- South Island
name = South Island
Te Wai Pounamu
image caption = Satellite view of the South Island
image size =
Location map|New Zealand|lat=-43.983333|long=170.45|marksize=16
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native name =
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nickname = The Mainland
location = New Zealand
total islands =
major islands =
area = 151,215 km² (58,093 m²)
rank = 12th
highest mount =
elevation = 3,754 m (12,316 ft)
country = New Zealand
country admin divisions title =
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country capital city =
country largest city =
country largest city population = 414,000
country leader title =
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population = 1,008,400
population as of = 30 June 2007
density = 6.7 per km²
ethnic groups = European,
additional info =The South Island is the larger of the two major islands of
New Zealand, the other being the more populous North Island. The Māoriname for the South Island, " Te Wai Pounamu", meaning "The Water/s of Greenstone" ( greenstonebeing jade), possibly evolved from "Te Wāhi Pounamu" which means "The Place Of Greenstone". The island is also known as Te Waka a Māuiwhich means "Māui's Canoe". ["The South Island" takes the definite article when used as a noun whereas maps, headings or tables and adjectival expressions use "South Island". This pattern can be found in a number of other names, such as "the United Kingdom", "the Vatican" and "the Internet".
* My mother lives in the South Island
* The North Island is smaller in area than the South Island
* I'm visiting the South Island
* The major South Island peaks are all in the Southern Alps
Note also that places are said to be "in" the South Island rather than "on" the South Island.]
The South Island is often called "the Mainland". Today this expression is used humorously, although still with pride by "Mainlanders", since while it is a somewhat larger landmass than the
North Island, only about a quarter of New Zealand's four million inhabitants live in the South Island. However, in the early stages of European (Pākehā) settlement of the country, the South Island was pre-eminent, with the majority of the European population and wealth focussed there due to gold rushes. It was not until the early 20th century that the North Island population overtook the South, with 56% of the population living in the North in 1911. [cite book | first = Michael | last = King | authorlink = Michael King | title = The Penguin History of New Zealand | location = Auckland | publisher = Penguin Books | year = 2003 | isbn = 0143018671 | url = http://penguin.co.nz/afa.asp?idWebPage=30233&ID=1788742&SID=858711552 | pages = 280-281 ] In Māori legend, the South Island existed first, as the boat of Maui, while the North Island was the fish that he caught. However, the South Island has never been the main site of Māori population.
Early inhabitants of the South Island were the
Waitaha. They were largely absorbed via marriage and conquest by the Kāti Mamoein the 1500s.Fact|date=April 2008
Ngāti Mamoe were in turn largely absorbed via marriage and conquest by the
Ngāi Tahuwho migrated south in the seventeenth century. [cite book | author=Michael King | title=The Penguin History of New Zealand | year= 2003 | isbn=0-14-301867-1 | pages=p 90 | publisher= Penguin Books ] While today there is no distinct Ngati Mamoe organisation, many Ngai Tahu have Ngati Mamoe links in their whakapapaand, especially in the far south of the island.
Around the same time a group of Māori migrated to "Rekohu" (the
Chatham Islands), where, by adapting to the local climate and the availability of resources, they developed a culture known as Moriori— related to but distinct from Māori culture in mainland New Zealand. A notable feature of the Moriori culture, an emphasis on pacifism, proved disadvantageous when Māori warriors arrived in the 1830s aboard a chartered European ship. [ [http://www.teara.govt.nz/NewZealanders/MaoriNewZealanders/Moriori/4/en Moriori - The impact of new arrivals - "Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand"] ]
The first Europeans known to reach the South Island were the crew of Dutch explorer
Abel Tasmanwho arrived in his ships "Heemskerck" and "Zeehaen". Tasman anchored in Golden Bay, at the northern end of the island, (he named it Murderers Bay) in December 1642 and sailed northward to Tongafollowing a clash with local Māori. Tasman sketched sections of the two main islands' west coasts. Tasman called them "Staten Landt", after the " States-General of the Netherlands", and that name appeared on his first maps of the country. Dutch cartographers changed the name to "Nova Zeelandia" in Latin, from "Nieuw Zeeland", after the Dutch province of " Zeeland". It was subsequently Anglicised as "New Zealand" by British naval captain James Cookof HM Bark "Endeavour" who visited the islands more than 100 years after Tasman during ( 1769– 1770).
