LGBT

LGBT

LGBT (also GLBT) is an initialism referring collectively to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender/transsexual people. In use since the 1990s, the term "LGBT" is an adaptation of the initialism "LGB" which itself started replacing the phrase "gay community" which many within the LGBT communities felt did not represent accurately all those to which it referred. In modern use, "LGBT" relates to the diversity of sexuality and gender identity-based cultures, and is sometimes used to refer to anyone who is non-heterosexual, and not exclusively people who are Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, or Transgender. "LGBT" is presently so mainstream that it has been adopted by the majority of the and in most English-speaking countries.

History

Before the sexual revolution of the 1960s, there was no common non-derogatory vocabulary for non-heterosexuality; the closest such term, "third gender", traces back to the 1860s but never gained wide acceptance. [Kennedy, Hubert C. (1980) "The "third sex" theory of Karl Heinrich Ulrichs", Journal of Homosexuality. 1980-1981 Fall-Winter; 6(1-2): pp. 103-1] [Hirschfeld, Magnus, 1904. "Berlins Drittes Geschlecht" ("Berlin's Third Sex")] [Ellis, Havelock and Symonds, J. A., 1897. "Sexual Inversion".] [Carpenter, Edward, 1908. " [http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/pwh/carpenter-is.html The Intermediate Sex: A Study of Some Transitional Types of Men and Women] ".] [Duc, Aimée, 1901. "Sind es Frauen? Roman über das dritte Geschlecht" ("Are These Women? Novel about the Third Sex")]

The first term used, "homosexual", was thought to carry negative connotations and tended to be replaced by "homophile" and then "gay".cite web
last=Ross
first=E. Wayne
title=The Social Studies Curriculum: Purposes, Problems, and Possibilities
publisher=SUNY Press
date=2006, ISBN0791469093
url =http://books.google.com/books?id=4qFMqjxte9IC&vq=LGBT&dq=%22using+LGBT%22&as_brr=3&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0
accessdate=2008-07-05
] As lesbians forged their own identity, the phrase "gay and lesbian" became more common. This was soon followed by bisexual and transgender people also asking for recognition as legitimate categories within the larger community. However, after the initial euphoria of the beginnings of the Stonewall riots wore off, starting in the late 1970s and early 1980s, there was a change in perception and some gays and lesbians were not very accepting of bisexual or transgender people.cite web
last=Leli
first=Ubaldo
coauthors=Jack Drescher
title=Transgender Subjectivities: A Clinician's Guide
publisher=Haworth Press
date=2005, ISBN:0789025760
url =http://books.google.com/books?id=QiJryCzrZmYC&dq=transgender+acceptance+by+gay&as_brr=3&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0
accessdate=2008-07-05
] cite web
last=Alexander
first=Jonathan
coauthors=Karen Yescavage
title=Bisexuality and Transgenderism: InterSEXions of The Others
publisher=Haworth Press
date=2004, ISBN:1560232870
url =http://books.google.com/books?id=2SOe4igsrbgC&dq=%22GLBT%22+%22LGBT%22&as_brr=3&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0
accessdate=2008-07-05
] It was thought that transsexual people were acting out stereotypes; and bisexuals were simply gay men or lesbian women who were simply afraid to "come out" and be honest about their identity. The movement underwent growing pains, and these continue to this day.

Not until the 1990s did it become common to speak of "gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender people" with equal respect within the movement. Although the LGBT community has seen some controversy regarding universal acceptance of different members (transgender individuals, in particular, have sometimes been marginalized by the larger LGBT community), the term LGBT has been a positive symbol of inclusion.cite web
last=Shankle
first=Michael D.
title=The Handbook of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Public Health: A Practitioner's Guide To Service
publisher=Haworth Press
date=2006, ISBN:1560234962
url =http://books.google.com/books?id=pUUyLSKD5voC&dq=%22using+LGBT%22&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0
accessdate=2008-07-05
] Despite the fact that LGBT does not nominally encompass all individuals in the queer communities (see Variants below), the term is generally accepted to include those not identified in the standard, four letter acronym. Overall, the use of the term LGBT has, over time, largely aided in bringing otherwise marginalized individuals into the general community.

