- Shirley Temple
name = Shirley Temple
imagesize = 224px
caption = Shirley Temple in "Glad Rags to Riches" (1932)
birthname = Shirley Jane Temple
birthdate = birth date and age|1928|4|23
location = Santa Monica,
California, United States
othername = Shirley Temple Black
homepage = http://www.shirleytemple.com
Academy Juvenile Award
1935 Outstanding Contribution in 1934
sagawards = Life Achievement Award
2005 Lifetime Achievement
John Agar(1945–1950, divorced, 1 child)
Charles Alden Black(1950–2005, his death, 2 children)
children = Linda Susan Agar (b. 1948)
Charles Black Jr (b. 1952) and Lori Black (b. 1954).
yearsactive = 1932–1961
Shirley Jane Temple (born
April 23, 1928) is an Academy Award-winning actressand tap dancer, most famous for being an iconic American child actress of the 1930s, who enjoyed a notable career as a diplomat as an adult. After rising to an amazing burst of fame at the age of six with her breakthrough performance in "Bright Eyes" in 1934, she starred in a series of highly successful films which won her widespread public adulation and saw her become the top grossing star at the American box-office during the height of the Great Depression. She went on to star in films such as "Since You Went Away" as a young adult in the 1940s. In later life, she became a United States ambassadorand diplomat.
Temple was born to George Francis Temple (1888–1980), a businessman and banker, and Gertrude Amelia Krieger (1893–1977) in
Santa Monica, California. She has two brothers, Jack (b. 1915) and George, Jr. (b. 1919). Her mother loved dancing and this directed Temple towards performing. Gertrude was a constant presence on the lot during Temple's childhood acting years, helping her learn her lines, and controlled her wardrobe. Biographer Anne Edwards said Temple's famous hair style, known as the "Shirley Temple Curls," was also under the control of Gertrude, who ensured there were exactly 52 ringlets in her hair for each take. [http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0871549/ "Biography: Shirley Temple: The Biggest Little Star"] . Arts & Entertainment Television. 1997.]
At the age of 17, Temple was married to soldier-turned-actor
John Agar(1921–2002) on September 19, 1945. They had one daughter, Linda Susan Agar (later known as Susan Falaschi), born on January 30, 1948. Temple filed for divorce in late 1949, with the divorce becoming final on December 5, 1950. In early 1950, while vacationing in Hawaii, Temple met and fell in love with California businessman Charles Alden Black(1919–2005). They married on December 16that year. Together, they had two children: Charles Alden Black Jr., born April 29, 1952, and Lori Black, born April 9, 1954. They remained married until Charles's death from myelodysplastic syndrome(a bone marrow disease), at age 86, on August 4, 2005.
Temple has two granddaughters, Teresa (Falaschi) Caltabiano (b. 1980), Susan's daughter and Lily Jane Caltabiano (b. 2007).
Temple's popularity earned her both public adulation and the approval of peers. At the age of five, the hallmark of her acting work was her professionalism: she always had her lines memorized and dance steps prepared when shooting began.Fact|date=August 2008
In Temple's earliest films, she danced and was able to handle complex tap choreography. She was teamed with famed dancer Bill "Bojangles" Robinson in "
The Little Colonel", " The Littlest Rebel", "Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm," and " Just Around the Corner". Robinson coached and developed her choreography for many of her other films. Because Robinson was African-American, the scenes of him holding hands with Temple were cut in many cities in the South, as a consequence of the segregationism common at the time. Shirley Temple once tap danced all the way down a staircase singing a line of her song on every single one of the 45 steps.Fact|date=August 2008
Temple made pictures with
Cary Grant, John Wayne, Henry Fonda, Grover Cleveland Alexander, Gary Cooper, Randolph Scott, Robert Young, Carole Lombard, Joel McCrea, Claire Trevor, Claudette Colbert, Myrna Loy, Joseph Cotten, Robert Walker, Victor McLaglen, James Dunn, Buddy Ebsen, Adolphe Menjou, Lionel Barrymore, and many others. Arthur Treacherappeared as a kindly butlerin several of Temple's films.
