- Maria Leopoldina of Austria
- For the Holy Roman Empress, see Maria Leopoldine of Austria.
Maria Leopoldina of Austria Leopoldina at age 18, 1815 Empress consort of Brazil Tenure 12 October 1822 – 11 December 1826 Queen consort of Portugal Tenure 26 March - 28 May 1826 Spouse Pedro I of Brazil Maria II of Portugal
Pedro II of Brazil
Princess Francisca of Brazil
Januária Maria, Princess Imperial of Brazil
Full name Maria Leopoldina Josefa Carolina House House of Habsburg-Lorraine
House of Braganza
Father Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor Mother Maria Teresa of the Two Sicilies Born 22 January 1797
Died 11 December 1826(aged 29)
Paço de São Cristóvão, Rio de Janeiro
Museu Paulista, São Paulo
Maria Leopoldina of Austria (Portuguese: Maria Leopoldina de Áustria; German: Maria Leopoldine von Österreich) (Maria Leopoldina Josefa Carolina; 22 January 1797 – 11 December 1826) was archduchess of Austria, Empress consort of Brazil, and, for two months, simultaneously queen consort of Portugal.
She was born in Vienna, Austria, as archduchess of Austria. The daughter of Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, and his second wife, Maria Teresa of the Two Sicilies. Among her many siblings were Emperor Ferdinand I of Austria and Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma, the wife of Napoleon Bonaparte.
Marriage to Pedro I
In 1817 she sailed to Brazil to marry Pedro, crown prince of Portugal. The Portuguese royal family had been living there in exile for ten years, as a result of the Napoleonic Wars. Leopoldina was highly cultured, fluent in six languages, and very interested in the natural sciences. In the years that followed she brought several researchers and biologists to her new homeland, starting with Johann Baptist von Spix, Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius, and Johann Natterer, who accompanied her in 1817.
When his father, King John VI of Portugal, returned to Lisbon in 1821, Pedro chose to remain in Brazil with Leopoldina and their children. In 1822, Pedro headed Brazil's declaration of independence from Portugal, and was crowned as the country's emperor.
Empress of Brazil
Maria Leopoldina became Brazil's first empress consort. She also played an important role on the Declaration of Independence process. On 2 September 1822, a new decree with demands from Lisbon arrived in Rio de Janeiro, while Prince Pedro was in São Paulo. Leopoldina, advised by José Bonifácio, and using her power as Princess Regent, met on 2 September 1822 with the Council of Ministers. She decided to send her husband the news along with a letter advising him to declare Brazil's independence and warned him, "The fruit is ready, it's time to harvest." Prince Pedro declared the country's independence upon receiving the letter, on 7 September 1822.
When his father died, on 10 March 1826, Pedro inherited the Portuguese throne as King Pedro IV, while remaining Emperor Pedro I of Brazil. Maria Leopoldina thus became both Empress consort of Brazil and Queen consort of Portugal. However, two months later, Pedro was forced to give up the Portuguese throne to their seven-year-old daughter Maria.
Maria Leopoldina and Pedro had seven children before she died in 1826 following a miscarriage:
- Maria II of Portugal (1819–1853), following Pedro's devotion to Our Lady of Glória
- Miguel, Prince of Beira (1820).
- João Carlos, Prince of Beira (1821–1822).
- Januária Maria, Princess Imperial of Brazil (1822–1901), named after the city of Rio de Janeiro, married Prince Louis, Count of Aquila (1824–1897), son of King Francis I of the Two Sicilies.
- Princess Paula Mariana of Brazil (1823–1833).
- Princess Francisca of Brazil (1824–1898) married François, Prince of Joinville (1818–1900), son of Louis-Philippe King of the French.
- Pedro II of Brazil (1825–1891), married Princess Teresa of the Two Sicilies (1822–1889), the youngest daughter of King Francis I of the Two Sicilies.
- Miscarriage (11 December 1826).
