Colette
Sidonie-Gabrielle Colette
Born 28 January 1873(1873-01-28)
Yonne, France
Died 3 August 1954(1954-08-03) (aged 81)
Paris, France
Pen name Colette
Occupation Novelist
Nationality French

Colette (pronounced: [kɔ.lɛt]) was the surname of the French novelist and performer Sidonie-Gabrielle Colette (28 January 1873 – 3 August 1954). She is best known for her novel Gigi, upon which Lerner and Loewe based the stage and film musical comedies of the same title.

Contents

Early life and marriage

Colette was born to retired military officer Jules-Joseph Colette and his wife Adèle Eugénie Sidonie "Sido" Colette, (nėe Landoy) in Saint-Sauveur-en-Puisaye, Yonne, in the Burgundy Region of France. She studied piano as a child and received her primary school diploma with high marks in mathematics and dictation.[1] In 1893, at age 20, she married Henri Gauthier-Villars, a famous bisexual wit known as "Willy" who was 15 years her senior.

Her first books, the Claudine series, were published under the pen name of her husband, "Willy", writer, music critic, "literary charlatan and degenerate".[2] Claudine still has the power to charm; in belle epoque France it was downright shocking, much to Willy's satisfaction and profit.

Music hall career, affairs with women

Colette in a publicity still for Rêve d'Égypte

In 1906 she left the unfaithful Gauthier-Villars, living for a time at the home of the American writer and salonist Natalie Barney. The two had a short affair, and remained friends until Colette's death.[3] She was also, according to author Jean-Claude Baker’s book Josephine: The Hungry Heart, involved for some time with actress Josephine Baker.[4]

Colette went to work in the music halls of Paris, under the wing of Mathilde de Morny, the Marquise de Belbeuf, known as Missy, with whom she became romantically involved. In 1907, the two performed together in a pantomime entitled Rêve d'Égypte at the Moulin Rouge. Their onstage kiss nearly caused a riot, which the police were called in to suppress. As a result of this scandal, further performances of Rêve d'Égypte were banned and Colette and de Morny were no longer able to openly live together, though their relationship continued for five years.[5] She also was involved in a heterosexual relationship during this time, with the Italian writer Gabriele D'Annunzio. Another affair during this period was with the automobile-empire scion, Auguste Herriot.

Second marriage, affair with stepson

In 1912, Colette married Henri de Jouvenel, the editor of the newspaper Le Matin. The couple had one daughter, Colette de Jouvenel, known to the family as Bel-Gazou. Colette de Jouvenel later stated that her mother did not want a child and left her in the care of an English nanny, only rarely coming to visit her.

In 1914, during World War I, Colette was approached to write a ballet for the Opéra de Paris which she outlined under the title "Divertissements pour ma fille". After Colette herself chose Maurice Ravel to write the music, he reimagined the work as an opera, to which Colette agreed. Ravel received the libretto to L'Enfant et les sortilèges in 1918, and it was first performed on 21 March 1925.[6]

During the war, she converted her husband's St. Malo estate into a hospital for the wounded, and was made a Chevalier of the Legion of Honour (1920). She divorced Henri de Jouvenel in 1924 after a much talked-about affair with her stepson, Bertrand de Jouvenel.

Third marriage

Colette, painted ca. 1896 by Jacques Humbert

In 1935, Colette married Maurice Goudeket, an uncle of Juliet Goudeket alias Jetta Goudal.[7] After 1935, her legal name was simply Sidonie Goudeket. Maurice Goudeket published a book about his wife, Close to Colette: An Intimate Portrait of a Woman of Genius. An English translation was published in 1957 by Farrar, Straus & Cudahy, New York.

Continued writings

Post-war, her writing career bloomed following the publication of Chéri (1920). Chéri tells a story of the end of a six-year affair between an aging retired courtesan, Léa, and a pampered young man, Chéri. Turning stereotypes upside-down, it is Chéri who wears silk pajamas and Léa's pearls, and who is the object of gaze. And in the end Léa demonstrates all the survival skills which Colette associates with femininity. (The story continued in La Fin de Chéri (1926), which contrasts Léa's strength and Chéri's fragility and decline). Considered nowadays to be Colette's masterpiece, "Chéri" was originally met with controversy because of its choice of setting - the demimonde of the Parisian courtesans - and also because of its portrayal of the hedonistic Chéri.

After Chéri, Colette entered the world of modern poetry and paintings revolving around Jean Cocteau, who was later her neighbor in Jardins du Palais-Royal. Their relationship and life is vividly depicted in their books. By 1927, she was frequently acclaimed as France's greatest woman writer. "It ... has no plot, and yet tells of three lives all that should be known", wrote Janet Flanner of Sido on its publication in 1930. "Once again, and at greater length than usual, she has been hailed for her genius, humanities and perfect prose by those literary journals which years ago ... lifted nothing at all in her direction except the finger of scorn." Upon her death in Paris in 1954, Colette left 50 published novels in total, many with autobiographical elements. Her themes can be roughly divided into idyllic natural tales or dark struggles in relationships and love. All her novels were marked by clever observation and dialogue with an intimate, explicit style. Her popular novel, Gigi, was made into a Broadway play and a highly successful Hollywood motion picture, Gigi, starring Maurice Chevalier, Louis Jourdan and Leslie Caron. In 2009, an adaptation of both "Chéri" and "La Fin de Chéri" was made into a film starring Michelle Pfeiffer, Rupert Friend and Kathy Bates.