At the age of three, Temple began dance classes at Meglin's Dance School in
Los Angeles, California. Her film career began when Charles Lamont, a casting director from Educational Pictures, visited her class. Although Temple hid behind a piano in the studio, she was chosen by Lamont, invited to audition, and eventually signed to a contract with Educational.Fact|date=August 2008
Temple worked at Educational from 1931 to 1934, [ The Official Shirley Temple Website] [http://www.shirleytemple.com/] and appeared in two series of short subjects for the studio. Her first series, "
Baby Burlesks", satirized recent motion pictures and politics. In the series, Temple would dress up in a diaper, but would otherwise wear adult clothes. Because of its depiction of young children in adult situations the series was considered controversial by some viewers.Who|date=August 2008 Her second series at Educational, "Frolics of Youth", was a bit more acceptable, and cast her as a bratty younger sister in a contemporary suburban family.
While working for
Educational Pictures, Temple performed many walk-on and bit player roles in various films at other studios. She was reported to have auditioned for a lead role in Hal Roach's " Our Gang" comedies (later known as " The Little Rascals") in the early 1930s, although various reasons are given for her not having been cast in the role. Roach stated that Temple and her mother were unable to make it through the red tape of the audition process, while "Our Gang" producer/director Robert F. McGowanrecalls the studio wanted to cast Temple, but they refused to give in to Temple's mother's demands that Temple receive special star billing. Temple, in her autobiography "Child Star", denies auditioning for "Our Gang" at all. [Maltin, Leonard, and Richard W. Bann (1977, rev. 1992). "The Little Rascals: The Life & Times of Our Gang". New York: Crown Publishing/Three Rivers Press. ISBN ]
20th Century Fox
After appearing in "
Stand Up and Cheer!" with James Dunn, Temple was signed to Fox Film Corporation(which later merged with 20th Century Pictures to become 20th Century Fox) in late 1933. Later, she was paired with Dunn in several films, notably her breakthrough film "Bright Eyes", produced by Sol M. Wurtzel. This was the film that saved Foxfrom near bankruptcy in 1934 at the height of the Great Depression. It was in "Bright Eyes" that Temple first performed the song that would become one of her trademarks, " On the Good Ship Lollipop". This was closely followed by the film " Curly Top", in which she first sang another trademarked song, " Animal Crackers in My Soup". In 1936, Temple was paid an unprecedented amount of money for her work on " Poor Little Rich Girl": $15,000 per week. It was during this period, in the depth of the Depression, when her films were seen as bringing hope and optimism, that President Franklin Delano Rooseveltis reported to have proclaimed that "as long as our country has Shirley Temple, we will be all right." [ [http://www.kennedy-center.org/calendar/index.cfm?fuseaction=showIndividual&entitY_id=3814&source_type=A "Biography of Shirley Temple Black"] . Kennedy Center.org.]
In 16 of the 20 films Temple made for Fox, she played characters with at least one dead parent. This was part of the formula for her films, which encouraged the adults in the audience to take on the role of her parent.
Temple became Fox's most lucrative player. Her contract was amended several times between 1933 and 1935, and she was loaned to Paramount for a pair of successful films in 1934. For four years, she was the top-grossing box-office star in America. Shirley's birth certificate was altered to prolong her babyhood; her birth year was advanced from 1928 to 1929. She was not told her real age until her "twelfth" (actually her thirteenth) birthday. [ [http://www.allmydolls.com/aboutshirley/shirleychild/shirleychild.html "Shirley Temple's Childhood"] . Allmydolls.com Access date:
