Geordie

Geordie (pronEng|ˈdʒɔrdi) is a regional nickname for a person from the Tynesidecite web|url=http://www.askoxford.com/concise_oed/geordie?view=uk|title=AskOxford.com - a person from Tyneside|accessdate=2007-09-01] region of England, or the name of the dialect of English spoken by these people. Depending on who is using the term, the catchment area for "Geordie" can be as wide as the general north east of England, or as small as the city of Newcastle, or various ranges in between.

The Geordie dialect owes its origins to the langauge spoken by Anglo-Saxon mercenaries, that war employed by the Ancient Brythons to fight the Pictish invaders, after the end of Roman rule in Britannia, in the 5th century. The same language is the forebear of Modern English; but while the dialects of most other English regions have been much changed by the influences of other foreign languages, Norman-French and Norse in particular, the dialects of Northern England (including Geordie) still feature many characteristics of Old English, lost in Standard English. [www.northeastengland.talktalk.net/GeordieOrigins.htm] [http://www.rolyveitch.20m.com/dialect_history.html] [http://www.bl.uk/learning/langlit/sounds/case-studies/geordie/]

The label of Geordie has sometimes been claimed as offensive to some people from the Sunderland region. [ [http://www.sunderlandecho.com/news/Never-call-a-Mackem-a.3384259.jp Never call a Mackem a Geordie... - Sunderland Echo ] ] This is also the case with anyone from the Teesside area.

In recent times "Geordie" has been used to refer to a supporter of Newcastle United football club [ [http://football.guardian.co.uk/Match_Report/0,,2156856,00.html Arca gives Boro spark to silence bigoted Geordie fans | Match Reports | guardian.co.uk Football ] ] however this use is not as common as with the use of Mackem for Sunderland fans and is not entirely popular due to the proportion of people from South Tyneside who self-identify as geordies but support Sunderland.

Derivation of the term

A number of rival theories explain how the term came about, though all accept that it derives from a familiar diminutive form of the name "George," [cite web|url=http://www.askoxford.com/concise_oed/geordie?view=uk|title=AskOxford.com - from the given name George|accessdate=2007-09-01] with George (called Geordie, but written George) once being the most popular eldest son's name in families in the north east of England.cite book
last=Brockett
first=John Trotter
author-link =
last2 =
first2 =
author2-link =
title=A Glossary Of North Country Words In Use With Their Etymology And AffinityTo Other Languages And Occasional Notices Of local Customs And Popular Superstitions
place=
publisher=E. Charnley
quote=GEORDIE, George-a very common name among the pitmen. “How ! Geordie man ! how is’t”
year=1829
pages=page 131
location=
volume=
edition =
url=
doi=
id=
isbn=
]

One explanation is that it was established during the Jacobite Rebellion of 1745. The Jacobites declared that the natives of Newcastle were staunch supporters of the Hanoverian kings, in particular of George II during the 1745 rebellion. This contrasted with rural Northumbria, which largely supported the Jacobite cause. If true, the term may have derived from a popular anti-Hanoverian song ("Cam ye ower frae France?" [Recorded by the folk group Steeleye Span on their album "Parcel of Rogues", 1973.] ), which calls the first Hanoverian king "Geordie Whelps", meaning "George the Guelph".

Another explanation for the name is that local miners in the north east of England used "Geordie" safety lamps, designed by George Stephenson [cite book
last=Smiles
first=Samuel
authorlink=
coauthors=
title=The Life of George Stephenson, Railway Engineer
quote=As to the value of the invention of the safety lamp, there could be no doubt; and the colliery owners of Durham and Northumberland, to testify their sense of its importance, determined to present a testimonial to its inventor.
publisher=
date=1859
location=
pages=page 120
url=
doi=
id=
isbn=
] in 1815, rather than the "Davy lamps" designed by Humphry Davy which were used in other mining communities.

Using the chronological order of two John Trotter Brockett books:

1. cite book
last=Brockett
first=John Trotter
author-link =
last2 =
first2 =
author2-link =
title=A Glossary Of North Country Words In Use With Their Etymology And Affinity To Other Languages And Occasional Notices Of local Customs And Popular Superstitions
place=
publisher=E. Charnley
quote=GEORDIE, George-a very common name among the pitmen. “How ! Geordie man ! how is’t”
year=1829
pages=page 131
location=
volume=
edition =
url=
doi=
id=
isbn=
;

2. cite book
last=Brockett
first=John T.
author-link =
last2 =
first2 =
author2-link =
title=A Glossary of North Country Words
place=
publisher=
quote=GEORDIE, George-a very common name among the pitmen. “How ! Geordie man ! how is’t” The Pitmen have given the name of Geordie to Mr George Stephenson's lamp in contra-distinction of the Davy, or Sir Humphrey Davy's Lamp.
year=1846
pages=page 187
location=
volume=
edition =
url=
doi=
id=
isbn=