Legacy

A controversial figure throughout her life, Colette flaunted her lesbian affairs.

She was a member of the Belgian Royal Academy (1935), president of the Académie Goncourt (1949) (and the first woman to be admitted into it, in 1945), and a Chevalier (1920) and a Grand Officier (1953) of the Légion d'honneur.

During the German occupation of France during World War II she aided her Jewish friends, including hiding her husband in her attic all through the war. When she died in Paris on 3 August 1954, she was the first woman given a state funeral in France, although she was refused Roman Catholic rites because of her divorces. Colette is interred in Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris.

Singer-songwriter Rosanne Cash paid tribute to the writer in the song, "The Summer I Read Colette", on Cash's album 10 Song Demo.


Colette's tomb in Père Lachaise Cemetery.

Notable works

  • Claudine à l'école (1900)
  • Claudine à Paris (1901)
  • Claudine en ménage (1902)
  • Claudine s'en va (1903)
  • Dialogues de Bêtes (1904)
  • La Retraite Sentimentale (1907)
  • La Vagabonde (1910)
  • L'Envers du music hall (1913)
  • La Paix Chez les Bêtes (1916)
  • L'enfant et les sortilèges (1917, Ravel opera libretto)
  • Mitsou (1919)
  • Chéri (1920)
  • La Maison de Claudine (1922)
  • Le Blé en herbe (1923)
  • La Fin de Chéri (1926)
  • La Naissance du Jour (1928) (translated as Break of Day)
  • Sido (1929)
  • Le Pur et L'Impur (1932)
  • La Chatte (1933)
  • Duo (1934)
  • Le Képi (1943)
  • Gigi (1945)
  • L'Étoile Vesper (1947)
  • Le Fanal Bleu (1949)
  • Paradis terrestre, with photographs by Izis Bidermanas (1953)

See also

Book collection.jpg Novels portal

Biography

  • Sylvain Bonmariage, Willy, Colette et moi, with an introduction by Jean-Pierre Thiollet, Anagramme ed., Paris, 2004 (reprint)
  • Joanna Richardson, Colette, Methuen, London, 1983

References

  1. ^ Thurman, Judith (1999). Secrets of the Flesh: A Life of Colette. New York: Ballantine Books. p. 36. ISBN 0-345-37103-8. 
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ Rodriguez, Suzanne (2002). Wild Heart: A Life: Natalie Clifford Barney and the Decadence of Literary Paris. New York: HarperCollins. p. 131. ISBN 0-06-093780-7. 
  4. ^ glreview.com
  5. ^ Benstock, Shari (1986). Women of the Left Bank: Paris, 1900–1940. Texas: University of Texas Press. pp. 48–49. ISBN 0-292-79040-6. 
  6. ^ LA Phil Presents | Piece Detail - Maurice Ravel: L'enfant et les sortilèges
  7. ^ Slide, Anthony. Silent Players:A Biographical and Autobiographical Study of 100 Silent Film Actors and Actresses. University Press of Kentucky, 2002. ISBN 081312249X. page 148.

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • COLETTE — Interroger Colette: d’autres s’y sont essayés avec un bonheur inégal. Quand il s’agit d’entreprise de cet ordre, on songe aux pages où l’écrivain elle même raconte l’interview qu’elle accorda à un jeune reporter: celui ci ne tira pas grand chose… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Colette — (eigentlich Sidonie Gabrielle Claudine Colette; * 28. Januar 1873 in Saint Sauveur en Puisaye, Département Yonne (Burgund); † 3. August 1954 in Paris) war eine französische Schriftstellerin, Varietékünstlerin und Journalistin. Sie bekam als erste …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Colette — Colette en 1907 en La revista egipcia Sidonie Gabrielle Colette ( …   Wikipedia Español

  • Colette — Sidonie Gabrielle Colette (Saint Sauveur en puisaye, Yonne,) Francia nacida el 28 de enero de 1873 y fallecida en París el 3 de agosto de 1954. Novelista francesa, fue elegida miembro de la Academia Goncourt en 1945 Última hija del matrimonio al… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Colette — f French and English: short form of Nicolette (pet form of NICOLE (SEE Nicole)) or feminine diminutive of the medieval name Col(le) (cf. COLIN (SEE Colin)). It was given particular currency from the 1920s onwards by the fame of the French… …   First names dictionary

  • Colette — (spr. létt), Heilige, geb. 1380 zu Corbie in der Pikardie, Franziskanerin, stiftete innerhalb dieses Ordens die Colettinnen, gest. 1446 zu Gent, 1807 von Pius VII. heilig gesprochen …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Colette —   [kɔ lɛt], Sidonie Gabrielle, französische Schriftstellerin, * Saint Sauveur en Puisaye (Département Yonne) 28. 1. 1873, ✝ Paris 3. 8. 1954; schrieb ihre frühen Romane gemeinsam mit ihrem ersten Mann Henri Gauthier Villars (genannt Willy, * 1859 …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Colette — [kō̂ let′] (Sidonie Gabrielle Claudine) 1873 1954; Fr. novelist …   English World dictionary

  • Colette — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Colette (homonymie). Colette …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Colette — /koh let , keuh , ko /; Fr. /kaw let /, n. 1. (Sidonie Gabrielle Claudine Colette) 1873 1954, French author. 2. a female given name. * * * in full Sidonie Gabrielle Colette born Jan. 28, 1873, Saint Sauveur en Puisaye, France died Aug. 3, 1954,… …   Universalium

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