualites/PR/EMP-ranking.html] ] [ [http://gse.sjtu.edu.cn/kxyj/articles/en/ELW2005003--Univ%20ranking%20in%20China%202005%20HEE_30_02%20p10.pdf] ] . "The Times Higher Education Supplement" in 2006 ranked Peking University as the 14th best university in the world, taking the highest spot in Asia [ [http://www.topuniversities.com/worlduniversityrankings/results/2006/top_200_universities/ THES - QS World University Rankings 2006] ] [ [http://www.paked.net/higher_education/rankings/times_2006.htm The Top 200 World University Rankings] ] ; the same ranking in 2007 placed the University at 36th best worldwide, still the highest in the Chinese mainland. [ [http://uniranks.unifiedself.com/2007top200.html World University Rankings 2007] ]

Peking University is a comprehensive and national key university [http://news.sohu.com/14/84/news202198414.shtml 全国重点大学] . The University consists of 30 colleges and 12 departments, with 93 specialties for undergraduates, 2 specialties for the second Bachelor's degree, 199 specialties for Master's degree candidates and 173 specialties for Doctoral candidates. While in a leading position of basic sciences research and teaching, the university has gained itself very successful development of applied sciences.

At present, Peking university has 216 research institutions and research centres, including 2 national engineering research centres, 81 key national disciplines, 12 national key laboratories. With eight million holdings, the university library is the largest of its kind in Asia.

The university has made an effort to combine the research on fundamental scientific issues with the training of personnel with high level specialized knowledge and professional skill as demanded by the country's modernization. It strives not only for the simultaneous improvements in teaching and research work, but also for the promotion of interaction and mutual promotion among various subjects.

Teaching also has been emphasized. It aims to cultivate the students' practical ability and creative power. As a result, the teaching of core courses is strengthened, the content of courses is enriched and renewed and favourable conditions have been created, for the students to develop themselves in extracurricular activities.

Peking University has been becoming a center for teaching and research, consisting of diverse branches of learning such as pure and applied sciences, social sciences and the humanities, and sciences of management and education. Its aim is to rank among the world's best universities in the next couple of decades, with the school's leadership placing great emphasis on developing bilateral relationships with prominent American universities for student and faculty exchanges.

Over the past century, more than 400 Peking University alumni had become presidents of other major Chinese universities, including former Tsinghua President Luo Jialun, Renmin University President Yuan Baohua, Zhejiang University President Qian Sanqiang, Fudan University President Zhang Zhirang, Nankai University President Teng Weizao, Chinese University of Science and Technology President Guan Weiyan and so on [ [http://club.cn.yahoo.com/bbs/threadview/1100055843_2__pn1.html] ] .

Campus

The campus of Peking University was originally located north of Forbidden City in the center of Beijing, and was later moved to the former campus of Yenching University in 1952. The current campus is located in northwest Beijing, in the Haidian district, which was concentrated with many well known colleges and universities.

It is located in the former site of Qing Dynasty royal gardens and it retains traditional Chinese-style landscaping as well as many historical buildings. It is known throughout China, along with its neighbour, Tsinghua University, for their beautiful campuses. The university campus is surrounded by the weiming lake.

Beyond it's main campus, Peking University Health Science Center (PKUHSC) is located in Xue Yuan Rd. where the country's most distinguished colleges are located. PKUHSC's campus is less aesthetically appealing but is nonetheless a fitting site for academics and research.

In 2001, Peking University's Shenzhen campus, Shenzhen Graduate School, opened its doors. The campus is located in the northwest part of Shenzhen City.

National Economic Research Institute

The Director of the National Institute of Economic Research, Professor of Economics of the Peking University and Professor of the graduate school of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences is Prof. Fan Gang. Dr Fan had more than 100 academic papers published in both Chinese and English academic journals, more than 200 articles in newspapers and magazines and had also published several books.Justin Lin, the founding director of the institute, is the World Bank's chief economist, the first time the post has gone to a candidate outside Europe and the United States. [ [http://www.iht.com/articles/2008/02/05/business/05wbankFW.php New World Bank economist is first from outside Europe and U.S. - International Herald Tribune ] ]

International students

Peking University has one of the largest pools of international students in China. The dorms for international students are located at "Shao Yuan" (Shao Garden). Every year, Peking University has approximately 2,000 international students studying on campus. Its international students are made up of students from most countries in the world including most of Western Europe, North America, South America, all parts of Asia, Australia as well as many countries in Africa.