Geordie was given to North East pit men, later Brockett acknowledges the pitmen christened their Stephenson lamp ‘Geordie’. [cite book
last=Brockett
first=John T.
author-link =
last2 =
first2 =
author2-link =
title=A Glossary of North Country Words
place=
publisher=
quote=GEORDIE, George-a very common name among the pitmen. “How ! Geordie man ! how is’t” The Pitmen have given the name of Geordie to Mr George Stephenson's lamp in contra-distinction of the Davy, or Sir Humphrey Davy's Lamp.
year=1846
pages=page 187
location=
volume=
edition =
url=
doi=
id=
isbn=
]

Walescite book|title=Northern English: A Cultural and Social History|author=Katie Wales|pages=134–136|date=2006|publisher=Cambridge University Press|id=ISBN 0521861071] also predates the Oxford English Dictionary, she observes that "Geordy" and "Geordie" was a common name given to pit-men in ballads and songs of the region, noting that one such turns up as early as 1793. It occurs in the titles of two songs by song-writer Joe Wilson (1841–1875): "Geordy, Haud the Bairn" and "Keep your Feet Still, Geordie". Citing such examples as the song "Geordy Black" written by Rowland Harrison of Gateshead, she contends that, as a consequence of popular culture, the miner and the keelman had become icons of the region in the 19th century, and "Geordie" was a label that "affectionately and proudly reflected this", replacing the earlier ballad emblem, the figure of Bob Crankie.

Newcastle publisher Frank Graham's "Geordie Dictionary" states::"The origin of the word Geordie has been a matter of much discussion and controversy. All the explanations are fanciful and not a single piece of genuine evidence has ever been produced."

In Graham's many years of research, the earliest record he has found of the terms use was in 1823 by local comedian, Billy Purvis. Purvis had set up a booth at the Newcastle Races on the Town Moor. In an angry tirade against a rival showman, who had hired a young pitman called Tom Johnson to dress as a clown, Billy cried out to the clown::"Ah man, wee but a feul wad hae sold off his furnitor and left his wife. Noo, yor a fair doon reet feul, not an artificial feul like Billy Purvis! Thous a real Geordie! gan man an hide thysel! gan an' get thy picks agyen. Thou may de for the city, but never for the west end o' wor toon." [ [http://www.toonale.co.uk/ Newcastle Beer Toon Ale: BUY BOTTLED BEER ONLINE: Next Day Delivery: Buy Bottled Beer UK ] ] : (Rough translation: "Oh man, who but a fool would have sold off his furniture and left his wife? Now, you're a fair downright fool, not an artificial fool like Billy Purvis! You're a real Geordie! Go, man, and hide yourself! Go and get your pick (axes) again. You may do for the city, but never for the west end of our town!")(IPA|/aː mæn | wiː but ə feəl wəd he sold ɒf hiz fɜnətʃə ænd lɛft hiz waɪf ‖ nuː | jɔrə feɪː duːn riːt feəl | nɒtən aːtəfɪʃəl feəl laɪk bɪliː pɜvəs ‖ ðoʊzə riːl dʒɔdiː ‖ gænən haɪd ðəsəl ‖ gænən gɛt ðaɪ pɪks əgʲɛn ‖ ðoʊ meɪ diː fə ðə sɪtiː | but nɪvə fə ðə wɛst ɛnd ʌwɔː tuːn ‖/)

Graham is backed up historically by Hotten (1869).

The definition of Geordie as around the Tyne communities was not always the case, as Geordie has been documented for at least 180 to 240 years as meaning the whole of the North East of England. (As referenced in cite book |quote=“Geordie, general term in Northumberland and Durham for a pitman, or coal-miner. Origin not known; the term has been in use more than a century."|last=Camden Hotten |first=John |authorlink=John Camden Hotten |title=The Slang Dictionary, Or Vulgar Words, Street Phrases And Fast Expressions of High and Low Society |pages=142 |publisher=John Camden Hotten |year=1869|accessdate=2007-10-11.cite book |quote=“Geordie, general term in Northumberland and Durham for a pitman, or coal-miner. Origin not known; the term has been in use more than a century."|last=Camden Hotten |first=John |authorlink=John Camden Hotten |title=The Slang Dictionary, Or Vulgar Words, Street Phrases And Fast Expressions of High and Low Society |pages=142 |publisher=John Camden Hotten |year=1869|accessdate=2007-10-11)] The book was reprinted in 2004. [ [http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/1402147619 Amazon.com: The Slang Dictionary; or, The Vulgar Words, Street Phrases, and 'Fast' Expressions of High and Low Society: Many with their etymology, and a few with their history traced: John Camden Hotten: Books ] ]

"BAD-WEATHER GEORDY." A name applied to cockle sellers. "As the season at which cockles are in greatest demand is generally the most stormy in the year - September to March -the sailors' wives at the seaport towns of Northumberland and Durham consider the cry of the cockle man as the harbinger of bad weather, and the sailor, when he hears the cry of 'cockles alive,' in a dark wintry night, concludes that a storm is at hand, and breathes a prayer, backwards, for the soul Of Bad-Weather-Geordy" - S. Oliver, Rambles in Northumberland, 1835."