In the early 18th century,
Ngāi Tahua Māoritribe who originated on the east coast of the North Islandbegan migrating to the northern part of the South Island. There they and Kāti Mamoefought Ngāi Taraand Rangitānein the Wairau Valley. Ngāti Māmoe then ceded the east coast regions north of the Clarence River to Ngāi Tahu. Ngāi Tahu continued to push south, conquering Kaikoura. By the 1730s, Ngāi Tahu had settled in Canterbury, including Banks Peninsula. From there they spread further south and into the West Coast.
Ngāti Toaunder the leadership of Te Rauparahasuccessfully attacked Ngāi Tahu at Kaikoura. Ngāti Toa then visited Kaiapoi, obstensibly to trade. When they attacked their hosts, the well-prepared Ngāi Tahu killed all the leading Ngāti Toa chiefs except Te Rauparaha. Te Rauparaha returned to his Kapiti Islandstronghold. In November 1830 Te Rauparaha persuaded Captain John Stewart of the brig "Elizabeth" to carry him and his warriors in secret to Akaroa, where by subterfuge they captured the leading Ngāi Tahu chief, Te Maiharanui, and his wife and daughter. After destroying Te Maiharanui's village they took their captives to Kapiti and killed them. John Stewart, though arrested and sent to trial in Sydneyas an accomplice to murder, nevertheless escaped conviction.Citation
first =Te Maire
contribution =Ngāi Tahu
title =Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand
In the summer of 1831-1832 Te Rauparaha attacked the Kaiapoi pā (fortified village). After a three-month siege, a fire in the pā allowed Ngāti Toa to overcome it. They then attacked Ngāi Tahu on
Banks Peninsulaand took the pā at Onawe. In 1832-33 Ngāi Tahu retaliated under the leadership of Tuhawaikiand others, attacking Ngāti Toa at Lake Grassmere. Ngāi Tahu prevailed, and killed many Ngāti Toa, although Te Rauparaha again escaped. Fighting continued for a year or so, with Ngāi Tahu maintaining the upper hand. Ngāti Toa never again made a major incursion into Ngāi Tahu territory.
By 1839 Ngāi Tahu and Ngāti Toa established peace and Te Rauparaha released the Ngāi Tahu captives he held. Formal marriages between the leading families in the two tribes sealed the peace.
June 17, 1843, Māorinatives and the British settlers clashed at Wairauin what became known as the Wairau Affray. Also known as the Wairau Massacre in most older texts, it was the first serious clash of arms between the two parties after the signing of the Treaty of Waitangiand the only one to take place in the South Island. Four Māori died and three were wounded in the incident, while among the Europeans the toll was 22 dead and five wounded. Twelve of the Europeans were shot dead or clubbed to death after surrendering to Māori who were pursuing them.cite book | author=Michael King | title=The Penguin History of New Zealand | year= 2003 | id=ISBN 0-14-301867-1 | publisher= Penguin Books]
In the 1870s and 1880s, several thousand Chinese men, mostly from the
Guangdongprovince, migrated to New Zealand to work on the South Island goldfields. Although the first Chinese migrants had been invited by the OtagoProvincial government they quickly became the target of hostility from white settlers and laws were enacted specifically to discourage them from coming to New Zealand. [Manying Ip. 'Chinese', Te Ara—the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, updated 21-Dec-2006, http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/NewZealanders/NewZealandPeoples/Chinese/en]
In the 19th century, some maps named the South Island as "Middle Island" or "
New Munster", and the name "South Island" or " New Leinster" was used for today's Stewart Island/Rakiura.
In 1907 the Minister for Lands gave instructions to the Land and Survey Department that the name Middle Island was not to be used in future. "South Island will be adhered to in all cases". [cite news|publisher=
Taranaki Herald|date=30 July 1907|page=4|url=http://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/cgi-bin/paperspast?a=d&d=TH19070730.2.22|title=The Waitara Harbour Bill]
The South Island is guaranteed 16 of the 69 electorates in the
New Zealand House of Representatives. In addition, 10 list MPs are based in the South Island, including the current Deputy Prime Minister.
