Amethyst

Infobox mineral
name = Amethyst
category = Mineral variety
boxwidth =
boxbgcolor =


imagesize =
caption =
formula = Silica (silicon dioxide, SiO2)
molweight =
color = violet
habit = 6-sided prism ending in 6-sided pyramid (typical)
system = rhombohedral class 32
twinning = Dauphine law, Brazil law, and Japan law
cleavage = None
fracture = Conchoidal
mohs = 7–lower in impure varieties
luster = Vitreous/glossy
refractive = nω = 1.543–1.553 nε = 1.552–1.554
opticalprop = Uniaxial (+) (Positive)
birefringence = +0.009 (B-G interval)
pleochroism = None
streak = White
gravity = 2.65 constant; variable in impure varieties
density =
melt = 1650±75 °C
fusibility =
diagnostic =
solubility = H2O insoluble
diaphaneity = Transparent to translucent
other = Piezoelectric

Amethyst is a violet variety of quartz often used as an ornamental stone in jewelry. The name comes from the Ancient Greek "a-" ("not") and "methustos" ("intoxicated"), a reference to the belief that the stone protected its owner from drunkenness; the ancient Greeks and Romans wore amethyst and made drinking vessels of it in the belief that it would prevent intoxication.

Chemistry

Amethyst is the violet variety of quartz; its chemical formula is SiO2.

In the 20th century, the color of amethyst was attributed to the presence of manganese. However, since it is capable of being greatly altered and even discharged by heat, the color was believed by some authorities to be from an organic source. Ferric thiocyanate was suggested, and sulfur was said to have been detected in the mineral.

More recent work has shown that amethysts' coloration is due to ferric iron impurities. [Klein, Cornelis and Hurlbut, Cornelius S., 1985 "Manual of Mineralogy (after JD Dana)" 20th edition, p. 441, John Wiley & Sons, New York] Further study has shown a complex interplay of iron and aluminium is responsible for the color. [Cohen, Alvin J., 1985, "Amethyst color in quartz,the result of radiation protection involving iron', American Mineralogist, V. 70, pp 1180-1185]

On exposure to heat, amethyst generally becomes yellow, and much of the citrine, cairngorm, or yellow quartz of jewelry is said to be merely "burnt amethyst". Veins of amethystine quartz are apt to lose their color on the exposed outcropFact|date=March 2007.

Synthetic amethyst is made to imitate the best quality amethyst. Its chemical and physical properties are so similar to that of natural amethyst that it can not be differentiated with absolute certainty without advanced gemological testing (which is often cost-prohibitive). There is one test (which is not 100 percent certain) based on "Brazil law twinning" (a form of quartz twinning where right and left hand quartz structures are combined in a single crystal [cite web | url = http://quartzpage.de/crs_twins.html | title = Quartz Page Twinning Crystals | accessdate = 2007-05-28 ] which can be used to identify synthetic amethyst rather easily. In theory however it is possible to create this material synthetically as well, but this type is not available in large quantities in the market.

Composition

Amethyst is composed of an irregular superposition of alternate lamellae of right-handed and left-handed quartz. It has been shown that this structure may be due to mechanical stresses.

Because it has a hardness of seven on the Mohs scale, amethyst is suitable for use in jewelry.

Hue and tone

Amethyst occurs in primary hues from a light slightly-pinkish violet to a deep grape purple. Amethyst may exhibit one or both secondary hues, red and/or blue. The ideal grade is called "Deep Siberian" and has a primary purple hue of around 75–80 percent, 15–20 percent blue and (depending on the light source) red secondary hues."Secrets of the Gem Trade; The Connoisseur's Guide to Precious Gemstones" Richard W Wise, Brunswick House Press, Lenox, Massachutes., 2003]

History

Amethyst was used as a gemstone by the ancient Egyptians and was largely employed in antiquity for intaglios. The Greeks believed amethyst gems could prevent intoxication, while medieval European soldiers wore amethyst amulets as protection in battle.Fact|date=June 2008 Beads of amethyst were found in Anglo-Saxon graves in England.Fact|date=June 2008

A huge geode, or "amethyst-grotto", from near Santa Cruz in southern Brazil was exhibited at the Düsseldorf, Germany Exhibition of 1902.