“Plus Geordieland means Northumberland and Durham” Dobson Tyne 1973cite book
last=Dobson
first=Scott
author-link =
last2 =
first2 =
author2-link =
title=A light hearted guide to Geordieland
place =
publisher=Graham (1973)
year=
volume=
edition =
quote=Plus Geordieland means Northumberland and Durham
page=
url=
doi=
id=
isbn=0902833898
]

Geographical coverage

When referring to the people, as opposed to the dialect, dictionary definitions of a Geordie typically refer to "a native or inhabitant of Newcastle upon Tyne, England, or its environs", [http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/geordie?r=75 geordie - Definitions from Dictionary.com ] ] an area that encompasses North Tyneside, Newcastle, South Tyneside and Gateshead [cite web|url=http://www.askoxford.com/concise_oed/geordie?view=uk|title=AskOxford.com - a person from Tyneside|accessdate=2007-09-01] [cite web|title = Jarrow Song| publisher = allyrics.net| url = http://www.allyrics.net/a/10853/Alan_Price-lyrics/174882/Jarrow_Song/index.htm| accessdate = 2008-10-07] cite web|url=http://www.tomorrows-history.com/CommunityProjects/PE0100050001/Blaydon%20Races.htm|title=Blaydon Races|accessdate=2007-09-29] . However, just as a Cockney is often colloquially defined as someone "born within the sound of the Bow bells", a Geordie can be defined as someone born "within spitting distance of the Tyne". [ [http://www.bbc.co.uk/insideout/northeast/series7/geordie_dialect.shtml Geordie Dialect - BBC] ] Another interpretation is the mining areas of the North East of England.

Although the dialects of North East of England were often grouped together as Geordie [cite book |quote=“Geordie, general term in Northumberland and Durham for a pitman, or coal-miner. Origin not known; the term has been in use more than a century."|last=Camden Hotten |first=John |authorlink=John Camden Hotten |title=The Slang Dictionary, Or Vulgar Words, Street Phrases And Fast Expressions of High and Low Society |pages=142 |publisher=John Camden Hotten |year=1869|accessdate=2007-10-11)] in modern times this is incorrect. This misconception is usually made by people from outside of the north east.

People from Sunderland have been nicknamed Mackems in recent generations. However, the earliest known "recorded" use of the term found by the "Oxford English Dictionary" occurred as late as 1988. [cite web
title=No mackem until 1990
work=Oxford English Dictionary
url=http://www.oed.com/bbcwords/mackem.html
accessdate=2007-10-22
]

Geordie dialect

Vocabulary

Geordie also has a large amount of vocabulary not heard elsewhere in England, though some are shared with (or similar to) Scots. The Geordie accent is often broader (heavily used) in Newcastle, other parts of the north east tend not to have a very strong accent, it all depends on how its grasped. Words still in common use by Geordie dialect speakers today include:

*"" (IPA|/'a:lri:t/ a variation on or Hello
*"" 'can not'
*"" for "pleasant" (the Scottish use of canny is often somewhat less flattering), or to mean 'quite'. Someone could therefore be 'canny canny'.
*"" 'small horse or a pony'
*' for "very", also *' (used more in Northumberland)
*"" for "home"
*"" for "look at" *very rarely used*
*"" for "sweets/treats"
*"" for "to know/know"
*"" for "don't"/
*"/" for "child/grandchild"
*"" for "dirty"
*"" for you/your
*"" for "to go/go"
*"" for "to throw"cite web
title=Dorphy dialog
url=http://web.archive.org/web/20030413133406/http://website.lineone.net/~d.ord/Dorphy.htm
accessdate=2007-11-04
]
*"" a term of address or endearment towards a woman or a child
*"" for "Town"
*"" for "toilet"
*"" for "no"
*"" for "yes"
*"" for "nose" (nebby=nosey)
*"" for "chat/gossip"
*"" for "mud" as in "there's clarts on yar boots"
*"" for "get away"
*"" a term of endearment - "Honey"
*"" for "hold" example: 'keep a hadd' is 'keep a hold' and 'had yer gob' becomes 'keep quiet'. That polite little notice in the parks aboot keepin' yor dog on a lead is 'ye cud hev keep a-hadden yor dog'
*"" for "stupid person"
*"" for "cigarette"
*"" "to steal" *very rarely used*
*"" for "knife" *very rarely used*
*"" never
*"" for "our", used mainly in the context of , meaning 'friend', one's sibling or literally 'our kid'. Used primarily to denote a family member.
*"" for "nothing"
*"" for "me", but you can't say "that is my ball > that is is ball".
*"" for my, and also works in myself > meself or mesel.
*"" Not realy got a translation, often used eg. "Give is it here now man"
*"" for "us"
*"" for I
*"" used like oh, often in shock "ee neva"
*"" down, own is often replaced with oon.
*"" for "go away" *very rarely used*
*"" for wont
*"" for down
*"D/dee" for do
*"" chewing gum
*"" for never
*"" Now, very hard to write. Prounounded like new, N 'ew
*"" often used for borrow, "lend is a pen" meaning "Can I borrow a pen".
*"" what