Local Government Regions
There are seven local government regions covering the South Island and all its adjacent islands and territorial waters. Four are governed by an elected regional council, while three are governed by territorial authorities (the second tier of local government) which also perform the functions of a regional council and thus are known as unitary authorities. There is one exception to this, Nelson City, is governed by an individual Territorial authority to its region (Tasman Region). The
Chatham Islands Councilis often counted by many as a unitary authority, but it is officially recognised as a part of the region of Canterbury.
* West Coast
There are 25 territorial authorities within the South Island: 4 city councils, 20 district councils and the
Chatham IslandsCouncil. Four territorial authorities (Nelson City Council, Tasman and Marlborough District Councils and the Chatham Islands Council) also perform the functions of a regional council and thus are known as unitary authorities.
Tasman DistrictCouncil (unitary authority)
* Nelson City Council (unitary authority)
* Marlborough District Council (unitary authority)
* West Coast Regional Council
** Grey District Council
Canterbury Regional Council (Environment Canterbury)
** Christchurch City Council
** Ashburton District Council
** Timaru District Council
Waitaki DistrictCouncil (part)
** Waimate District Council
* Otago Regional Council
** Queenstown Lakes District Council
Central Otago DistrictCouncil
** Waitaki District Council (part)
** Dunedin City Council
* Southland Regional Council (Environment Southland)
** Southland District Council
** Gore District Council
** Invercargill City Council
** Southland Regional Council (Environment Southland)
** Chatham Islands Council (district)
This is a list of Political Parties, past and present, who have their headquarters in the South Island.
Aotearoa Legalise Cannabis Party
Imperial British Conservative Party
National Democrats Party
New Zealand Democratic Party
New Zealand Progressive Party
South Island Party
South Island Party (2008)
Compared to the more populated and multi-ethnic North Island, the South Island has a smaller, more homogeneous resident population of 1,008,400. [ [http://www.stats.govt.nz/products-and-services/media-releases/subnational-population-estimates/subnational-population-estimates-at-30-jun07-mr.htm South Island population reaches one million: Subnational Population Estimates at 30 June 2007] ,
Statistics New Zealand.] At the 2001 Census, over 91 percent of people in the South Island said they belong to the European ethnic group, compared with 80.1 percent for all of New Zealand [Statistics New Zealand [http://www.stats.govt.nz/statistics-by-area/community-profiles.htm] ] .
The South Island had an estimated sub-national GDP of US$27.8 billion (as of 2003) [http://www.stats.govt.nz/NR/rdonlyres/BE5F3426-1CB8-4450-84B3-B4587181907E/0/RegionalGDPTables.xls] .
The main industry groups within the South Island are manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, electricity, gas and water supply, education, health and community services.
There are several South Island based trade union organisations. They are:
Furniture, Manufacturing & Associated Workers Union
New Zealand Building Trades Union
New Zealand Meat & Related Trades Workers Union
Southern Amalgamated Workers' Union
The main tourism destinations of the South Island are;
Southland Regionand Stewart Island/Rakiura
Wanakaand Central Otago
ki areas and Resorts
This is a list of ski areas and resorts in the
South Islandwhere the public can pay to ski.
Fox Peak(club skifield)
Hanmer Springs Ski Area(club skifield)
Mount Potts(heliskiing and snowcatting only)
*Temple Basin (club skifield)
**Broken River (club skifield)
Craigieburn Valley(club skifield)
Mount Cheeseman(club skifield)
**Mount Olympus (club skifield)
The South Island has a State Highway network of 4,921 km.
: "See also:
List of New Zealand railway lines, Rail transport in New Zealand."
The South Island's railway network has two main lines, two secondary lines, and a few
branch lines. The Main North Linefrom Picton to Christchurch and the Main South Linefrom Lyttelton to Invercargill via Dunedin together comprise the South Island Main Trunk Railway. The secondary Midland Line branches from the Main South Line in Rolleston and passes through the Southern Alps via the Otira Tunnelto the West Coast and its terminus in Greymouth. In Stillwater, it meets the other secondary route, the Stillwater - Westport Line, which now includes the Ngakawau Branch. A number of other secondary routes are now closed, including the Otago Central Railway, the isolated Nelson Section, and the interdependent Waimea Plains Railwayand Kingston Branch. An expansive network of branch lines once existed, especially in Canterbury, Otago, and Southland, but these are now almost completely closed. The branch lines that remain in operation serve ports ( Bluff Branchand Port Chalmers Branch), coal mines (Ohai Branch and Rapahoe Branch), and a dairying factory (Hokitika Branch). The first 64 km of the Otago Central Railway remain in operation for tourist trains run by the Taieri Gorge Railway(TGR). The most significant freight is coal from West Coast mines to the port of Lyttelton for export.