Variants

wiktionary|GLBTMany variants exist, including variations which merely change the order of the letters; but "LGBT" or "GLBT" are the most common terms and the ones most frequently seen in current usage. Although identical in meaning, "LGBT" may have more feminist connotation than "GLBT" as it places the "L" for lesbian first. When not inclusive of transgender people it is sometimes shortened to "LGB".cite web
last=Bohan
first=Janis S.
title=Psychology and Sexual Orientation: Coming to Terms
publisher=Routledge
date=1996, ISBN:0415915147
url =http://books.google.com/books?id=v5IzSjeq1S8C&dq=%22GLBT%22+%22LGBT%22&as_brr=3&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0
accessdate=2008-07-05
] It may also include additional "Q"s for "queer" and/or "questioning" (sometimes abbreviated with a question mark) ("LGBTQ", "LGBTQQ", "GLBTQ?").cite web
last=Bloodsworth-Lugo
first=Mary K.
title=In-Between Bodies: Sexual Difference, Race, and Sexuality
publisher=SUNY Press
date=2007, ISBN:0791472213
url =http://books.google.com/books?id=Ph74JKY_5dwC&dq=LGBTQ&lr=&num=50&as_brr=3&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0
accessdate=2008-07-05
] cite web
last=Alder
first=Christine
coauthors=Anne Worrall
title=Girls' Violence: Myths and Realities
publisher=SUNY Press
date=2004, ISBN:0791461106
url =http://books.google.com/books?id=O0ye93mW0eUC&dq=LGBTQQ&lr=&num=50&as_brr=3&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0
accessdate=2008-07-05
] cite web
last=Cherland
first=Meredith Rogers
coauthors=Helen J. Harper
title=Advocacy Research in Literacy Education: Seeking Higher Ground
publisher=Routledge
date=2007, ISBN:0805850562
url =http://books.google.com/books?id=ct_5Cf1aH0kC&dq=%22GLBTQ%3F%22&lr=&num=50&as_brr=3&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0
accessdate=2008-07-05
] Other variants may add a "U" for "unsure", an "I" for intersex, another "T" for "transsexual"/"transvestite" another "T" (or "TS" or the numeral 2) for "Two-Spirit" people, an "A" or "SA" for "allies," or an "A" for "asexual".cite web
last=Lebaron
first=Sarah
coauthors=Jessica Pecsenye, Becerra Roland, Jon Skindzier
title=Oberlin College: Oberlin, Ohio
publisher=College Prowler, Inc
date=2005, ISBN:1596580925
url =http://books.google.com/books?id=T3RFabY6chcC&dq=LGBTU&lr=&num=50&as_brr=3&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0
accessdate=2008-07-05
] cite web
last=Chen
first=Edith Wen-Chu
coauthors=Glenn Omatsu
title=Teaching about Asian Pacific Americans: Effective Activities, Strategies, and Assignments for Classrooms and Communities (Critical Perspectives on Asian Pacific Americans)
publisher=Rowman & Littlefield
date=2006, ISBN:0742553388
url =http://books.google.com/books?id=JqLOnyU081kC
accessdate=2008-07-05
] cite web
last=Babb
first=Florence E.
title=After Revolution: Mapping Gender and Cultural Politics in Neoliberal Nicaragua
publisher=University of Texas Press
date=2001, ISBN:0292709005
url =http://books.google.com/books?id=chnFbKcBXpQC&dq=LGBTT&lr=&num=50&as_brr=3&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0
accessdate=2008-07-05
] cite web
last=Padilla
first=Yolanda C.
title=Gay and Lesbian Rights Organizing: Community-based Strategies
publisher=Haworth Press
date=2003, ISBN:1560232757
url =http://books.google.com/books?id=DN2KGHnYN0EC&dq=LGBTT+transsexual&lr=&num=50&as_brr=3&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0
accessdate=2008-07-05
] cite web
last=Swigonski
first=Mary E.
coauthors=Robin S. Mama, Kelly Ward, Matthew Shepard
title=From Hate Crimes to Human Rights: A Tribute to Matthew Shepard
publisher=Haworth Press
date=2001, ISBN:1560232579
url =http://books.google.com/books?id=fzp9QP0h6bAC&dq=lgbt2+two-spirit&lr=&num=50&as_brr=3&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0
accessdate=2008-07-05
] cite web
title=About Us
publisher=Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Transsexual, Transgender, Two-Spirit Queer Community Centre Inc.
date=2006
url =http://glbttqottawacentre.org/prod/en/index.php?page=about-us
accessdate=2008-07-05
] Some may also add a "P" for "pansexual" or "polyamorous," and an "O" for "omnisexual" or "other".cite web
last=Thims
first=Libb
title=Human Chemistry (Volume Two)
publisher=Lulu.com
date=2007, ISBN:1430328401
url =http://books.google.com/books?id=KGaghraz8AUC&dq=lgbt+omnisexual&lr=&num=50&as_brr=3&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0
accessdate=2008-07-05
] cite web
last=O'Rourke
first=P. J.
title=Peace Kills: America's Fun New Imperialism
publisher=Grove Press
date=2001, ISBN:0802141986
url =http://books.google.com/books?id=IqivmWcKYZEC&dq=lgbtp&lr=&num=50&as_brr=3&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0
accessdate=2008-07-05
] The order of the letters is also not standardized; in addition to the uses that reverse the initial L and G, the extended letters, if used, may appear in almost any order. Variant terms do not typically represent political differences within the community, however, but arise simply from the usage preferences of individuals and groups.cite web
last=Brown
first=Catrina
coauthors=Tod Augusta-Scott
title=Narrative Therapy: Making Meaning, Making Lives
publisher=Sage Publications Inc
date=2006, ISBN:1412909880
url =http://books.google.com/books?id=STMieEKGGikC&dq=LGBT+variations&lr=&num=50&as_brr=3&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0
accessdate=2008-07-05
] The terms transsexual and intersex are regarded by some people as falling under the umbrella term "transgender", though many transsexual and intersex people object to this (both for different reasons).