' or ' is broadly comparable to the invocation "Come on!" or the French "Allez!" ("Go on!"). Examples of common use include "Howay man!" or "Haway man!", meaning "come on" or "hurry up", "Howay the lads!" or "Haway the lads!" as a term of encouragement for a sports team for example, or "Ho'way!?" (with stress on the second syllable) expressing incredulity or disbelief. The 'a' and 'o' in howay/haway convey different strands of aggression, with the ‘a’ being the aggressive. The literal opposite of this word is "Haddaway" (go away), which is not as popular as Howay, but has found frequent use in the phrase "Haddaway an' shite" (Tom Hadaway, Figure 5.2 Haddaway an' shite; ’Cursing like sleet blackening the buds, raging at the monk of Jarrow scribbling his morality and judgement into a book.’ [cite book
last=Colls
first=Robert
author-link =
last2 =Lancaster
first2 =Bill
author2-link =
last3 =Bryne
first3 =David
author3-link =
last4 =Carr
first4 =Barry
author4-link =
last5 =Hadaway
first5 =Tom
author5-link =
last6 =Knox
first6 =Elaine
author6-link =
last7 =Plater
first7 =Alan
author7-link =
last8 =Taylor
first8 =Harvey
author8-link =
last9 =Williamson
first9 =
author9-link =
last10 =Younger
first10 =Paul
author10-link =
title=Geordies
quote=Hadaway an’ shite; ’Cursing like sleet blackening the buds, raging at the monk of Jarrow scribbling his morality and judgement into a book.’
place=
page=90
publisher=Northumbria University Press
year=2005
location=
volume=
edition =
url=http://www.amazon.co.uk/Geordies-Roots-Regionalism-Robert-Colls/dp/1904794122/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1196421632&sr=8-1
doi=
id=
isbn=1904794122
] ).

"Divvie" or "divvy" seems to come from the Co-op dividend, [cite book
last=
first=
author-link =
last2 =
first2 =
author2-link =
title=IMS: Customer Satisfaction: BIP2005 (Integrated Management Systems)
quote=An early example, which may be remembered by older readers was the Co-op dividend or 'divvie'. On paying their bill, shoppers would quote a number recorded ...
place=
publisher=BSI Standards
year=2003
location=
pages=page 10
volume=
edition =
url=
doi=
id=
isbn=100580414264
] or from the two Davy lamps (the more dangerous explosive Scotch Davy [citation
last=Henderson
first=Clarks
author-link =
last2 =
first2 =
author2-link =
title=NEIMME: Lamps - No. 14. SCOTCH DAVY LAMP.
quote=CONSTRUCTION.Gauzes. Cylindrical, 2 ins diameter.41/2" high with conical top, a double gauze 1 ins. in depth at thepeak.24 mesh iron.Light. Candle.
date=
year=
url=http://www.mininginstitute.org.uk/lamps/Davy.html
accessdate=2007-12-02
] used in 1850, commission disapproved of its use in 1886. (inventor not known, and nicknamed Scotch Davy probably given by miners after the Davy lamp was made perhaps by north east miners who used the Stephenson Lamp [cite book
last=Smiles
first=Samuel
authorlink=
coauthors=
title=The Life of George Stephenson, Railway Engineer
quote=As to the value of the invention of the safety lamp, there could be no doubt; and the colliery owners of Durham and Northumberland, to testify their sense of its importance, determined to present a testimonial to its inventor.
publisher=
date=1859
location=
pages=page 120
url=
doi=
id=
isbn=
] [citation
last=Henderson
first=Clarks
author-link =
last2 =
first2 =
author2-link =
title=NEIMME: Lamps - No. 16. STEPHENSON (GEORDIE) LAMP.
date=
year=
url=http://www.mininginstitute.org.uk/lamps/Stephenson.html
accessdate=2007-12-02
] ), and the later better designed Davy designed by Humphrey Davy also called the Divvy. [citation
last=Henderson
first=Clarks
author-link =
last2 =
first2 =
author2-link =
title=NEIMME: Lamps - No. 1 - DAVY LAMP.
date=
year=
url=http://www.mininginstitute.org.uk/lamps/Davy.html
accessdate=2007-12-02
] ) As in a north east miner saying ‘Marra, ye keep way from me if ye usin a divvy.' It seems the word divvie then translated to daft lad/lass. Perhaps coming from the fact you’d be seen as foolish going down a mine with a Scotch Divvy when there are safer lamps out, like the Geordie, or the Davy.