Titles and styles
- 22 January 1797 – 11 August 1804 Her Royal Highness Archduchess Maria Leopoldina of Austria
- 11 August 1804 – 6 November 1817 Her Imperial & Royal Highness Archduchess Maria Leopoldina of Austria
- 6 November 1817 – 12 October 1822 Her Royal Highness the Princess Royal of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves, Duchess of Braganza
- 12 October 1822 – 10 March 1826 Her Imperial Majesty the Empress of Brazil
- 10 March 1826 – 28 May 1826 Her Imperial & Most Faithful Majesty the Empress of Brazil, Queen of Portugal
- 28 May 1826 – 11 December 1826 Her Imperial Majesty The Empress of Brazil
- ^ Rodrigues (v.4), p.13
- Rodrigues, José Honório. Independência: revolução e contra-revolução (5 v.). Rio de Janeiro: F. Alves, 1975.
Maria Leopoldina of AustriaCadet branch of the House of LorraineBorn: 22 January 1797 Died: 11 December 1826
- Article by Princess Michael of Kent about Leopoldine Retrieved 26 January 2006
Brazilian royalty New title
Empress consort of Brazil
12 October 1822 – 11 December 1826
VacantTitle next held byAmélie of Leuchtenberg Portuguese royalty Preceded by
Carlota Joaquina of Spain
Queen consort of Portugal
26 March – 28 May 1826
Auguste de Beauharnais
as Prince consort
Austrian archduchesses by birth 1st generationnone 2nd generationArchduchess Helena · Kunigunde, Duchess of Bavaria 3rd generation 4th generation 5th generationElisabeth, Queen of Poland · Maria, Holy Roman Empress* · Anna, Duchess of Bavaria · Archduchess Isabella* · Maria, Duchess of Jülich-Cleves-Berg · Archduchess Magdalena · Catherine, Queen of Poland · Eleanor, Duchess of Mantua · Archduchess Margaret · Joan, Princess of Portugal* · Barbara, Duchess of Ferrara · Archduchess Ursula · Archduchess Helena · Joanna, Grand Duchess of Tuscany 6th generationAnna, Queen of Spain · Elisabeth, Queen of France · Archduchess Maria · Archduchess Maria · Isabella Clara Eugenia, Co-sovereign of the Habsburg Hetherlands* · Archduchess Margaret · Catherine Michelle, Duchess of Savoy* · Archduchess Eleanor · Archduchess Maria* · Archduchess Martha · Archduchess Anna Eleanor · Archduchess Maria · Anna, Holy Roman Empress · Anna, Queen of Poland · Maria Christina, Princess of Transilvania · Archduchess Catherine Renata · Archduchess Elisabeth · Archduchess Gregoria Maximiliana · Archduchess Eleanor · Margaret, Queen of Spain · Constance, Queen of Poland · Maria Maddalena, Grand Duchess of Tuscany 7th generationArchduchess Christine · Anna, Queen of France* · Archduchess Maria · Maria Anna, Holy Roman Empress* · Archduchess Anna Mauritia · Maria Anna, Electress of Bavaria · Archduchess Margarita Francisca* · Cecilia Renata, Queen of Poland · Archduchess Maria Eleanor · Isabella Clara, Duchess of Mantua · Maria Leopoldine, Holy Roman Empress 8th generationArchduchess Maria Margarita* · Archduchess Margarita Maria Catalina* · Archduchess Maria Eugenia* · Archduchess Isabella Maria Teresa* · Maria Anna, Queen of Spain · Archduchess Maria Anna Antonia* · Maria Theresa, Queen of France* · Archduchess Maria · Margarita Teresa, Holy Roman Empress* · Archduchess Theresia Maria Josepha · Eleanor, Queen of Poland, Duchess of Lorraine · Claudia Felicitas, Holy Roman Empress · Maria Anna Josepha, Electoral Princess of the Palatinate · Archduchess Maria Ambrosia de la Concepción* · Archduchess Maria Magdalena 9th generationMaria Antonia, Electress of Bavaria · Archduchess Maria Anna Antonia · Archduchess Anna Maria · Archduchess Maria Josepha · Archduchess Christina · Archduchess Maria