- East Sussex
Infobox England county
name = East Sussex
status = Ceremonial & (smaller) Non-metropolitan county
origin = Historic
South East England
arearank = Ranked 33th
area_km2 = 1792
adminarearank = Ranked 30st
adminarea_km2 = 1709
Brighton and Hove
iso = GB-ESX
ons = 21
nuts3 = UKJ22
poprank = Ranked English cerem counties|RNK=East Sussex
popestdate = English statistics year
pop = English cerem counties|POP=East Sussex (ceremonial county)
density_km2 = English cerem counties|DEN=East Sussex
adminpoprank = Ranked English admin counties|RNK=East Sussex
ethnicity [Census 2001 profile http://www.statistics.gov.uk/census2001/profiles/21-A.asp] = 97.7% White
1.0% S. Asian
East Sussex County Council
exec = English county control|CTY=East Sussex
mps = *
*Michael Foster (L)
*Desmond Turner (L)
subdivs = #
Brighton & Hove(Unitary)
"See main article:
History of Sussex
East Sussex is part of the ancient kingdom of the South Saxons, who established themselves there in the 5th century AD, after the departure of the Romans, although the area had been populated for many thousands of years before then. Archaeological remains are plentiful, especially in the upland areas. The area's position on the coast has also meant that there were many invaders, including the Romans and later the
Normans. Earlier industries have included fishing, iron-making, and the wool trade, all of which have declined, or lost completely. In more modern times, Sussex has become popular with tourists, so that the main coastal towns have become seaside resorts.
The ancient kingdom of
Sussexhas had two separate county administrations since the 12th century, with the county townof the eastern division being Lewes[http://www.westsussex.gov.uk/newsroom/CONNECTIONS_12%20.pdf] . This situation was formalised by Parliament in 1865, and the two parts were given distinct elected county councils in 1889 under the Local Government Act 1888. In East Sussex there were also three self-administered county boroughs: Brighton, Eastbourneand Hastings.
In 1974 East Sussex was made a ceremonial county, and the three county boroughs became districts within the county. At the same time the western boundary was altered, so that the Mid Sussex region (including
Burgess Hilland Haywards Heath) was transferred to the county of West Sussex. In 1997, Brighton and Hovebecame a self-administered unitary authority; it was granted city status in 2000, whilst remaining part of the ceremonial county of East Sussex. East Sussex is divided into five local government districts. Three are larger, rural, districts (from west to east) are: Wealden; Lewes; and Rother. Eastbourneand Hastingsare mainly urban areas. The rural districts are further subdivided into civil parishes [ See List of civil parishes in East Sussex] .
"See map reproduced in
From a geological point of view East Sussex is part of southern
anticlineof the Weald: the South Downs, a range of moderate chalkhills which run across the southern part of the county from west to east and mirrored in Kentby the North Downs. To the north lie parallel valleys and ridges, the highest of which is the Weald itself (the Hastings beds and Wealden Clay). The sandstones and clays come the sea at Hastings; the Downs at Beachy Head.
Relief and drainage
The relief of the county reflects the geology.
chalkuplands of the South Downsoccupies the coastal strip between Brighton and Eastbourne. There are two river gaps: the Rivers Ouse and Cuckmere. The Seven Sisters, where the Downs meet the sea, are the remnants of dry valleys cut into the chalk; they end at Beachy Head, 530 feet (162 m) above sea level. To the east of Beachy Head lie the marshlands of the PevenseyLevels, formerly flooded by the sea but now enclosed within a deposited beach. At Bexhill the land begins to rise again where the sands and clays of the Weald meet the sea; these culminate in the sandstone cliffs east of Hastings. Further east are the PettLevels, more marshland, beyond which is the estuary of the River Rother. On the far side of the estuary are the dunes of Camber Sands. The highest point of the Downs within the county is Ditchling Beacon, at 814 feet (248 m): it is termed a Marilyn.