The geordie word "",cite book |last=Graham |first=Frank | author-link = | last2 = | first2 = | author2-link = |title=The Geordie Netty: A Short History and Guide | place= |publisher=Butler Publishing; New Ed edition |year=(November 1986) |location= |volume= | edition = |url=http://www.amazon.co.uk/Geordie-Netty-Short-History-Guide/dp/0946928088/ref=sr_1_1/026-5166506-7385210?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1194978041&sr=8-1 |doi= |id= |isbn=0946928088 ] meaning a toilet and place of need and necessity for reliefcite book
last = Griffiths
first = Bill
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = A Dictionary of North East Dialect
quote = Netty outside toilet, Ex.JG Annfield Plain 1930s. “nessy or netty”Newbiggin-in-Teesdale C20/mid; “outside netties” Dobson Tyne 1972; ‘lavatory’ Graham Geordie 1979. EDD distribution to 1900: N’d. NE 2001: in circulation. ?C18 nessy from necessary; ? Ital. cabinette; Raine MS locates a possible early ex. “Robert Hovyngham sall make… at the other end of hys house knyttyng” York 1419, in which case root could be OE nid ‘necessity’. Plus “to go to the Necessary” (public toilet) Errington p.67 Newcastle re 1800s: “lav” Northumbrian III C20/2 re Crawcrook; “oot back” G’head 2001 Q; “larty – toilet, a children’s word, the school larties’” MM S.Shields C20/2 lavatory
publisher = Northumbria University Press
date = 2005-12-01
location =
pages = p. 122
url =
doi =
id =
isbn =1904794165
] cite book |last=Graham |first=Frank | author-link = | last2 = | first2 = | author2-link = |title=The Geordie Netty: A Short History and Guide | place= |publisher=Butler Publishing; New Ed edition |year=(November 1986) |location= |volume= | edition = |url=http://www.amazon.co.uk/Geordie-Netty-Short-History-Guide/dp/0946928088/ref=sr_1_1/026-5166506-7385210?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1194978041&sr=8-1 |doi= |id= |isbn=0946928088 ] cite book | last = Trotter Brockett | first = John | authorlink = | coauthors = | title = A glossary of north country words, in use. From an original manuscript, with additions. | quote = NEDDY, NETTY, a certain place that will not bear a written explanation; but which is depleted to the very life in a tail-piece in the first edition of Bewick’s Land Birds, p. 285. In the second edition a bar is placed against the offending part of this broad display of native humour. Etymon needy, a place of need or necessity. | publisher = Oxford University | date = 1829 | location = | pages = 214 | url = http://books.google.co.uk/books/pdf/A_glossary_of_north_country_words__in_us.pdf?id=m-8IAAAAQAAJ&output=pdf&sig=ACfU3U246jcCHcRmESGyTIkP9603yOaDZg | doi = | id = | isbn = ] or bathroom, has an uncertain origin,cite web
last =
first =
authorlink =
coauthors =
title = Netty
quote = although some theories suggest it is an abbreviation of Italian gabbinetti, meaning ‘toilet’
work =
publisher =
date =
url = http://www.bl.uk/learning/langlit/sounds/case-studies/geordie/lexis/
format =
doi =
accessdate =
] though some have theorised that it may come from slang used by Roman soldiers on Hadrian's Wall, which may have later become "" in the "Romanic" Italian language (Such as this article about the Westoe Netty, the subject of a famous painting from Bob Olleycite web|url=http://arts.guardian.co.uk/art/news/story/0,,2049601,00.html|title=Urinal finds museum home|quote= the urinals have linguistic distinction: the Geordie word "netty" for lavatory derives from Roman slang on Hadrian's Wall which became "gabinetto" in Italian|accessdate=2007-10-08] . Another article about the Westoe Netty is featured here cite news |last= |first= | author-link = | last2 = | first2 = | author2-link = |title=Famed Geordie netty is museum attraction |quote= | newspaper =The Northern Echo |pages= |year=2007 |date=2007-03-31 |url=http://www.thenorthernecho.co.uk/news/topstories/display.var.1299982.0.famed_geordie_netty_is_museum_attraction.php] ). However "gabbinetto" is the Modern Italian diminutive of "gabbia", which actually derives from the Latin "" ("hollow", "cavity", "enclosure") the root of the loanwords that became the Modern English " [http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=cave cave] ", " [http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=cage cage] ", and " [http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=jail gaol] ".Thus, another explanation would be that it comes from a Modern "Romanic" Italian form of the word . Though only a, relatively, small number of Italians have migrated to the North of England, mostly during the 19th century.cite web
last = Saunders
first = Rod
title = Italian Migration to Nineteenth Century Britain: Why and Where, Why?
quote = They were never in great numbers in the northern cities. For example, the Italian Consul General in Liverpool, in 1891, is quoted as saying that the majority of the 80-100 Italians in the city were organ grinders and street sellers of ice-cream and plaster statues. And that the 500-600 Italians in Manchester included mostly Terrazzo specialists, plasterers and modellers working on the prestigious, new town hall. While in Sheffield 100-150 Italians made cutlery.
publisher = www.anglo-italianfhs.org.uk
url = http://www.anglo-italianfhs.org.uk/articles/immigration.htm
accessdate = 2008-09-03
]