Passenger services were once extensive. Commuter trains operated multiple routes around Christchurch and Dunedin, plus a service between Invercargill and Bluff. Due to substantial losses, these were cancelled between the late 1960s and early 1980s. The final services to operate ran between Dunedin and
Mosgiel, and they ceased in 1982. [Tony Hurst, "Farewell to Steam: Four Decades of Change on New Zealand Railways" (Auckland: HarperCollins, 1995), 96.] Regional passenger trains were once extensive, but are now limited to the TranzCoastalfrom Christchurch to Picton and the TranzAlpinefrom Christchurch to Greymouth. The Southerner between Christchurch and Invercargill, once the flagship of the network, was cancelled on 10 February 2002. Subsequently, the architecturally significant Dunedin Railway Stationhas been used solely by the TGR's tourist trains, the Taieri Gorge Limited along the Otago Central Railway and the Seasider to Palmerston. Rural passenger services on branch lines were provided by mixed trains and Vulcan/88 seater railcars but the mixeds had largely ceased to exist by the 1950s and the railcars were withdrawn in the mid-1970s.
The South Island saw the final use of
steam locomotives in New Zealand. Locomotives belonging to classes long withdrawn elsewhere continued to operate on West Coast branches until the very late 1960s, when they were displaced by DJ class diesels. In comparison to most countries, where steam locomotives were last used on insubstantial rural and industrial operations, the very last services run by steam locomotives were the premier expresses between Christchurch and Invercargill: the South Island Limiteduntil 1970 and the Friday and Sunday night services until 1971. This was due to the carriages being steam-heated. The final steam-hauled service in New Zealand, headed by a member of the JA class, ran on 26 October 1971. [David Leitch, "Steam, Steel and Splendour" (Auckland: HarperCollins, 1994), 89.]
The South Island is separated from the North Island by Cook Strait, 24 km wide at its narrowest point, but requiring a 70 km ferry trip to cross.
Ports and harbours
*Container ports: Lyttelton (Christchurch),
*Other ports: Nelson, Picton, Westport,
Greymouth, Timaru, Bluff.
Akaroa, Otago Harbour, Half Moon Bay ( Stewart Island/Rakiura), Milford Sound.
*Freshwater: Queenstown and Kingston (
Lake Wakatipu), Te Anauand Manapouri( Lake Manapouri)
outh Island Airports
The South Island with an area of 151,215 km² (58,093 square miles) is the largest land mass of New Zealand, it contains about one quarter of the New Zealand population and is the world's 12th-largest island. It is divided along its length by the
Southern Alps, the highest peak of which is Aoraki/Mount Cookat 3754 metres (12,316 ft). There are eighteen peaks of more than 3000 metres (9800 ft) in the South Island. The east side of the island is home to the Canterbury Plainswhile the West Coast is famous for its rough coastlines, very high proportion of native bush, and Fox and Franz Josef Glaciers.
climatein the South Island is mostly temperate. The Meantemperature for the South Island is 8 °C (46 °F). [From NIWA Science [http://www.niwascience.co.nz/edu/resources/climate/overview/ climate overview] .] January and February are the warmest months while July is the coldest.
Most areas have between 600 and 1600 mm of rainfall with the most rain along the West Coast and the least rain on the East Coast, predominantly on the
Canterbury Plains. Christchurchis the driest city receiving about 640 mm (25 in) of rain per year.
There are three main factors that influence New Zealand's climate: [Statistics New Zealand [http://www2.stats.govt.nz/domino/external/web/nzstories.nsf/0/38785455f46e0195cc256b1e007b6b0e?OpenDocument] page.]
* Its latitude zone location where the
prevailing windsflow westerly.
* The mountains, especially the
Abel Tasman National Park
Aoraki/Mount Cook National Park
Fiordland National Park
Kahurangi National Park
Mount Aspiring National Park
Nelson Lakes National Park
Paparoa National Park
Rakiura National Park
Westland National Park
Other Native Reserves and Parks
Hakatere Conservation Park[ [http://www.doc.govt.nz/templates/PlaceProfile.aspx?id=45070 Hakatere Conservation Park] , Department of Conservation website, retrieved 21 January 2008.]