27 July 2007.]
Temple's films were not always seen in a positive light. The novelist
Graham Greenewrote in a review for the magazine "Night and Day" of her appearance in "Wee Willie Winkie":
Her admirers - middle-aged men and clergymen - respond to her dubious coquetry, to the sight of her well-shaped and desirable little body, packed with enormous vitality, only because the safety curtain of story and dialogue drops between their intelligence and their desire. [cited by Andrew Johnson [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4159/is_20071118/ai_n21116004 "Shirley Temple scandal was real reason Graham Greene fled to Mexico"] , "The Independent on Sunday", 18 Novemeber 2007 as reproduced on the "Find Articles" website. Retrieved on 5 June 2008.]Temple, via her studio, was the successful plaintiff in a British libel case in 1938 against Greene's review. The damages awarded were enough to close the magazine.Fact|date=August 2008
In 1940, Temple left Fox. Working steadily, she juggled classes at
Westlake School for Girlswith films for various other studios, including MGMand Paramount. Her most successful pictures of the time included " Since You Went Away" with Claudette Colbert, " The Bachelor and the Bobby-Soxer" with Cary Grant, and "Fort Apache" with John Wayne. She retired from motion pictures in 1949.
Film career highlights
Temple was the first recipient of the special Juvenile Performer Academy Award in 1935 for recognition of her outstanding contribution to screen entertainment in 1934. Six-year-old Temple was and is the youngest performer ever to receive this honor, or any Oscar. She is also the youngest actress to add foot and hand prints to the forecourt at
Grauman's Chinese Theatre.The role of Dorothy in "The Wizard of Oz" was originally meant for Judy Garland. However, MGM executives were concerned with Garland's box office appeal. Temple was considered for the role, although she was unable to appear in the film when a trade between Fox and MGMfell through. However, Terry, who played Temple's beloved dog Rags in "Bright Eyes", was cast in "The Wizard of Oz" as Toto. In 1940, Temple starred in "The Blue Bird", another fairy story with plot similarities to "The Wizard of Oz". It was her first box-office flop. Temple was also rumored to be the inspiration for Bonnie Blue Butler in "Gone with the Wind" and was one of the early contenders for the role in the motion picture, but was too old by the time the film went into production.
Temple appeared in her first
Technicolorfilm, "The Little Princess", produced by Fox in 1939, near the end of her contract with them.
There were many Temple-based products manufactured and released during the 1930s. Ideal's Temple dolls, first made in 1934, dressed in costumes from the movies, were top sellers. [http://www.kovels.com/priceguide/kovels_shirleytemple/ "Kovel's Price Guide to Collectibles - Shirley Temple"] . Kovel.com. Access date:
2 December 2007.] Original Shirley Temple dolls bring in hundreds of dollars on the secondary market today. Other successful Temple items included a line of girls' dresses, hairbows, bracelets and handkerchiefs. A popular breakfast set, consisting of a mug, pitcher and cereal bowl in cobalt blue and featuring a decal of Temple, was given away as a premium with Wheaties and Bisquick. Several of Temple's film songs, including " On the Good Ship Lollipop"(from "Bright Eyes"), " Animal Crackers in My Soup" (from " Curly Top") and " Goodnight My Love" (from "Stowaway") were popular radio hits. She frequently lent her likeness and talent to promoting various social causes, including the Red Cross.
Shirley Temple began doing gymnastics at the age of 60 and then soon became a coach. As another part time job she worked as a librarian at the Dune Dake Dallar Library. She loved to read and write. She wrote a famous novel about puppies in the sunlight of spring. She applied for a job at her local McDonalds restaurant because she ate there everyday. While she worked at McDonalds she received five full, free meals a day.
Temple returned to show business with the television series "
Shirley Temple's Storybook", which premiered on NBCon January 12, 1958and last aired December 1, 1959. "Shirley Temple Theatre" (also known as "The Shirley Temple Show") premiered on NBC on September 11, 1960and last aired September 10, 1961. Both shows featured adaptations of fairy tales and other family oriented stories. Shirley Temple was the hostess and occasional narrator/actress in both series.