Some etymologists connect the word "" to the Modern English word "needy". John Trotter Brockett, writing in 1829 in his "A glossary of north country words...cite book | last = Trotter Brockett | first = John | authorlink = | coauthors = | title = A glossary of north country words, in use. From an original manuscript, with additions. | quote = NEDDY, NETTY, a certain place that will not bear a written explanation; but which is depleted to the very life in a tail-piece in the first edition of Bewick’s Land Birds, p. 285. In the second edition a bar is placed against the offending part of this broad display of native humour. Etymon needy, a place of need or necessity. | publisher = Oxford University | date = 1829 | location = | pages = 214 | url = http://books.google.co.uk/books/pdf/A_glossary_of_north_country_words__in_us.pdf?id=m-8IAAAAQAAJ&output=pdf&sig=ACfU3U246jcCHcRmESGyTIkP9603yOaDZg | doi = | id = | isbn = ] ", claims that the etymon [(*et•y•mon Pronunciation (t-mn)
*n. pl. et•y•mons or et•y•ma (-m)
*1. An earlier form of a word in the same language or in an ancestor language. For example, Indo-European *duwo and Old English tw are etymons of Modern English two.
*2. A word or morpheme from which compounds and derivatives are formed.
*3. A foreign word from which a particular loan word is derived. For example, Latin duo, "two," is an etymon of English duodecimal. [http://www.thefreedictionary.com/etymon] )
] of "netty" (and it's related form "neddy") is the Modern English " [http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=needy needy] " and " [http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=need need] "

Bill Griffiths, in "A Dictionary of North East Dialect" points to the earlier form, the Old English "níd"; he writes thusly "MS locates a possible early ex. "Robert Hovyngham sall make... at the other end of his house a knyttyng" York 1419, in which case the root could be OE níd 'neccesary'".

Another related word, "nessy" is thought (by Griffiths) to derive from the Modern English "neccesary".

A poem, called ‘YAM’ narrated by author Douglas Kew, demonstrates the usage of a lot of Geordie words [cite video
people =
date2 = 2007-07-29
month2 =
year2 = 2007
date=
title = YAM narrated by author Douglas Kew
url = http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1kKTaOCJROc
format =
medium =
publisher =
location =
accessdate=2008-01-02
accessmonth=
accessyear=
time =
id =
isbn =
oclc =
quote = CAN YOU BELIEVE THIS IS ENGLISH!?"YAM" Pitmatic poem from a Trimdon Lad. From the book "A TRAVELER'S TALE" by Douglas Kew.; DouglasKew TRIMDON Poet YAM pitmatic Geordie
] [cite book
last=Kew
first=Douglas
authorlink=
coauthors=
title=A Traveller's Tale
publisher=Trafford Publishing
date=2001-02-07
location=
pages=
url=http://www.amazon.co.uk/Travellers-Tale-Douglas-Kew/dp/1552125521/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1198626070&sr=8-1
doi=
id=
isbn=101552125521
]

Related dialects

As well as Geordie, other Northern English dialects include:
* Cumbrian dialect
* Mackem (spoken in Sunderland and across Wearside)
* Northumbrian (spoken in Northumberland, similar to Geordie)
* Pitmatic (spoken in many Durham and Northumberland mining communities).
* Yorkshire and Lancashire dialect both vary across the counties, and merge with each other in the border areas.

Geordie in the media

In recent times, the Geordie dialect has featured prominently in the British media. Note however, that although the dialect appears, the dialect is toned down for comprehension of the general (non-Northumbrian) public. Television presenters such as Ant and Dec are now happy to use their natural dialect on air. Marcus Bentley, the commentator on the UK edition of "Big Brother", is often perceived by southerners to have a Geordie dialect. However, he grew up in Stockton on Tees. Brendan Foster and Sid Waddell have both worked as television sports commentators.

The dialect was also popularized by the comic magazine "Viz", where the dialect itself is often conveyed phonetically by unusual spellings within the comic strips. "Viz" magazine itself was founded on Tyneside by two local males, Chris Donald and his brother Simon.

When US President Jimmy Carter visited Newcastle he was given the Freedom of the city and told that he was now a geordie. Carter replied by saying 'howay the lads'.

The Steve Coogan-helmed BBC comedy "I'm Alan Partridge" featured a Geordie named Michael (Simon Greenall) as the primary supporting character and de facto best friend of the eponymous hero, despite Partridge's typically snobbish and patronizing demeanor sinking to new lows when referring to Michael (at one point referring to him as 'just the Work Geordie').

