Cartoon

The word cartoon has various meanings, based on several very different forms of visual art and illustration. The term has evolved over time.

The original meaning was in fine art, and there cartoon meant a preparatory drawing for a piece of art such as a painting or tapestry.

The somewhat more modern meaning was that of humorous illustrations in magazines and newspapers. Even more recently there are now several contemporary meanings, including creative visual work for print media, for electronic media, and even animated films and animated digital media.

When the word cartoon is applied to print media, it most often refers to a humorous single-panel drawing or gag cartoon, most of which have captions and do not use speech balloons. The word cartoon is not often used to refer to a comic strip.

The artists who draw cartoons are known as cartoonists.

Art

A cartoon (from the Italian "cartone" and Dutch word "karton", meaning strong, heavy paper or pasteboard) is a full-size drawing made on sturdy paper as a study or "modello" for a painting, stained glass, or tapestry. Cartoons were typically used in the production of frescoes, to accurately link the component parts of the composition when painted on damp plaster over a series of days ("giornate"). Such cartoons often have pinpricks along the outlines of the design; a bag of soot was then patted or "pounced" over the cartoon, held against the wall to leave black dots on the plaster ("pouncing"). Cartoons by painters, such as the Raphael Cartoons in London and examples by Leonardo da Vinci, are highly prized in their own right. Tapestry cartoons, usually coloured, were followed by eye by the weavers on the loom.

Print media

In modern print media, a cartoon is a piece of art, usually humorous in intent. This usage dates from 1843 when "Punch" magazine applied the term to satirical drawings in its pages, [Cite web|last=Punch.co.uk|title=History of the Cartoon|url=http://punch.co.uk/cartoonhistory02.html] particularly sketches by John Leech. The first of these parodied the preparatory cartoons for grand historical frescoes in the then-new Palace of Westminster. The original title for these drawings was "Mr Punch's face is the letter Q" and the new title "cartoon" was intended to be ironic, a reference to the self-aggrandising posturing of Westminster politicians.

Modern single-panel cartoons or gag cartoons, found in magazines and newspapers, generally consist of a single drawing with a caption immediately beneath or (much less often) a speech balloon. Many consider "New Yorker" cartoonist Peter Arno the father of the modern gag cartoon (as did Arno himself). Gag cartoonists of note include Charles Addams, Gary Larson, Charles Barsotti, Chon Day and Mel Calman.

Editorial cartoons are a type of gag cartoon found almost exclusively in news publications and news websites. Although they also employ humor, they are more serious in tone, commonly using irony or satire. The art usually acts as a visual metaphor to illustrate a point of view on current social and/or political topics. Editorial cartoons often include speech balloons and, sometimes, multiple panels. Editorial cartoonists of note include Herblock, Mike Peters, David Low, Jeff MacNelly and Gerald Scarfe.

Comic strips, also known as "cartoon strips" in the United Kingdom, are found daily in newspapers worldwide, and are usually a short series of cartoon illustrations in sequence. In the United States they are not as commonly called "cartoons" themselves, but rather "comics" or "funnies". Nonetheless, the creators of comic strips—as well as comic books and graphic novels—are referred to as "cartoonists". Although humor is the most prevalent subject matter, adventure and drama are also represented in this medium. Noteworthy cartoonists in this sense include Charles Schulz, Bill Watterson, Scott Adams, Mort Walker, Steve Bell.

Motion pictures

[
right|thumb|200px|An_animated cartoon horse, drawn by rotoscoping from Edweard Muybridge's 19th century photos.] Because of the stylistic similarities between comic strips and early animated movies, "cartoon" came to refer to animation, and this is the sense in which "cartoon" is most commonly used today. These are usually shown on television or in cinemas and are created by showing illustrated images in rapid succession to give the impression of movement. (In this meaning, the word cartoon is sometimes shortened to "toon", which was popularized by the movie "Who Framed Roger Rabbit"). Although the term can be applied to any animated presentation, it is most often used in reference to programs for children, featuring anthropomorphized animals, superheroes, the adventures of child protagonists, and other related genres.

ee also

*Caricature
*Cartoon Research Library
*Editorial cartoon
*List of comic strips
*List of editorial cartoonists
*Music cartoon

References

External links

* [http://www.libraries.psu.edu/waring/cartoons/toon.html Index of cartoonists in the Fred Waring Collection]
* [http://www.hnu.edu/ishs/index.htm International Society for Humor Studies]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Cartoon — Cartoon …   Deutsch Wörterbuch

  • cartoon — [ kartun ] n. m. • 1930; mot angl. « dessin » ♦ Anglic. Dessin destiné à composer un film de dessins animés, et par ext. Le film lui même. Un auteur de cartoons. Dessin d une bande dessinée. ⇒ vignette. ● cartoon nom masculin (anglais cartoon)… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Cartoon — Sm gezeichnete Bildgeschichte erw. fach. (20. Jh.) Entlehnung. Entlehnt aus ne. cartoon, dieses aus frz. carton Zeichnung auf Karton, Karton , aus it. cartone, einem Augmentativum zu it. carta f. Papier , aus l. charta f. Papier, Schriftstück .… …   Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen sprache

  • Cartoon — Cartoon: Das Fremdwort mit der Bedeutung »Karikatur, Witzzeichnung, kurzer Comicstrip« wurde in der 2. Hälfte des 20. Jh.s aus gleichbed. engl. cartoon übernommen. Dieses geht über frz. carton »Zeichnung auf Karton« zurück auf ital. cartone, eine …   Das Herkunftswörterbuch

  • cartoon — [kär to͞on′] n. [Fr carton < It cartone, both in CARTOON sense 2: see CARTON] 1. a drawing, as in a newspaper, caricaturing or symbolizing, often satirically, some event, situation, or person of topical interest 2. a full size preliminary… …   English World dictionary

  • cartoon — ► NOUN 1) a drawing executed in an exaggerated style for humorous or satirical effect. 2) (also cartoon strip) a narrative sequence of humorous drawings with captions in a comic, newspaper, or magazine. 3) a film made from a sequence of drawings …   English terms dictionary

  • Cartoon — Car*toon , n. [F. carton (cf. It. cartone pasteboard, cartoon); fr. L. charta. See 1st {card}.] [1913 Webster] 1. A design or study drawn of the full size, to serve as a model for transferring or copying; used in the making of mosaics, tapestries …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • cartoon — index caricature, copy, parody Burton s Legal Thesaurus. William C. Burton. 2006 …   Law dictionary

  • Cartoon — Cartoon,derod.das:Karikatur(1) …   Das Wörterbuch der Synonyme

  • cartoon — /kɑ: tu:n/, it. /kar tun/ s. ingl. (propr. disegno, vignetta ), usato in ital. al masch. (massm.) [film di animazione] ▶◀ [➨ cartone (2)] …   Enciclopedia Italiana

  • cartoon — (n.) 1670s, a drawing on strong paper (used as a model for another work), from Fr. carton, from It. cartone strong, heavy paper, pasteboard, thus preliminary sketches made by artists on such paper (see CARTON (Cf. carton)). Extension to comical… …   Etymology dictionary

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