Elisabeth · Maria Anna, Queen of Portugal · Archduchess Maria Theresa · Archduchess Maria Josepha · Archduchess Maria Magdalena · Archduchess Maria Margaretha 10th generationMaria Josepha, Queen of Poland · Maria Amalia, Holy Roman Empress · Maria Theresa · Maria Anna, Princess Charles Alexander of Lorraine · Archduchess Maria Amalia 11th generationArchduchess Maria Elisabeth** · Archduchess Maria Anna** · Archduchess Maria Carolina** · Maria Christina, Duchess of Teschen** · Archduchess Maria Elisabeth** · Maria Amalia, Duchess of Parma** · Archduchess Maria Carolina** · Archduchess Johanna** · Archduchess Maria Josepha** · Maria Carolina, Queen of Naples** · Marie Antonia, Queen of France** 12th generationArchduchess Maria Theresa · Archduchess Marie Christine · Maria Theresia, Queen of Saxony** · Archduchess Maria Anna** · Maria Theresa, Queen of Sardinia*** · Archduchess Maria Josepha*** · Maria Leopoldine, Electress of Bavaria*** · Maria Clementina, Duchess of Calabria** · Archduchess Maria Amalia** · Archduchess Maria Antonia*** · Maria Ludovika, Empress of Austria*** 13th generationArchduchess Ludovika Elisabeth · Marie Louise, Empress of the French · Archduchess Carolina Ferdinande** · Archduchess Maria Caroline · Archduchess Caroline Ludovika · Maria Leopoldina, Empress of Brazil · Clementina, Princess of Salerno · Archduchess Maria Luisa** · Archduchess Alexandrine · Maria Theresa, Queen of Sardinia** · Marie Caroline, Crown Princess of Saxony · Archduchess Maria Anna · Archduchess Amalia Theresa · Maria Theresa, Queen of the Two Sicilies · Maria Theresa, Countess of Chambord*** · Archduchess Hermine · Archduchess Franziska · Archduchess Maria Caroline · Adelaide, Queen of Sardinia · Maria Beatrix, Countess of Montizón*** · Archduchess Maria Caroline · Archduchess Elisabeth Franziska · Marie Henriette, Queen of the Belgians 14th generationArchduchess Maria Anna · Archduchess Maria Carolina** · Auguste Ferdinande, Princess Luitpold of Bavaria** · Archduchess Maria Maximiliana** · Maria Isabella, Countess of Trapani** · Archduchess Maria Theresia** · Archduchess Maria Cristina** · Archduchess Maria Anna** · Maria Theresa, Duchess Philipp of Württemberg · Archduchess Mathilda · Maria Christina, Queen of Spain · Archduchess Maria Eleonora · Archduchess Elisabeth · Maria Dorothea, Duchess of Orléans · Margaretha Klementine, Princess of Thurn and Taxis · Archduchess Elisabeth Henriette · Archduchess Klotilde · Maria Theresa, Queen of Bavaria*** 15th generationArchduchess Sophie · Gisela, Princess Leopold of Bavaria · Archduchess Marie Valerie · Margarete Sophie, Duchess of Württemberg · Archduchess Maria Annunziata · Elisabeth, Princess Aloys of Liechtenstein · Archduchess Maria Antonietta** · Luise, Crown Princess of Saxony** · Anna, Princess of Hohenlohe-Bartenstein** · Archduchess Margareta** · Archduchess Germana** · Archduchess Agnes** · Archduchess Maria Theresa** · Karoline Marie, Princess Leopold of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha** · Archduchess Maria Antonietta** · Maria Immaculata, Duchess of Württemberg** · Archduchess Henriette** · Maria Christina, Princess Emmanuel of Salm-Salm · Maria Anna, Princess Elias of Bourbon Parma · Maria Henrietta, Princess of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst · Archduchess Natalie · Archduchess Stephanie · Archduchess Gabrielle · Isabella, Princess Georg of Bavaria · Alice, Baroness Waldbott of Bassenheim · Archduchess Eleonora, Mrs. Alfons von Kloss · Renata, Princess Hieronymus Radziwill · Mechthildis, Princess Olgierd Czartoryski · Archduchess Gisele · Archduchess Sophie · Archduchess Magdalena 16th generationElisabeth Marie, Princess of Windisch-Graetz · Helena, Duchess Philipp of Württemberg** · Rosa, Duchess of Württemberg** · Archduchess Dolores** · Maria Inmaculada, Nobile Inigo Neri Sereneri** · Margarita, Marchioness Taliani di Marchio** · Princess Maria Antonia, Mrs. Luis Pérez** · Archduchess Assunta, Mrs. Joseph Hopfinger** · Elisabeth, Countess of Waldburg-Zeil** · Hedwig, Countess of Stolberg-Stolberg** · Gertrud, Countess of Waldburg-Zeil-Trauchburg** · Archduchess Maria Elisabeth** · Archduchess Agnes** · Archduchess Margarethe, Mrs. Alexander Cech · Ilona, Duchess of Mecklenburg · Archduchess Anna Theresia · Archduchess Maria Kynga, Mrs. Joachim Krist 17th generationArchduchess Adelheid · Charlotte, Duchess of Mecklenburg · Elisabeth, Princess Heinrich of Liechtenstein · Elisabeth, Edle Hubert von Braun** · Alice, Baroness Vittorio Manno** · Marie Antoinette, Baroness of Proff in Irnich** · Archduchess Marie Christine** · Archduchess Walburga, Mrs. Carlos Tasso** · Archduchess Verena** · Archduchess Katharina, Mrs. Roland Huber** · Agnes, Baroness Peter of Fürstenberg** · Maria Ileana, Countess Adam Kottulinski** · Alexandra, Baroness Viktor of Baillou** · Maria Magdalena, Baroness of Holzhausen** · Archduchess Elisabeth, Mrs. Friedrich Sandhofer** · Agnes, Princess Karl Alfred of Liechtenstein** · Archduchess Maria Margaretha** · Archduchess Ludovica** · Archduchess Allix** · Josepha, Countess Clemens of Waldstein-Wartenberg** · Valerie, Margravine of Baden** · Alberta, Baroness Alexander of Kottwitz-Erdödy** · Theresa, Princess Rasso of Bavaria** · Maria Inmakulata, Countess Reinhart of Hoensbroech** · Archduchess Monika, Mrs. Charles de Rambures · Archduchess Marie Christine, Mrs. Raymond van der Meide · Archduchess Maria, Mrs. Wilhelm de Witt · Margherita, Countess Benedikt of Piatti 18th generationAndrea, Hereditary Countess of Neipperg · Monika, Duchess of Maqueda · Michaela, Countess Hubertus of Kageneck · Archduchess Gabriela, Mrs. Christian Meister · Walburga, Countess Archibald Douglas · Maria Beatrix, Countess Riprand of Arco-Zinneberg*** · Isabella, Countess Andrea Czarnocki-Lucheschi*** · Maria del Pilar, Edle Vollrad-Joachim von Poschinger · Kinga, Baroness Wolfgang of Erffa · Archduchess Marie Adelheid, Mrs. Jaime Corcuerra · Archduchess Viridis, Mrs. Karl Dunning-Gribble · Archduchess Alexandra, Mrs. Héctor Riesle · Maria Constanza, Princess of Auersperg-Trautson · Maria Anna, Princess Peter Galitzine · Catharina, Countess Maximiliano Secco d'Aragona · Archduchess Elisabeth, Mrs. James Litchfield · Sophie, Princess of Windisch-Grätz · Archduchess Marie Christine, Mrs. Clemens Guggenberg · Archduchess Marie Bernadette, Mrs. Rupert Wolff** · Archduchess Katharina, Mrs. Niall Brooks** · Archduchess Alicia** · Archduchess Maria Christina** · Archduchess Margaretha, Mrs. Andreas Baumgartner** · Archduchess Marie Valerie, Mrs. Martin Josef Wagner** · Archduchess Hedwig** · Archduchess Veronika** · Archduchess Johanna · Archduchess Elisabeth · Archduchess Celina · Archduchess Maria Floriana · Archduchess Sofía · Archduchess Anna Carolina · Archduchess Theresa · Archduchess Sophie · Archduchess Ladislaya 19th generationArchduchess Eleonore · Archduchess Gloria · Archduchess Sophie · Archduchess Hilda · Archduchess Maria Laura*** · Archduchess Luisa Maria*** · Archduchess Laetitia Maria*** · Archduchess Sophia · Archduchess Maria Theresa · Archduchess Margherite · Archduchess Priscilla · Archduchess Marie des Neiges · Marie Christine, Countess Rodolphe of Limburg-Stirum · Archduchess Gabriella · Archduchess Antonia · Archduchess Isabelle · Archduchess Carlotta · Archduchess Paulina · Archduchess Lara · Archduchess Katharina · Archduchess Tatyana** · Archduchess Anabella** · Archduchess Tara** · Archduchess Amaya 20th generationArchduchess Zita · Archduchess Anežka*also an infanta of Spain