Mike Neville and George House (aka "Jarge Hoose"), presenters of the BBC local news program "Look North", in the 1960s and 1970s, not only incorporated Geordie into the show, albeit usually in comedy pieces pointing up the gulf between ordinary Geordies and officials speaking Standard English, but were responsible for a series of recordings, beginning with "Larn Yersel' Geordie" [cite web
title=Neville,Mike: George House - Very Best Of Larn Yersel: Geordie & Geordierama
work=TV Presenter
date=1995-12-13
url=http://www.hmv.co.uk/hmvweb/displayProductDetails.do?ctx=281;1;-1;-1&sku=489140
accessdate=2007-11-06
] which attempted, not always seriously, to bring the Geordie dialect to the rest of England.

The mastermind behind "Larn Yersel' Geordie" was local humorist Scott Dobson, [citation
last=Dobson
first=Scott
author-link =
last2 =
first2 =
author2-link =
title=Larn Yersel' Geordie
place=
publisher=Frank Graham
year=March 1970
location=
volume=
edition =
url=http://www.amazon.co.uk/Larn-Yersel-Geordie-Scott-Dobson/dp/0900409576/ref=sr_1_2?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1194615370&sr=1-2
doi=
id=
isbn=0900409576
] who wrote several booklets on the theme in the early 1970s, including "Histry O' the Geordies", [citation
last=Dobson
first=Scott
author-link =
last2 =
first2 =
author2-link =
title=History O' the Geordies
place=
publisher=Frank Graham
year=1 June 1970
location=
volume=
edition =
url=http://www.amazon.co.uk/Histry-O-Geordies-Geordie-beuks/dp/0900409185/ref=sr_1_19?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1194614695&sr=1-19
doi=
id=
isbn=0900409185
] "Advanced Geordie Palaver", [citation
last=Dobson
first=Scott
author-link =
last2 =
first2 =
author2-link =
title=Advanced Geordie Palaver
place=
publisher=Frank Graham
year=June 1970
location=
volume=
edition =
url=http://www.amazon.co.uk/Advanced-Geordie-Palaver-beuks/dp/090040938X/ref=sr_1_7?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1194613631&sr=1-7
doi=
id=
isbn=090040938X
] [citation
last=Dobson
first=Scott
author-link =
last2 =
first2 =
author2-link =
title=Advanced Geordie Palaver
place=
publisher=Butler Publishing
year=April 1993
location=
volume=
edition =
url=http://www.amazon.co.uk/Advanced-Geordie-Palaver-Scott-Dobson/dp/0946928436/ref=sr_1_8?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1194613631&sr=1-8
doi=
id=
isbn=0946928436
] "The Geordie Joke Book" (with Dick Irwin) [citation
last=Irwin
first=Dick
author-link =
last2 =Milne
first2 =Maurice
author2-link =
last3 =Dobson
first3 =Scott
author3-link =
title=The Geordie Joke Book
place=
publisher=Graham
year=1970
location=
volume=
edition =
url=
doi=
id=
isbn=0900409797
] and "The Little Broon Book" (Bringing out The New Little Broon Book in 1990 [citation
last=Dobson
first=Scott
author-link =
last2 =
first2 =
author2-link =
title=The new little broon book
place=
publisher=Bridge Studios
year=1990
location=
volume=
edition =
url=http://www.amazon.co.uk/new-little-broon-book/dp/1872010601/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1194626340&sr=8-1
doi=
id=
isbn=1872010601
] ).

"The Jocks and the Geordies" was a "Dandy" comic strip running from 1975 to the early 1990s.

In the lyrics of the song "Sailing to Philadelphia" by Mark Knopfler, Jeremiah Dixon describes himself as a "Geordie boy. Jeremiah Dixon, surveyor of the Mason-Dixon line" [cite web
url=http://lyricsplayground.com/alpha/songs/s/sailingtophiladelphia.shtml
title=Sailing To Philadelphia
quote=I Am Jeremiah Dixon; I Am A Geordie Boy
accessdate=2007-11-09
]

Dorphy, real name Dorothy Samuelson-Sandvid, was a noted geordie dialect writer who once wrote for the South Shields Gazette.cite web
title=Dorphy, Dorothy Samuelson-Sandvid. Dorphy's Geordie dialog, South Shields Gazette
url=http://web.archive.org/web/20030413133406/http://website.lineone.net/~d.ord/Dorphy.htm
accessdate=2007-11-04
] [citation
last=Sandvid
first=D
author-link =
last2 =
first2 =
author2-link =
title=Basinful o' Geordie: Tyneside Readings
place=
publisher=H Hill
year=1970
location=
volume=
edition =
url=
doi=
id=
isbn=0900463112
] [citation
last=Sandvid
first=D
author-link =
last2 =
first2 =
author2-link =
title=Basinful o' Geordie: Tyneside Readings
place=
publisher=Sandhill P
year=1988
location=
volume=
edition =
url=
doi=
id=
isbn=0946098123
] [citation
last=Sandvid
first=D
author-link =
last2 =
first2 =
author2-link =
title=Between Ye an' Me
place=
publisher=H Hill
year=1969
location=
volume=
edition =
url=
doi=
id=
isbn=0900463082
] [citation
last=Sandvid
first=D
author-link =
last2 =
first2 =
author2-link =
title=I Remember
place=
publisher=Tree P
year=1976
location=
volume=
edition =
url=
doi=
id=
isbn=0904790029
]

