Carinatae

Taxobox
name = Carinatae
fossil_range = Cretaceous - Recent



image_caption = "Ichthyornis"
image_width = 250px
regnum = Animalia
phylum = Chordata
classis = Aves
unranked_ordo = Ornithuromorpha
unranked_familia = Carinatae
subdivision_ranks = Daughter clades
subdivision =
* Ichthyornithes
* Neornithes

In phylogenetic taxonomy, the Carinatae are considered the last common ancestor of Neornithes (living birds) and Ichthyornis (an extinct seabird of the Cretaceous). Defined in this way, the group includes all living birds, including ratites (ostrich, emu, etc.), as well as neognathous birds and a few Mesozoic forms.

History

Traditionally, Carinatae were defined as all birds having a keeled sternum. The carina or "keel" referred to a strong median ridge running down the length of the sternum, or breast bone. This is an important area for the attachment of flight muscles. Thus, all flying birds have a pronounced carina. Ratites, all of whom are flightless, lack a strong carina. Thus, living birds were divided into carinates and ratites. They also have a pterygoid bone that articulates with the palatine by means of a joint. The vomer is reduced or absent. [W. R. Ogilvie-Grant (1921) Guide to the gallery of birds. Part 1. British Museum. (2nd Edn)]

The difficulty with this scheme was that there have been (and still are) any number of flightless birds, without strong carinae, but which are descended directly from ordinary flying birds with carinae. Examples include the turkey, a galliform (chicken-like) bird, and the dodo, a columbiform (the pigeon family). None of these birds are ratites. Thus, this supposedly distinctive feature was easy to use, but had nothing to do with actual phylogenic relationship. The use of this term to describe the Ichthyornis-Neornithine group turned out to be equally inapt. Various dinosaurs -- apparently, remote ancestors and cousins of the Carinatae -- do possess a keeled sternum. So, evidently the presence of this structure does not necessarily imply its use in flight. This sort of definitional problem is one reason why the use of physical characteristics to name taxonomic groups is now discouraged. The characteristics that actually are unique to the Carinatae have little to do with the sternum. Rather, carinates are unique in having, for example, a globe-shaped, convex head on the humerus and fully fused bones in the lower leg and outer arm.

References


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Carinatae — Car i*na t[ae], n. pl. [NL., Fem. pl. fr. L. {carinatus}. See {Carinate}.] A grand division of birds, including all existing flying birds; So called from the carina or keel on the breastbone. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Carinātae — (»Gekielte«), Abteilung der Vögel, umfaßt alle Vögel bis auf die Straußvögel und einige andre (s. Vögel) …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Carinatae — Carinātae (Karinaten), Vögel mit knöchernem Längskamm auf dem Brustbein, im Gegensatz zu den Ratitae (Ratiten), den Straußen (ohne diesen Kamm) …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Carinatae — Bréchet d un …   Wikipédia en Français

  • carinatae — car·i·na·tae …   English syllables

  • carinatae — ˌkarəˈnäd.ˌē, ād noun plural Usage: capitalized Etymology: New Latin, from carina + Latin atae (feminine plural of atus ate) in old classifications : a division of Aves including all the Neognathae together with the tinamous or with these and the …   Useful english dictionary

  • Carinate — Carinatae Carinatae …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Килегрудые — (Carinatae) подкласс птиц, обнимающий всех птиц, кроме бегунов, и характеризующийся гребнем на грудной кости и почти всегда хорошо развитыми маховыми и рулевыми перьями …   Энциклопедический словарь Ф.А. Брокгауза и И.А. Ефрона

  • Histoire des oiseaux — Histoire évolutive des oiseaux Les oiseaux (Aves) sont des animaux bipèdes, ovipares, à sang chaud, en principe dotés de plumes. Très simplement reconnaissables, les oiseaux ont longtemps été placés dans le règne animal comme intermédiaires entre …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Histoire evolutive des oiseaux — Histoire évolutive des oiseaux Les oiseaux (Aves) sont des animaux bipèdes, ovipares, à sang chaud, en principe dotés de plumes. Très simplement reconnaissables, les oiseaux ont longtemps été placés dans le règne animal comme intermédiaires entre …   Wikipédia en Français

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