Since 2006, Peking University has launched a joint undergraduate program with the Yale University [ [http://www.yale.edu/iefp/pku-yale/ Peking University - Yale University. Joint Undergraduate Program in Beijing] ] ; students will spend a semester overseas, living and studying together with the host institute's students. [http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200609/22/eng20060922_305110.html] ]

Notable alumni, administrators, and faculty

Peking University has produced many notable people, especially lead thinkers in modern China. These include Hu Shi, Li Dazhao and Lu Xun. Beida also has two Nobel Prize winners, Tsung-Dao Lee and Yang Chen Ning. Since the year 1948, 586 Peking University alumni have been selected into the renowned Academic Division of the Chinese Academy of Science (两院院士), overshadowing any other universities in China. [ [http://www.gotopku.cn/data/detail.php?id=4405 北大招生网 ] ]

Peking University is the home both to communist, nationalist and liberal thoughts in modern China. Mao Zedong, Chen Duxiu and Li Dazhao, all founders of the Communist Party of China, either taught or held offices in the university. Lu Xun, a great contemporary writer, thinker and influential figure of the Chinese New-Culture Movement, which took place in 1919 and sparked China’s anti-imperialism and anti-feudalism march, was also attached to the university. [ [http://bbs.myspace.cn/t/3397392.html] ] During the Cultural Revolution, Peking University philosophy faculty Nie Yuanzi notoriously published the first Big-character poster. Peking University students also led at the Tiananmen Square Protest of 1989 for democracy.

Faculty

* Qian Xuantong 錢玄同 - linguist
* Gu Hongming 辜鸿铭- writer, advocate of monarchy and Confucian values. Gu preserved his plait even after the overthrow of Qing Dynasty
* Chen Duxiu 陈独秀- dean of letters, later co-founder of Communist Party of China
* Lu Xun 鲁迅- writer, a spiritual leader of modern Chinese nationalism
* Shen Congwen 沈从文- writer
* Hu Shih 胡适- philosopher, writer and the leader of China's New Culture Movement
* Lin Yutang 林语堂 - writer, inventor of the first Chinese typewriter and a new method of romanizing the Chinese language
* Fei Xiaotong 费孝通 - researcher of sociology and anthropology; chairman of China Democratic Alliance.
* Qian Mu 钱穆 [ [http://baike.baidu.com/view/2036.htm?tp=belinked] ] - historian, philosopher and confucian.
* Liang Shuming 梁漱溟 - modern neo-Confucianist. Liang was most famous for his critique of Marxist class theory, stating that, despite obvious disparities of wealth, Chinese rural society could not be unambiguously classified along class lines. One and the same family (particularly the large patriarchal lineages found in many regions) would commonly have some members among the "haves" and others among the "have-nots". The class struggle advocated by the Maoists would necessitate kinsmen attacking each other.
* Ma Yinchu 马寅初 - a prominent population economist,whose New Population Theory was criticized by Mao since 1957 for two decades. Having examined trends of the early 1950s, Ma argued that further population growth at such high rates would be detrimental to China's development. Therefore, he advocated government control of fertility.In 1979, the communist party formally apologies to Ma,stating that "erroneously criticized one person, population mistakenly increased 300,000,000".
* Jiang Menglin 蒋梦麟 [ [http://baike.baidu.com/view/131087.htm] ] - a prominent education reformer in China and former President of Peking University and Zhejiang University
* Xu Beihong 徐悲鴻 - the most famous Chinese artist, dean of Beida School of Arts
* Ta-You Wu 吴大猷: the "Father of Chinese Physics". His many illustrious students include Chen Ning Yang and Tsung-Dao Lee, co-winners of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1957, Yuan Tseh Lee, the co-winner of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1986.
* Yu Dafu 郁達夫 - modern Chinese short story writer and poet, author of Ch'en-lun "Sinking" (1921)
* Wang Xiaobo 王小波 - writer
* He Weifang 贺卫方 - judicial reformist
* Wang Tieya 王鐵崖 - jurist, Judge of International Criminal Court
* Li Haopei 李浩培 - jurist, Judge of International Criminal Court
* Jian Bozan 翦伯贊 - historian

Administrators

* Cai Yuanpei 蔡元培 - early University Chancellor
* Yan Fu 严复 - early University Chancellor
* Li Dazhao - head librarian, later co-founder of Communist Party of China

Alumni

Writers

* Fan Changjiang - journalist and writer
* Feng Youlan 冯友兰 - philosopher [ [http://www.guoxue.com/master/fengyoulan/fengyoulan.htm ] ]
* Han Suyin - writer
* Mao Dun 茅盾- writer and journalist [ [http://www.pku.edu.cn/about/about/beida/mingren.htm] ]
* Xu Zhimo 徐志摩 - poet
* Zhang Chengzhi - writer
* Zhu Ziqing 朱自清- poet [ [http://baike.baidu.com/view/1222.htm] ]
* Dolma Kyab - writer (currently political prisoner)
* Jan Wong - writer (one of the first western students permitted to study aboard.)
* Qian Xuantong and Liu Bannong 钱玄同与刘半农 - writers and promotioners of the New Culture Movement [ [http://www.pku.edu.cn/about/about/beida/mingren.htm] ]