Alternate terminology

Several descriptive terms have been coined in the gem trade to describe the colors of amethyst. "Rose de France" is usually a pale pinkish lavender or lilac shade (usually the least-sought color). The most prized color is an intense violet with red flashes and is called "Siberian", although gems of this color may occur from several locations other than Siberia, notably Uruguay and Zambia. In more recent times, certain gems (usually of Bolivian origin) that have shown alternate bands of amethyst purple with citrine orange have been given the name ametrine.

Purple corundum, or sapphire of amethystine tint, is called Oriental amethyst, but this expression is often applied by jewelers to fine examples of the ordinary amethystine quartz, even when not derived from eastern sources. Professional gemological associations, such as the Gemological Institute of America (GIA) or the American Gemological Society (AGS), discourage the use of the term "Oriental amethyst" to describe any gem, as it may be misleading.

The Second Book of Pseudo-Albertus Magnus, "Of the Vertues of Certaine Stones", refers to amethysts by the name "Amarictus".

Geographic distribution

Amethyst is produced in abundance from the state of Minas Gerais in Brazil where it occurs in large geodes within volcanic rocks. It is also found and mined in South Korea. The largest opencast amethyst vein in the world is in Maissau, Lower Austria. Many of the hollow agates of Brazil and Uruguay contain a crop of amethyst crystals in the interior. Much fine amethyst comes from Russia, especially from near Mursinka in the Ekaterinburg district, where it occurs in drusy cavities in granitic rocks. Many localities in India yield amethyst. One of the largest global amethyst producers is Zambia with an annual production of about 1,000 t.Amethyst occurs at many localities in the United States, but these specimens are rarely fine enough for use in jewelry. Among these may be mentioned Amethyst Mountain, Texas; Yellowstone National Park; Delaware County, Pennsylvania; Haywood County, North Carolina; Deer Hill and Stow, Maine. It is found also in the Lake Superior region. Amethyst is relatively common in Ontario, and in various locations throughout Nova Scotia, but uncommon elsewhere in Canada.

Value

Traditionally included in the cardinal, or most valuable, gemstones (along with diamond, sapphire, ruby, and emerald), amethyst has lost much of its value due to the discovery of extensive deposits in locations such as Brazil. The highest grade amethyst (called "Deep Russian") is exceptionally rare and therefore its value is dependent on the demand of collectors when one is found. It is however still orders of magnitude lower than the highest grade sapphires or rubies (Padparadscha sapphire or "pigeon's blood" ruby).

Amethyst is the birthstone associated with February. It is also associated with the astrological signs of Pisces, Aries (especially the violet and purple variety), Aquarius, and Sagittarius. It is a symbol of heavenly understanding, and of the pioneer in thought and action on the philosophical, religious, spiritual, and material planes. Ranking members of the Roman Catholic Church traditionally wear rings set with a large amethyst as part of their office.

The Greek word "amethystos" (αμέθυστος) basically can be translated as "not drunken". Amethyst was considered to be a strong antidote against drunkenness, which is why wine goblets were often carved from it. Supposedly, when a drunken Dionysus was pursuing a maiden called Amethystos, who refused his affections, she prayed to the gods to remain chaste. The goddess Artemis granted the prayer, transforming her into a white stone; humbled by Amethystos' desire to remain chaste, Dionysus poured wine over the stone she had become as an offering, dyeing the crystals purple.