Franz Josef GlacierRivers:
The South Island has several tertiary level institutions:
Christchurch Polytechnic Institute of Technology
* Lincoln University
Nelson Marlborough Institute of Technology
Southern Institute of Technology
Tai Poutini Polytechnic
Telford Rural Polytechnic
University of Canterbury
University of Otago
Healthcare in the South Island is provided by six District Health Boards (DHBs). Organized around geographical areas, of varying population sizes, they are not coterminous with the Local Government Regions.
* Canterbury DHB
* Nelson Marlborough DHB
* Otago DHB
* South Canterbury DHB
* Southland DHB
* West Coast DHB
The Marlborough Express
The Nelson Mail
Otago Daily Times
* [http://www.stuff.co.nz/southlandtimes/ Southland Times]
The Timaru Herald
CUE (Southland TV)
Cadbury Moro FM
Fifeshire FM- Rebranded as More FM
Radio Nelson- Rebranded as Classic Hits 89.8 & 90.4FM
The Planet 97FM- Replaced with ZM
West Coast Stations
*Coast FM - (no connection to Coast Radio Network.
*Radio Scenicland and later
Scenicland FM- Rebranded as Classic Hits Scenicland FM.
*91ZM - Operates local daytime show all other shows from the ZM network. Originally local until 2001.
Newstalk ZB- Local breakfast and morning show all other shows from Newstalk ZB network.
3ZB- Rebranded as Newstalk ZB
3ZE(Ashburton) - Rebranded as Classic Hits 92.5 ZEFM
Channel Z- Operated local Channel Z station until 2001 when station was replaced with Auckland based network product.
*Fox FM (Ashburton) - Rebranded as Port FM
*99 Life FM - Original Life FM station
B98 FM- Rebranded as Classic Hits B98 and later Classic Hits 97.7
Lite FM- Rebranded as The Breeze
Radio Avonand later C93FM
Radio Caroline(Timaru) - Rebranded as Classic Hits 99FM
Blush 96.1- Christchurch NZBS "Live Sexy"
Dunedin and East Otago Stations
Big River Radio(Balclutha)
Country Radio 88.7
4XO- Rebranded as More FM
4ZBand later ZBFM - Rebranded as Classic Hits 89FM
Radio Waitaki(Oamaru) - Rebranded as Classic Hits Radio Waitaki
Whitestone FM(Oamaru) - Rebranded as Port FM
Queenstown and Central Otago Stations
96.7 Blue Skies FM(Alexandra)
The Studio FM(Queenstown)
Radio Central(Alexandra) - Rebranded as More FM
Resort Radio(Queenstown) - Rebranded as More FM
Q92(Queenstown) - Rebranded as Q92 The Breeze
Country Radio 88.4
Radio Southland 96.4
4ZA- Rebranded as Classic Hits 98.8 ZAFM
Foveaux FM- Rebranded as More FM
eFM- Southern Institute of Technologystudent radio station that operated in 2001.
A number of national or international sporting teams and events are based in the South Island, including:
Basketball: Canterbury Rams, Christchurch Sirens, Nelson Giantsand the Otago Nuggets.
Ice hockey: Canterbury Red Devils, Dunedin Thunder, Southern Stampede.
Netball: Canterbury Tactixand the Southern Steel.
Soccer: Canterbury United, Otago United.
Rugby league: Canterbury Bulls
Rugby union: Crusaders, Highlanders, Tasman Makos, Southland Stags, West Coast, Buller, South Canterbury, North Otago
International events hosted in the South Island include the "National Basketball League", the "
ANZ Championship" netball competition and the " Super 14" rugby union competition.
Centre of Contemporary Art
Christchurch Arts Centre
Dunedin Public Art Gallery
Ferrymead Heritage Park
*Nelson Provincial Museum [http://www.museumnp.org.nz/]
Otago Settlers Museum
Royal New Zealand Air Force Museum
Southland museum and art gallery
World of Wearable Art
Several movies have been filmed (in large part) in the South Island, including the "Lord of the Rings" and 2005's "".
Flag concepts for the South Island
List of twin towns and sister cities in the South Island
Military of the South Island
South Island Independence
* [http://www.backpack-newzealand.com/mapofsouthisland.html/ South Island Road Map]
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