"SGL" (for "same gender loving") is often favored by African-American people as a way of distinguishing themselves from what they regard as white-dominated LGBT communities.cite web
last=Rimmerman
first=Craig A.
coauthors=Kenneth D. Wald, Clyde Wilcox
title=The Politics of Gay Rights
publisher=University of Chicago Press
date=2006, ISBN:1412909880
url =http://books.google.com/books?id=AlErV-3RpDEC&dq=lgbt+white+same+gender+loving&lr=&num=50&as_brr=3&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0
accessdate=2008-07-05
] "MSM" (for "Men who have sex with men"), is clinically used to describe men who have sex with other men without referring to their sexual orientation. [Young, R M & Meyer, I H (2005) The Trouble with "MSM" and "WSW": Erasure of the Sexual-Minority Person in Public Health Discourse American Journal of Public Health July 2005 Vol. 95 No. 7.] [Glick, M Muzyka, B C Salkin, L M Lurie, D (1994) Necrotizing ulcerative periodonitis: a marker for immune deterioration and a predictor for the diagnosis of AIDS Journal of Periodontology 1994 65 p. 393-397.]

A phrase introduced in the 2000s, "minority sexual and gender identities" (MSGI), to include all letters and acronyms has yet to find its way into common usage.cite web
title=Welcome to the Bradford University Minority Sexual and Gender Identity Site!
publisher=Bradford Uni MSGI Society
date=2008
url =http://lgbt.wikidot.com/
accessdate=2008-09-09
] The magazine "Anything That Moves" coined the acronym "FABGLITTER" (from Fetish, Allies, Bisexual, Gay, Lesbian, Intersexed, Transgender, Transsexual Engendering Revolution), although this term has not made its way into common usage.cite web
last=Swain
first=Keith W.
title=Gay Pride Needs New Direction
publisher=Denver Post
date=21 June 2007
url =http://www.denverpost.com/ci_6198394?source=rss
accessdate=2008-07-05
]