Wealdoccupies the northern borderlands of the county. Between the Downs and Weald is a narrow stretch of lower lying land; many of the rivers and streams occupying this area originate in the Weald. The High Weald is heavily wooded in contrast to the South Downs; the Low Weald less so. Part of the Weald is the Ashdown Forest.
The location of settlements in East Sussex has been determined both by its history and its geography. The original towns and villages tended to be where its economy lay: fishing along the coast and agriculture and iron mining on the Weald. Industry today tends to be geared towards tourism, and particularly along the coastal strip. Here towns such as
Bexhill-on-Sea, Eastbourne, and Hastingslie. Newhavenand Rye are ports, although the latter is also of historical importance. Peacehavenand Seafordare more dormitory towns than anything else. Away from the coast lie former market towns such as Hailsham, Heathfield and Uckfield; Crowboroughis a centre for the Ashdown Forest. Lewes, the County townof East Sussex; and Battle, with its Norman Conquestbeginnings. are the other two towns of significance.
There are well over 200 villages in East Sussex [ [http://wwp.greenwichmeantime.com/time-zone/europe/uk/england/county/east-sussex/towns-villages.htm List of villages in East Sussex] ] [. [http://www.villagenet.co.uk Website containing details (including historical) of 240 villages in East Sussex] ]
This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of the
non-metropolitan countyof East Sussex ( Brighton & Hovehas a separate table) at current basic prices [http://www.statistics.gov.uk/downloads/theme_economy/RegionalGVA.pdf published] (pp.240-253) by "Office for National Statistics" with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.
Apart from the physical landmarks such as the Downs and the Weald, East Sussex has a great many landmarks of historical interest. There are castles at Bodiam,
Herstmonceux, Lewes and Pevensey; and defence works such as the Martello towersand Eastbourne Redoubt[ [http://www.eastbournemuseums.co.uk/ Eastbourne Redoubt Fortress Military Museum] Eastbourne Redoubt is the home of the Royal Sussex Regimental Museum] . Battle Abbey, built to commemorate the Battle of Hastings; Bateman's, home of Rudyard Kipling, and the University of Sussexbuildings at Falmerare among interesting buildings.
The main roads through the county are those part of the radial pattern from London: the A21 to Hastings; the A22 to Eastbourne; and the A23 to Brighton. Cross-country routes include the A26 which carries traffic from Newhaven and Lewes north into Kent; and the south coast trunk route, which starts in
Folkestone(Kent) as the A259 trunk road, and traverses the south coast to Eastbourne, where it becomes the A27 trunk road and heads westwards towards Chichesterin West Sussex and ultimately to Honitonin Devon. All the main roads suffer from congestion and traffic problems: the A27 is voted as one of the busiest trunk roads in the UKFact|date=August 2008.
Bus routes serve all the main areas of settlement and many of the villages in the county.
The railways serve the main towns in a similar fashion to the roads. Until the closures of many branch railways in the 20th century, rural East Sussex was well-served by rail: few such branch lines escaped the
Beeching Axeso that today only main-line services remain. They include the East Coastway Line(including the Marshlink Line); the London-Hastings line; and the Uckfield branch, the terminus of the Oxted Line. There are three heritage railways: the Kent and East Sussex Railwayoperates from Tenterdenin Kent to Bodiam; the Bluebell Railwayfrom Sheffield Park to Kingscote with a planned extension to East Grinstead; and the Lavender Line Steam Railwaynear Lewes.
Recreational walks in East Sussex"
long-distance footpathsin East Sussex are the South Downs Way; 1066 Country Walk, High Weald Landscape Trail, Saxon Shore Way, Sussex Border Path, Sussex Ouse Valley Way, Vanguard Wayand the Wealdway.
East Sussex has a comprehensive education system with 27 state secondary schools (not including sixth form colleges) and 12 independent secondary schools. Each of the larger towns also has a further education college. There are also a number of independent boarding schools in the county. The
PestalozziChildren's Village, an international foundation, is located at Sedlescombe.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.