Variants of the story include that Dionysus, the god of intoxication, had been insulted by a mortal and swore revenge on the next mortal who crossed his path, creating fierce tigers to carry out his wish; the mortal turned out to be a beautiful young woman, Amethystos, who was on her way to pay tribute to Artemis. Her life is spared by Artemis, who transforms the maiden into a statue of pure crystalline quartz to protect her from the brutal claws. Dionysus wept tears of wine in remorse for his action at the sight of the beautiful statue. The god's tears stained the quartz purple. [ [http://gemstone.org/gem-by-gem/english/amethyst.html source] ] Another variation involves the goddess Rhea presenting Dionysus with the amethyst stone to preserve the winedrinker's sanity. [(Nonnus, "Dionysiaca," XII.380)]

ee also

*List of minerals

Notes

References

*cite web |url=http://www.blm.gov/ak/jrmic/poster/amethyst.html |title=Amethyst |work=part of a poster by the Juneau – John Rishel Mineral Information Center |publisher=Alaska office of the United States Bureau of Land Management|accessdate=2006-09-11
*cite book |title=A Dictionary of Chemistry |publisher=Printed for Thomas Tegg, (et al.) |first=Andrew |last=Ure |year=1827 |url=http://books.google.com/books?vid=OCLC22415868&id=9YS0XNQU8x4C&pg=PA141&lpg=PA141&dq=Amethyst&as_brr=1 |accessdate=2006-09-11 |page=141 |quote=The amethyst is a gem of a violet colour, and great brilliancy, said to be as hard as the ruby or sapphire, from which it only differs in colour. This is called the oriental amethyst, and is very rare. When it inclines to the purple or rosy colour, it is more esteemed than when it is nearer to the blue. These amethysts have the same figure, hardness, specific gravity, and other qualities, as the best sapphires or rubies, and come from the same places, particularly from Persia, Arabia, Armenia and the West Indies. The occidental amethysts are merely coloured crystal or quartz.
*http://mineral.galleries.com/minerals/gemstone/amethyst/amethyst.htm
*http://mindat.org/min-198.html
*http://gemstone.org/gem-by-gem/english/amethyst.html


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  • Amethyst — Teil einer Amethyst Druse Chemische Formel SiO2+(Al, Fe, Ca, Mg, Li, Na) Mineralklasse Oxide; Metall zu Sauerstoff = 1:2 siehe Quarz (nach Strunz) siehe Quarz (nach …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Amethyst — Am e*thyst, [F. ametiste, amatiste, F. am[ e]thyste, L. amethystus, fr. Gr. ? without drunkenness; as a noun, a remedy for drunkenness, the amethyst, supposed to have this power; a priv. + ? to be drunken, ? strong drink, wine. See {Mead}.] [1913 …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Amethyst — Sm (Halbedelstein) per. Wortschatz fach. (12. Jh.), mhd. ametiste, amatist Entlehnung. Entlehnt aus afrz. améthyste, dieses aus l. amethystus f., aus gr. améthystos f., zu gr. améthystos nicht trunken, dem Rausch entgegenwirkend , zu gr. methýein …   Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen sprache

  • amethyst — (n.) violet quartz, late 13c., ametist, from O.Fr. ametiste (Mod.Fr. améthyste) and directly from M.L. amatistus, from L. amethystus, from Gk. amethystos amethyst, lit. not intoxicating, from a not + methyskein make drunk, from methys wine (see …   Etymology dictionary

  • amethyst — [am′i thist] n. [ME ametist < OFr ametiste < L amethystus < Gr amethystos, not drunken (the Greeks believed that the amethyst prevented intoxication) < a , not + methystos, drunken < methyein, to be drunken < methy, strong drink …   English World dictionary

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  • Amethyst — Amethyst, s. Quarz …   Lexikon der gesamten Technik

  • Amethýst — Amethýst, Halbedelstein [Tafel: Edelsteine II, 37], eine durch organische Substanz violett gefärbte Varietät der Quarzes (s.d.), findet sich bes. in Achatkugeln, in den Blasenräumen der Mandelsteine. Der Haar A. schließt nadelförmige Kristalle… …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

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  • Amethyst — Amethyst, zur Ordnung der Kieselerde und Sippschaft des Quarzes gehörend, besteht nach einer Analyse von Rose aus 97,50 Kieselerde, 6,25 Thonerde, 0,50 Eisen und Manganoxyd; er ist sehr hart, so daß unsere Glaser den stängeligen statt des… …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

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