Criticism

The terms "LGBT" or "GLBT" are not agreed upon by everyone. For example, it may be argued that the transgender and transsexual causes are not the same as that of LGB people.cite web
last=Wilcox
first=Melissa M.
title=Coming Out in Christianity: Religion, Identity, and Community
publisher=Indiana University Press
date=2003, ISBN:0253216192
url =http://books.google.com/books?id=yjdhpMnHEIMC&dq=%22+the+use+of+LGBT%22&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0
accessdate=2008-07-05
] This argument centers on the idea that transgender and transsexuality have to do with gender identity, or a person's understanding of being male or female, irrespective of their sexual orientation. Meanwhile LGB issues may be seen as a matter of sexual orientation, or attraction. These distinctions have been made in the context of political action in which LGB goals may be perceived to differ from transgender and transsexual goals like same sex marriage legislation and human rights work that is not inclusive of transgender and intersex people. Similarly, intersex people want to be included in LGBT groups and would prefer "LGBTI"; others insist that they are not a part of the LGBT community and would rather not be included in the term.cite web
last=Aragon
first=Angela Pattatuchi
title=Challenging Lesbian Norms: Intersex, Transgender, Intersectional, and Queer Perspectives
publisher=Haworth Press
date=2006, ISBN:1560236450
url =http://books.google.com/books?id=usruybRjfMUC
accessdate=2008-07-05
] cite web
last=Makadon
first=Harvey J.
coauthors=Kenneth H. Mayer, Jennifer Potter, Hilary Goldhammer
title=The Fenway Guide to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Health
publisher=ACP Press
date=2008, ISBN:193051395X
url =http://books.google.com/books?id=VsRwtwb-He8C&dq=LGBTI+community+intersex+including&lr=&num=50&as_brr=3&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0
accessdate=2008-07-05
]

A reverse to the above situations is evident in the belief of 'lesbian & gay separatism' (not to be confused with the related, lesbian separatism) which holds that lesbians and gay men form (or should form) a community distinct and separate from other groups normally included in the LGBTQ sphere.cite web
last=Mohr
first=Richard D.
title=Gays/Justice: A Study of Ethics, Society, and Law
publisher=Columbia University Press
date=1988, ISBN:0231067356
url =http://books.google.com/books?id=dfUw8Zl0kPEC
accessdate=2008-07-05
] While not always appearing of sufficient number or organization to be called a 'movement', separatists persist as a significant, vocal and active element within many parts of the LGBT community.cite web
last=Blasius
first=Mark
title=Gay and Lesbian Politics: Sexuality and the Emergence of a New Ethic
publisher=Temple University Press
date=1994, ISBN:1566391733
url =http://books.google.com/books?id=89C9DGEertsC&dq=gay+separatism&as_brr=3&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0
accessdate=2008-07-05
] cite web
last=Blasius
first=Mark
title=Sexual Identities, Queer Politics: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Politics
publisher=Princeton University Press
date=2001, ISBN:0691058679
url =http://books.google.com/books?id=zXMrHYZ7QdwC&dq=gay+separatism&as_brr=3&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0
accessdate=2008-07-05
] In some cases separatists will deny the existence or right-to-equality of non-monosexual orientations and of transsexuality. This can extend to public biphobia and transphobia.

Many people have looked for a generic term to replace the initialisms, acronyms, and abbreviations.cite web
last=Atkins
first=Dawn
title=Looking Queer: Body Image and Identity in Lesbian, Bisexual, Gay, and Transgender Communities
publisher=Haworth Press
date=1998, ISBN:0789004631
url =http://books.google.com/books?id=Rd31TPHaxdEC&dq=word+searching+gay+lesbian+bisexual+transgender&lr=&as_brr=3&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0
accessdate=2008-07-05
] Words like "queer" and "rainbow" have been tried but most have not been widely adopted.cite web
last=Armstrong
first=Elizabeth A.
title=Forging Gay Identities: Organizing Sexuality in San Francisco, 1950-1994
publisher=University of Chicago Press
date=2002, ISBN:0226026949
url =http://books.google.com/books?id=jnYy6hSdocAC
accessdate=2008-07-05
] "Queer" has many negative connotations to older people who remember the word as a taunt and insult, a usage of the term that has continued. Many younger people also understand "queer" to be more politically charged than "LGBT".cite web
last=Halpin
first=Mikki
title=It's Your World--If You Don't Like It, Change It: Activism for Teenagers
publisher=Simon and Schuster
date=2004, ISBN:0689874480
url =http://books.google.com/books?id=Ud3Zzo2-VMsC&dq=word+searching+gay+lesbian+bisexual+transgender&as_brr=3&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0
accessdate=2008-07-05
] "Rainbow" has connotations that recall the hippies, New Age movements and politics like Jesse Jackson's Rainbow/PUSH Coalition in the United States.