In later years, Temple made occasional appearances on television talk shows, especially when she promoted her memoirs.
Political, business and diplomatic career
Temple ran unsuccessfully for Congress against retired
Korean Warveteran Pete McCloskeyin 1967. She ran on a platform supporting America's involvement in the Vietnam War. Fact|date=August 2008
She was in
Prague, Czechoslovakia, on August 21, 1968 when the Prague Springwas ended by an invasion of Soviet tanks. A convoy of vehicles was assembled for hundreds of Westerners to leave Prague and Shirley Temple Black was in the first car of the convoy to the Czech border, apparently facilitating escape of the Westerners by her name recognition.
Temple went on to hold several diplomatic posts, serving as the U.S. delegate to many international conferences and summits. She was appointed a
delegateto the United Nationsby President Richard M. Nixonin 1969. She was appointed United States Ambassador to Ghana(1974–76). She became the first female Chief of Protocol of the United Statesin 1976, which put her in charge of all State Departmentceremonies, visits, gifts to foreign leaders and co-ordination of protocol issues with all U.S. embassies and consulates. She was United States Ambassador to Czechoslovakia(1989–92) and witnessed the Velvet Revolution. She commented, about her Ambassadorship, "That" was the best job I ever had." She was designated the first Honorary Foreign Service Officer in U.S. history by then U.S. Secretary of State, George Shultzin 1987.Fact|date=August 2008
Temple served on the board of directors of some large enterprises including
The Walt Disney Company(1974–75), Del Monte, Bancal Tri-State, and Fireman's Fund Insurance. Her non-profitboard appointments included the Institute for International Studies at Stanford University, the Council on Foreign Relations, the Council of American Ambassadors, the World Affairs Council, the United States Commission for UNESCO, the National Committee on U.S.- ChinaRelations, the United Nations Association, and the U.S. Citizen's Space TaskForce.Fact|date=August 2008
Temple received honorary
doctorates from Santa Clara Universityand Lehigh University, a Fellowship from College of Notre Dame, and a Chubb Fellowshipfrom Yale University. Temple now lives in Woodside, California.Fact|date=August 2008
Temple is often remembered as the first celebrity to publicly discuss her involvement with this form of cancer. In an interview published on the web page of the
American Cancer Society, actress Barbara Barrieis quoted as saying: :Shirley Temple Black was the first person who said, on national television, 'I have breast cancer.' It wasn't Betty Ford, it was Shirley Temple, child star. One of the greatest stars of the world ever. And, she was so brave to say that, because first of all, people never said "cancer" and they never said "breast", not in public. She said it and she set the whole ball rolling. People don't remember that, but she did it. [ [http://www.acscsn.org/Talk_Shows_and_Stories/Celebrity_Interviews/Celebrity_Barbara_Barrie_Colon.html "Barbara Barrie"] . American Cancer Society Cancer Survivors Network.] Temple appeared on the cover of "People" magazine in 1999 with the title "Picture Perfect" and again later that year as part of their special report, "Surviving Breast Cancer". She appeared at the 70th Academy Awardsand also in that same year received Kennedy Center Honors.
In 1999, Temple hosted the "
AFI's 100 Years... 100 Stars" awards show on CBS, a special list from the American Film Instituteand part of the AFI 100 Years... series. She was also ranked #18 in the list.
In 2001, Temple served as a consultant on the ABC Television Network production of "", based on part one of her
In 2004, Temple teamed with
Legend Filmsto restore, colorize and release her earliest black and white films, as well as episodes of her 1960 television series (originally shot on color videotape), "The Shirley Temple Storybook Collection".