"Auf Wiedersehen, Pet" was a popular fictional British comedy-drama series about a group of seven British migrant construction workers: [cite web
title=THE ORIGINAL AUF WIEDERSEHEN PET HOMEPAGE
work=
publisher=
date=
url=http://www.aufpet.com/
accessdate=2008-01-17
] [cite video
people = Wayne Winston Norris, Denis Patterson, Leonard “Oz” Osborne, Brian “Bomber” Busbridge, Barry Taylor, Neville Hope, Albert Arthur Moxey
date2 = 2002-10-07
title = Auf Wiedersehen Pet Box Set - The Complete Series 1 and 2 [1983]
url = http://www.amazon.co.uk/Auf-Wiedersehen-Pet-Box-Set/dp/B00005UPJX/ref=pd_bbs_6?ie=UTF8&s=dvd&qid=1199487505&sr=8-6
format = PAL
medium =
publisher =
location = Region 2
accessdate=2008-01-17
time =
id =
ASIN = B00005UPJX
oclc =
quote =
] Wayne, Dennis, Oz, Bomber, Barry, Neville and Moxey, who, in Series 1, are living and working on a German building site. Three of the seven were Geordies. Dennis Patterson (played by Tim Healy) comes from Birtley Co. Durham; [cite video
people = Wayne Winston Norris, Denis Patterson, Leonard “Oz” Osborne, Brian “Bomber” Busbridge, Barry Taylor, Neville Hope, Albert Arthur Moxey
date2 = 2007-06-04
title = Auf Wiedersehen Pet Video
url = http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j-cxjNW8Q9Q
accessdate=2008-01-17
time = 1:42
] Leonard "Oz" Osborne (played by Jimmy Nail) comes from Gateshead; [cite video
people = Wayne Winston Norris, Denis Patterson, Leonard “Oz” Osborne, Brian “Bomber” Busbridge, Barry Taylor, Neville Hope, Albert Arthur Moxey
date2 = 2007-06-04
title = Auf Wiedersehen Pet Video
url = http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j-cxjNW8Q9Q
accessdate=2008-01-17
time = 1:50
] and Neville Hope (played by Kevin Whately) comes from North Shields. [cite video
people = Wayne Winston Norris, Denis Patterson, Leonard “Oz” Osborne, Brian “Bomber” Busbridge, Barry Taylor, Neville Hope, Albert Arthur Moxey
date2 = 2007-06-04
title = Auf Wiedersehen Pet Video
url = http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j-cxjNW8Q9Q
accessdate=2008-01-17
time = 2:04
]

The Hairy Bikers' Cookbook with Geordie Simon King and Dave Myers. The duo's lifestyle TV show is a mixture of cookery and travelogue. [cite web
last=Ferguson
first=Euan
author-link =
last2 =
first2 =
author2-link =
title=Meet the new Delia and Nigella
quote='just no relation to what you get late on a Geordie night out,' recalls Si.
newspaper = Observer Food Monthly
pages=
year=2005
date=2005-12-11
url=http://observer.guardian.co.uk/foodmonthly/story/0,,1660787,00.html
]

In 1974, Alan Price’s Jarrow song reached number one in the old RNI International Service, and number 4 in the UK charts. Which brought to the attention once again of the Jarrow March. [cite web |last= |first= |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=RNI International Service Number One Hits, 1971–1974 |quote=14-06, Jarrow Song, Alan Price |work= |publisher= |date=1974-06-14 |url=http://www.icce.rug.nl/~soundscapes/DATABASES/RNI/rni02extra03.shtm |format= |doi= |accessdate=2008-03-17]

The character Detective Inspector Robert "Robbie" Lewis (formerly Detective Sergeant) in the long-running ITV series Inspector Morse is a self-described Geordie. His speech variety serves as a foil to Morse's pedantry and RP.

Notes

External links

* [http://www.northumbriana.org.uk/langsoc/ Northumbria Language Society - The Language]
* [http://www.une.edu.au/langnet/definitions/geordie.html Newcastle English (Geordie)]
* [http://www.bl.uk/learning/langlit/sounds/ Sounds Familiar?] ndash Listen to examples of Geordie and other regional accents and dialects of the UK on the British Library's 'Sounds Familiar' website
* [http://www.northumberland.gov.uk/vg/dialect.html Northumberland County Council - The Northumbrian Language]
* [http://www.geordie.co.uk/slang.htm Geordie slang dictionary]
* [http://www.geordiegabbatravellers.com Geordie Gabba Travellers]
* [http://www.myersnorth.co.uk/ The Myers Project, about North-East England]
* [http://www.mawson-wareham.com/ Mawson Wareham - Newcastle record label (classical, folk, comedy etc, mainly by Northeastern performers)]
* [http://www.whoohoo.co.uk/geordie-translator.asp Whoohoo Geordie translator]


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