- Antimagnetic watch
Anti-magnetic (non-magnetic) watches are those that are able to run with minimal deviation when exposed to a certain magnetic field. The
International Organization for Standardizationissued a standard for magnetic resistant watches, which many countries have adopted.
ISO 764 magnetic resistant watches standard
The international standard ISO 764 Horology -- Magnetic resistant watches defines the resistance of watches to magnetic fields. According to ISO 764 or its equivalent
DIN8309 (Deutsche Industrie Norm - German Industry Norm) a watchmust resist exposition to a direct current magnetic fieldof 4,800 A/m ( Ampereper meter). The watch must keep its accuracy to +/- 30 seconds/day as measured before the test in order to be acknowledged as a magnetic resistant watch.Annex A of ISO 764 deals with watches designated as magnetic resistant with an additional indication of intensity of a magnetic field exceeding 4,800 A/m.
There are two ways of building an anti-magnetic watch:
* The first way consists in using different
alloys, capable to withstand magnetic fields. Such alloys as Invar( iron- nickel- carbon- chromiumalloy), Glucydur( beryllium- bronzealloy), Nivarox(iron - nickel - chromium - titanium- beryllium alloy) and Elinvar- an alloy similar to Invar, though less resistant to magnetismand more resistant to thermal influence. Due to different components these alloys have different properties. They were differently used by various watch-making brands. However, since the 1950s Nivarox and Glucydur were extensively used by the watchmakers. Starting with the 60's almost all Swiss watches had Glucydur balance and Nivarox hairsprings. The anchors, escape wheels and other parts of mechanism were also made of non-magnetic metals or alloys.
* Another way of making a watch non-magnetic is to house the entire movement into a case made of a highly conductive (permeable) material. The movement is covered by an additional soft-iron clasp to prevent the forming of magnetic fields inside the watch itself.
First comments on experimenting with anti-magnetism in watch-making were reported in 1846. The watchmakers from
Vacheron Constantinwere among the first to experiment with anti-magnetic features of a watch. However, they succeeded in assembling the first antimagnetic watch only several decades later. That watch was able to withstand magnetic fields because some of its parts were made of non-magnetic metals: the palladium-made balance wheel, balance springand the lever shaft.
Charles Edouard Guillaumediscovered the nickel based alloy Invar. Afterwards, in 1920, when he received the Nobel Prizein Physics, he developed another alloy - Elinvar. These events played an important role in assembling anti-magnetic watches. Invar is able to resist magnetic fields, thus protecting the watch from its influences.
The first anti-magnetic pocket watch was assembled by Vacheron Constantin in 1915. Later, in 1929,
Tissotassembled the first ever non-magnetic wristwatch. In 1954 Vacheron Constantin has continued the innovative rush by producing the first anti-magnetic chronograph. In 1958 Jaeger-LeCoultrehas improved the chronograph resistant to magnetic fields by doubling its anti-magnetic case.
Since their appearance anti-magnetic watches have found a wide application in different activities, especially where people deal with high magnetic fields. Such timepieces are wide-spread among engineers who deal with electronics and where magnetic fields are present but are not very intensive.
Today even divers' watches (according to
ISO 6425) must correspond not only with such criteria as water resistance, luminosity, shock resistance and strap solidity, but also anti-magnetism.
After discovering the alloys for assembling anti-magnetic watches many watch-making brands use the materials in production and try to improve the performance of such timepieces.The most outstanding watches of this class were made by IWC: in 1989 IWC assembled the Ingeneur. It was able to withstand a huge magnetic field of 500,000 A/m. In 1993, when IWC celebrated its 125th birthday, the company substituted this model with a more conventional Ingeneur, resisting a magnetic field of 80,000 A/m. IWC Pilots' watches have the feature of showing accurate time under a moderate magnetic pressure too.
Almost all timepieces from Vacheron Constantin have this feature, especially those from the Overseas collection. These watches had an anti-magnetic screen in soft-iron for the protection of the movement.
Olympic Games' timekeeper Omegaalso manufactures watches corresponding to ISO764, which is based on the accidental exposure of the watch to a magnetic field of 4,800 A/m. Patek Philippehas also introduced a few innovations into this field: the engineers developed a non-metallic, silicon-based material for building parts of a watch's mechanism, thus making them fully non-magnetic. Breitlingand Paneraialso use such alloys as Glucydur to manufacture anti-magnetic watches.
Shock resistant watch
* Water resistant watch
* [http://www.gadget4boys.com/index.php?page=articles&catid=2&id=5 High-end Materials for High-end Watches]
* [http://www.euro-replica.com/vach_nonmagnetic-p.html Vacheron Constantin and Nonmagnetic Watches]
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