September 12, 2005, Screen Actors Guildpresident Melissa Gilbertannounced that Temple would receive the Guild's most prestigious honor, the Lifetime Achievement Award. Gilbert said:
I can think of no one more deserving of this year's SAG Life Achievement award than Shirley Temple Black. Her contributions to the entertainment industry are without precedent; her contributions to the world are nothing short of inspirational. She has lived the most remarkable life, as the brilliant performer the world came to know when she was just a child, to the dedicated public servant who has served her country both at home and abroad for 30 years. In everything she has done and accomplished, Shirley Temple Black has demonstrated uncommon grace, talent and determination, not to mention compassion and courage. As a child, I was thrilled to dance and sing to her films and more recently as Guild president I have been proud to work alongside her, as her friend and colleague, in service to our union. She has been an indelible influence on my life. She was my idol when I was a girl and remains my idol today. [Shirley Temple Black Honored with 2005 Screen Actors Guild Life Achievement Award, at the [http://www.sagawards.com/PR_050912.htm/?id=SAG Awards official website] ; last accessed
August 12, 2006.]
In April 2008, Shirley Temple Black broke her arm just before her 80th birthday in a fall at her suburban San Mateo County home of Woodside. [ [http://ap.google.com/article/ALeqM5jAwlSZaP6D10slGOI2j5MgzcWrkgD908UIN00 ap.google.com, Shirley Temple Black breaks arm just before 80th birthday] ]
References in popular culture
*In 1965-1967, a popular main character named Curley Dimples (
Gael Dixon), was a regular in the Australian children's TV show, Magic Circle Club. Curley's appearance and voice spoofed the iconic young Shirley Temple.
Stone Temple Pilotswere known as "Shirley Temple's Pussy" before changing their name.
The JacksonsVariety Show", Janet Jacksondid a skit with brother Randy to " On the Good Ship Lollipop".
*New York band Interpol mention Temple by name in their song 'The Specialist' with the line, "put a lid on Shirley Temple."
*Temple was mentioned in
Weird Al Yankovic's song "Confessions Part III", in which the singer/comedian states that "in private, I really like to dress up as Shirley Temple and spank myself with a hockey stick."
Carol Burnettoccasionally performed an impression of "On the Good Ship Lollipop", exaggerating the concentration in Temple's face to look angry or scowling.
Culture Clubreleased a track called "Shirley Temple Moment" as part of a retrospective Box Set. It was in fact a demo version of their single Victims in which Boy Georgestorms out mid-song after arguing with the band.
*Towards the end of the
Phishsong " The Wolfman's Brother," the name "Shirley Temple" can be heard numerous times.
*In the episode, "
Last Tap Dance in Springfield," of the animated television series, " The Simpsons", a former child-star turned tap-instructor, 'Little' Vicki Valentine, is featured. This former-child star appears to be modeled after Temple. Also in another episode of "The Simpsons" entitled, " Treehouse of Horror III," King Kong(portrayed by Homer Simpson) eats a child actress similar to Temple.
*On the animated television show "
Family Guy", Stewie Griffinsings "On the Good Ship Lollipop" to get the attention of airport security when his backpack full of concealed weapons goes through the x-ray.
*When Temple first ran for public office, a poster was published showing her in one of her earliest movies; a caption read, "Vote for Me or I'll Hold My Breath."
*"Shirl" has been the nickname of two famous blond, curly-headed Australian males: Mike Williams, the (often on-screen) floor manager of the
The Mike Walsh Showdaytime television variety program, and rock singer Graeme Strachanof the band Skyhooks, who later became the TV host of the children's TV show Shirl's Neighbourhood.
*In the animated feature film "
Shrek the Third", the Gingerbread Mansings "On the Good Ship Lollipop" to himself after seeing his life flash before his eyes.
*Temple is the only person, besides
The Beatlesthemselves, who appears more than once on the " Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band" album cover. She appears as a cut-out in the last row and a Shirley Temple doll is featured on the right side, wearing a shirt saying "Welcome The Rolling Stones".
*The African-American stereotypes in some of Temple's films has been parodied on "
MADtv"; specifically the scene from "The Littlest Rebel" when Bill Robinsonteaches her to dance up and down the steps.