**also a princess of Tuscany
***also a princess of Modena
1st Generation 2nd GenerationInfanta Urraca of Castile • Aurembiaix, Countess of Urgell • Jeanne, Countess of Flanders 3rd GenerationMatilda II, Countess of Boulogne • Sancha Fernández de Lara 4th GenerationInfanta Violante Manuel of Castile 5th GenerationInfanta Beatrice of Castile 6th Generation 7th GenerationMaria Teles de Menezes • Constance de Trastámara, Lady of Alba de Tormes • Juana de Trastámara, Lady of Cifuentes 8th GenerationInfanta Eleanor of Aragon • Infanta Isabella of Aragon • Isabella of Braganza 9th GenerationCharlotte, Queen of Cyprus • Infanta Beatriz of Portugal* 10th GenerationInfanta Leonor of Portugal* • Isabella, Princess of Asturias 11th GenerationIsabella, Princess of Asturias • Guiomar de Coutinho • Isabella of Braganza 12th Generation 13th GenerationCountess Emilia of Nassau^ • Luísa Osório^ 14th Generation 15th Generation 16th Generationnone 17th Generation 18th Generationnone 19th Generation 20th GenerationArchduchess Maria Leopoldina of Austria • Princess Amélie of Leuchtenberg • Princess Adelaide of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg 21st GenerationPrincess Elisabeth of Thurn and Taxis • Princess Maria Theresa of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg • Princess Maria Amalia of the Two Sicilies** • Infanta Maria Cristina of Spain** 22nd GenerationAnita Stewart Morris • Princess Francisca of Orléans and Braganza 23rd Generation 24th GenerationPrincess Augusta Victoria of Hohenzollern*also an Infanta of Portugal by birth, **also an infanta of Spain, ^position as infanta not accepted Portuguese royal consortsMaud of Savoy (1146-1157) · Dulce of Aragon (1185-1198) · Urraca of Castile (1211-1220) · Mécia Lopes de Haro (1246–1248) · Matilda of Boulogne (1248–1253) · Beatrice of Castile (1253-1279) · Elizabeth of Aragon (1282-1325) · Beatrice of Castile (1225-1257) · Inês de Castro (1360) · Leonor Telles de Menezes (1372-1383) · Philippa of Lancaster (1387-1415) · Eleanor of Aragon (1433-1438) · Isabella of Coimbra (1447-1455) · Joanna of Castile (1475–1479) · Eleanor of Viseu (1481-1495) · Isabella of Aragon (1497-1498) · Maria of Aragon (1500 -1517) · Archduchess Eleanor of Austria (1518-1521) · Archduchess Catherine of Austria (1525-1557) · Archduchess Anna of Austria (1580) · Archduchess Margaret of Austria (1598–1611) · Princess Élisabeth of France (1621-1640) · Luisa of Guzman (1640-1656) · Princess Marie Françoise of Savoy (1666-1668) & (1683) · Countess Palatine Maria Sophia of Neuburg (1687-1699) · Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria (1708-1750) · Infanta Mariana Victoria of Spain (1750-1777) · Infanta Carlota of Spain (1816-1826) · Archduchess Maria Leopoldina of Austria (1826) · Auguste de Beauharnais (1835) · Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1836-1837) · Princess Stephanie of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1858-1859) · Princess Maria Pia of Savoy (1862-1889) · Princess Amélie of Orléans (1889-1908)
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