Academics

* Michael Halliday - developed systemic functional grammar
* Gang Tian - Mathematician
* Li Yining - economist
* Tsung-Dao Lee (Li Zhengdao) - physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (physics, 1957)
* Yang Zhenning - physicist, Nobel Prize laureate, 1957
* Justin Yifu Lin - economist (now the chief economist of World Bank)
* Yu Jie - First house church leader to meet an American president (May 2006, meeting George W Bush in the White House)
* Yu Min - physicist, Father of Chinese H-bombs
* Luo Jialun 罗家伦 - leader of the May Fourth Movement, president of Tsinghua University
* Fu Sinian 傅斯年 - educator and linguist; leader of the May Fourth Movement, creators of the Academia Sinica, former president of National Taiwan University
* Gu Jiegang 顾颉刚 - a Chinese historian; the founder of the Skeptical school of early Chinese history, known as yigupai; best known for the seven volume work Gushi Bian (古史辨 "Debates on Ancient History").
* Ren Jiyu 任继愈 - Chinese historian and philosopher, former director of the National Library.
* Deng Jiaxian 邓稼先 - a nuclear physics expert; a leading organizer and key contributor to the Chinese nuclear weapon programs.
* Qian Sanqiang 钱三强) - a nuclear physicist and education administrator; a leading organizer and key contributor to the Chinese nuclear weapon programs; former president of Zhejiang University
* Zhu Guangya 朱光亚 - a renowned nuclear physicist of China, key contributor to China's "Two Bombs, One Satellite" projects.
* Zhou Guangzhao 周光召) - expert on particle physics, discoverer of PCAC (partial conservation of axial current), an important step toward the understanding of symmetry breaking; former director of the Chinese Nuclear Weapons Research Institute and president of the Academica Sinica.

In politics

* Bo Xilai - Mayor of Chongqing, Former Minister of Commerce
* Cai Wu - Minister of Culture
* Deng Nan - Former Vice minister of the State Science and Technology Commission
* Deng Pufang - founder and Chairman of China Disabled Persons' Federation
* Guo Gengmao - Governor of Henan Province
* Hu Chunhua - Youngerst governor in China, former First Secretary of the Communist Youth League
* Hu Deping - vice chairman of All-China General Chamber of Industry & Commerce Party, Secretary of National Association of Industry and Commerce, and vice minister of the Propaganda Department
* Li Keqiang - Politburo Standing Committee member, First Deputy Prime Minister
* Li Yuanchao - Politburo member and Minister for the Organization Department of the Chinese Communist Party
* Li Zhaoxing - minister of foreign affairs
* Lu Hao - First Secretary of Communist Youth League of China
* Yuan Chunqing - Governor of Shaanxi Province, Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party
* K. Natwar Singh - India politician

* Wang Dan - Leader of the Tiananmen protests in 1989
* Fang Lizhi - Spiritual leader of the Tiananmen Protests in 1989
* Shen Tong - Author, Pro-democracy activist

* Chen Duxiu - founding member and leader in the Communist Party of China
* Zhang Guotao - founding member and leader in the Communist Party of China
* Li Dazhao - founding member and leader in the Communist Party of China
* Mao Zedong - founding member and leader in the Communist Party of China
* Deng Zhongxia 邓中夏, founding member and leader in the Communist Party of China

In commerce and media

Among the "top 300 richest in China" [ [http://cuaa.net/cur/2008/xiaoyou1.shtml] ] 27 graduated from Beida, much higher than any other Chinese university. The second ranking school is Zhejiang University, with 17 alumni on the list .
* Li Yanhong - founder of Baidu.com

* Wang Xuan - founder of Founder Co.

* Wang Zhidong - founder of Sina.com

* Yu Minhong - founder of New Oriental Group

* Peggy Yu - founder of dangdang.com, the largest online retailor in Chinese language.

* Yan Yan -- Founding Partner of SoftBank China

* Li Ning - founder of Li Ning Group [ [http://www.pku.edu.cn/web/xq110/xqjz/jzdt/141.htm] ]

* Huang Nubo - founder of Zhongkun Real Estate Group

* James Jian Ding - founder of Asiainfo, founding partner of Golden Sand River Venture Capital

* Yu Liang - CEO of China Vanke Group

Former employees

* Mao Zedong - staff librarian, leader of Communist Party of China
* Bertrand Russell - Lecturer in Philosophy (1920-21)

See also

* 7072 Beijingdaxue - asteroid named after Peking University
* List of universities in Mainland China
* Beijing Medical University
* High School of Peking University
* Chinese Family Panel Studies Program

Notes

External links

* [http://en.pku.edu.cn/ English Homepage]
* [http://www.pku.edu.cn/ Chinese Homepage]
* [http://www.pku.org.cn/ Peking University Alumni Association]
* [http://bbs.pku.edu.cn/ Peking University BBS]
* [http://acm.pku.edu.cn/JudgeOnline/ Peking University Judge Online]
* [http://www.szpku.edu.cn/ Shenzhen Graduate School of Peking University, Chinese Homepage]
* [http://pku.6dxy.com Campus real three-dimensional map]


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