*There is a non-alcoholic drink named after Temple. It consists of
ginger aleor lemon-lime soda with grenadine (pomegranate syrup) and a whole cherry added. Consequently, a similar drink substituting cola for the ginger ale (usually referred to as a Roy Rogers) is known as a "Shirley Temple Black" in some regions. An alcoholic version of a "Shirley Temple," usually with vodkaadded, is also known as a "Shirley Temple Black."
Gilmore GirlsEpisode Rory's Birthday Parties, Lorelai is drinking a Shirley Temple Black and references the Good Ship Lollipop :Lorelai: (sighs, hands Rory a drink) Here.:Rory: What is it?:Lorelai: A Shirley Temple.:Rory: What are you drinking?:Lorelai: A Shirley Temple Black.:Rory: (sniffs at it) Wow.:Lorelai: I got your Good Ship Lollipop right here, mister.
*In the episode of "" entitled
The Arsenal of Freedom, Riker says during his interrogation that he serves aboard the USS "Lollipop", stating that "it's a good ship."
*Temple is one of the celebrities caricatured in
Donald Duck's "The Autograph Hound".
*Temple is mentioned on the song "(The legend of) Miss Baltimore Crabs" from the musical "Hairspray", on the line "Childhood dreams/for me were cracked/ when that damn Shirley Temple/ stole my frickin' act."
*In the 1997 movie "
Cats Don't Dance", Darla Dimple is a spoof of Temple; her name was also taken from another child star of the thirties, Darla Hoodfrom Our Gang.
*Two episodes of "Madeline" featured a child star named "Sugar Dimples", an obvious reference to Shirley Temple.
*In the 1997 movie "
Tower of Terror", Sally Shine, a child movie star, is killed in the elevator in 1939 along with four others. With her curly blonde mop, sweet demeanor, and short, flouncy dress, (and her own doll modeled after her), she appears to be modeled after Temple.
*In an episode of the hit TV show
Full House, Jesse and Joey dress up as, what appears to be, Shirley Temple, and they sing " On the Good Ship Lollipop" together at the end of the episode.
*In the episode called the snooper star from the
Brady BunchCindy believes that she is going to become the next Shirley Temple and sings one of her songs in front of one of Mikes clients.
*In the Pilot Episode of Mork&Mindy, Mork temporarily performs an impersonation of Shirley Temple, using "Good Ship Lollipop" as an example.
* In Toni Morrison's famous book (set in Lorain, Ohio, 1941),
The Bluest Eye, Shirley temple was the primary evidence used to show that the ideal beauty was a blue eyed white girl.
*In an episode of
That 70s Show, Hyde, Jackie, Eric, and Donna sing " On the Good Ship Lollipop" to cover the sound of Fez peeing in a mobile home bathroom.
Salvador Dalí's painting " Shirley Temple, The Youngest, Most Sacred Monster of the Cinema in Her Time"
* [http://www.shirleytemple.com/ "Official site" (Legend Films memorabilia and merchandise site authorized by Shirley Temple Black)]
* [http://www.shirleytemplefans.com/ ShirleyTempleFans.com]
* [http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/space/frontiers/chat_archives/temple_black03-26-99.html Female Frontiers QuestChat Archive: Shirley Temple] and [http://quest.arc.nasa.gov/people/bios/women/black.html biography]
* [http://www.archive.org/search.php?query=Shirley%20Temple%20AND%20mediatype%3Amovies Shirley Temple movies for free download]
* [http://www.tv.com/shirley-temple-theatre/show/4142/summary.html/ Shirley Temple Theatre]
* [http://www.tv.com/shirley-temples-storybook/show/4136/summary.html/ Shirley Temple's Storybook]
* [http://film.virtual-history.com/person.php?personid=1027 Photographs of Shirley Temple]
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Academy Juvenile Award
years = 1934
Deanna Durbin& Mickey Rooneysuccession box
Screen Actors Guild Life Achievement Award
years = 2005
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