Other gay people also do not care for the term as the lettering comes across as being overly "politically correct", or as an attempt to categorize the various groups of people into one grey area word. Another concern is that "LGBT" may imply that the issues and priorities of the main groups represented are given equal consideration.

There are also some lesbian, gay and bisexual and transgender people as well as ontologists who are against an "LGBT community" or "LGB community".cite web
last=Sycamore
first=Matt Bernstein
title=That's Revolting!: Queer Strategies for Resisting Assimilation
publisher=Soft Skull Press
date=2005, ISBN:1932360565
url =http://books.google.com/books?id=4moAP04OpPIC
accessdate=2008-07-05
] cite web
last=Carlsson
first=Chris
title=The Political Edge
publisher=City Lights Books
date=2005, ISBN:1931404054
url =http://books.google.com/books?id=baLQUlbCankC
accessdate=2008-07-05
] Some are also against the political and social solidarity, and visibility and human rights campaigning that normally goes with it including gay pride marches and events. Some of them believe that grouping together people with non-heterosexual orientations perpetuates the myth that being gay/lesbian/bi makes a person deficiently different than other people. These people are often seen or portrayed as fringe community members and may seem less visible compared to more mainstream LGBT activists. Since this faction are difficult to distinguish from the heterosexual majority, it is common for people to assume all LGBT people support LGBT liberation and the visibility of LGBT people in society, including the right to live one's life in a different way from the majority.cite web
last=Leondar-Wright
first=Betsy
title=Class Matters: Cross-Class Alliance Building for Middle-Class Activists
publisher=New Society Publishers
date=2005, ISBN:0865715238
url =http://books.google.com/books?id=aD4yphfHBWMC&dq=GLBT+LGBT&lr=&num=50&as_brr=3&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0
accessdate=2008-07-05
] Compared to the Asian Society, the LGBT community is more acceptable in the Western culture, since many Asian parents have negative images of lesbians or gays. Most Asian languages have no word for lesbian, gay or coming out, and there are few lesbian role models to look to. [Dronkers-Laureta, John and Belinda (2008-07-08). [http://www.asianweek.com/2008/07/08/you-are-not-alone/ "LGBT Perspective: You Are Not Alone"] . AsianWeek. Retrieved on 2008-08-04.]

ee also

*Androphile
*Bisexual community
*BDSM
*Closeted
*Coming out
*Gay community
*Gender
*Gynephile
*LGBT marketing
*LGBT rights opposition
*List of transgender-related topics
*List of LGBT publications
*List of LGBT-related organizations
*Non-heterosexuals
*Queer theory
*Queer theology
*LGBT retirement issues

References

* The LibraryThing Blog. [http://www.librarything.com/blog/2005/12/tags-again-glbt-vs-lgbt.php Tags again: GLBT vs. LGBT] . Published online.
* Safe Schools Coalition. [http://www.safeschoolscoalition.org/glossary.pdf Glossary] . Published online.
* Religious Institute. "Time to Seek" [http://www.religiousinstitute.org/documents/TimetoSeekdefinitions.pdf Definitions] . Published online.
* Stahl, S. [http://www.jewishlibraries.org/ajlweb/publications/proceedings/proceedings2004/stahl.pdf Sorting the Alphabet Soup of Sexual Orientation and Identity: a Guide to LBGT Sources] . Published online.

External links

* [http://www.glbtq.com/ GLBTQ] An Encyclopedia of GLBT & Queer culture

* [http://www.ilga-europe.org/europe/guide/country_by_country/italy/lesbian_gay_bisexual_and_transgender_rights_before_the_european_court_of_justice LBGT Rights] Lesbian Gay Bisexual and Transgender Rights before the European Court of Justice


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