Apple I

infobox computer
Name = Apple I (Apple-1)

Photo =
Caption =
Type = Personal computer
Developer = Apple Computer, Inc.
Released = July, 1976
Discontinued = September, 1977
Processor = MOS 6502 @ 1 MHz
Memory = 4 KB standard
expandable to 8 KB or 48 KB using expansion cards
Graphics = 40×24 characters, hardware-implemented scrolling
Baseprice = US$666.66
Website =

The Apple I, also known as the Apple-1, was an early personal computer. They were designed and hand-built by Steve Wozniak. [ [http://www.ioltechnology.co.za/article_page.php?iSectionId=2892&iArticleId=3456594 IOL Technology - Co-founder tells his side of Apple story] ] [ [http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=6167297 NPR : A Chat with Computing Pioneer Steve Wozniak] ] Wozniak's friend Steve Jobs had the idea of selling the computer. The Apple I was Apple's first product, demonstrated in April 1976 at the Homebrew Computer Club in Palo Alto, California. It went on sale in July 1976 at a price of $666.66 [Approximately $2,427.58 in 2007 dollars, using [http://www.measuringworth.com/uscompare/ CPI inflation] ] , because Wozniak liked repeating digitsWozniak, Steven: "iWoz", page 180. W. W. Norton, 2006. ISBN 13:978-0-393-06143-7] and because they originally sold it to a local shop for $500 and added a one-third markup. About 200 units were produced. Unlike other hobbyist computers of its day, which were sold as kits, the Apple I was a fully assembled circuit board containing about 30 chips. However, to make a working computer, users still had to add a case, power supply, keyboard, and display. An optional board providing a cassette interface for storage was later released at a cost of $75.

The Apple I is sometimes credited as the first personal computer to be sold in fully assembled form; however, some argue that the honor rightfully belongs to other machines, such as the MOS Technology KIM-1, Datapoint 2200, or more commonly the Altair 8800 (which could be bought in kit or assembled form at extra cost). One major difference sets the Apple I apart — it was the first personal computer to use a keyboard.

The Apple I's built-in computer terminal circuitry was distinctive. All one needed was a keyboard and an inexpensive video monitor. Competing machines such as the Altair 8800 generally were programmed with front-mounted toggle switches and used indicator lights (red LEDs, most commonly) for output, and had to be extended with separate hardware to allow connection to a computer terminal or a teletype machine. This made the Apple I an innovative machine for its day. In April 1977 the price was dropped to $475. [ [http://www.applefritter.com/node/2703 April 1977 Price List | Applefritter ] ] . It continued to be sold through August 1977, despite the introduction of the Apple II in April 1977, which began shipping in June of that year. [ [http://www.applefritter.com/node/2715 Bill of Sale | Applefritter ] ] The Apple II was otherwise identical to the Apple I, except it added more RAM, color graphics, sound capabilities, additional expansion slots and was notably contained in a styled plastic case with an integrated keyboard. Apple had dropped the Apple 1 from its price list by October 1977, officially discontinuing it. [ [http://www.applefritter.com/node/2707 October 1977 Price List | Applefritter ] ]

As of 2008, an estimated 30 to 50 Apple Is are still known to exist, making it a very rare collector's item. An Apple I reportedly sold for $50,000 at auction in 1999; however, a more typical price for an Apple I is in the $14,000–$16,000 range. A software-compatible clone of the Apple I (Replica 1) produced using modern components, was released in 2003 at a price of around $200. [ [http://www.applefritter.com/briel replica 1 | Applefritter ] ]

References

* Price, Rob, So Far:the First Ten Years of a Vision, Apple Computer, Cupertino, CA, 1987, ISBN 1-55693-974-4
* Owad, Tom (2005). " [http://www.applefritter.com/replica Apple I Replica Creation: Back to the Garage.] " Rockland, MA: Syngress Publishing. Copyright © 2005. ISBN 1-931836-40-X

External links

* [http://www.applefritter.com/apple1 Apple I Owners Club]
* [http://lowendmac.com/orchard/05/0509.html Macintosh Prehistory: The Apple I]
* [http://www.brielcomputers.com The Replica-1 The original Apple 1 clone]
* [http://www.achatz.nl A-ONE a new Apple 1 clone]
* [http://www.sbprojects.com/projects/apple1/ My Apple I project on www.sbprojects.com]
* [http://archive.computerhistory.org/resources/text/Apple/Apple.AppleI.1976.102646518.pdf Apple I Operational Manual]
* [http://www.mess.org/ MESS, Multi-System Emulator which supports Apple I] Navbox with columns
name = Navbox with columns/doc
state = uncollapsed
title = Apple Model Navigation
colstyle = text-align:center;background:silver;
colwidth = 25%
col1header = Replaced
col2header = Current Model
col3header = Successor
col1 =
none
col2 =
Apple I
col3 =
Apple II
col1footer = Preceding Family Model
col2footer = 1976
col3footer = Following Family Model


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