- Art forgery
Art forgery refers to creating and, in particular, selling works of
artthat are falsely attributed to be work of another, usually more famous, artist. Art forgery is extremely lucrative, but modern dating and analysis techniques have made the identification of forged artwork much simpler.
Art forgery dates back more than two-thousand years. Roman sculptors produced copies of Greek sculptures. Presumably the contemporary buyers knew that they were not genuine. During the classical period art was generally created for historical reference, religious inspiration, or simply
aestheticenjoyment. The identity of the artist was often of little importance to the buyer.
Renaissance, many painters took on apprentices who studied painting techniques by copying the works and style of the master. As a payment for the training, the master would then sell these works. This practice was generally considered a tribute, not forgery, although some of these copies have later erroneously been attributed to the master.
Following the Renaissance, a redistribution of the world’s wealth created a fierce demand for art by a newly prosperous middle class. Near the end of the 14th century, Roman statues were unearthed in Italy, intensifying the populace’s interest in
antiquities, and leading to sharp increases in the value of these objects. This upsurge soon extended to contemporary and recently deceased artists. Art had become a commercial commodity, and the monetary value of the artwork came to depend on the identity of the artist. To identify their works, painters began to mark them, these marks later evolved in to signatures. As the demand for certain artwork began to exceed the supply, fraudulent marks and signatures began to appear on the open market.
During the 16th century imitators of
Albrecht Dürer's style of printmaking added signatures to them to increase the value of their prints. In his engraving of the Virgin, Durer added the inscription "Be cursed, plunderers and imitators of the work and talent of others". [http://www.museum-security.org/forgeries.htm "Forgeries, a Long History"] , Adrian Darmon] Even extremely famous artists created forgeries. Michelangeloforged a marble cupid for his patron, Lorenzo di Cosimo De' Medici.
The 20th century art market has favored artists such as
Salvador Dalí, Pablo Picasso, Klee and Matisseand works by these artists have commonly been targets of forgery. These forgeries are typically sold to art galleries and auctionhouses who cater to the tastes of art and antiquities collectors.
There are essentially three varieties of art forger. The person who actually creates the fraudulent piece, the person who discovers a piece and attempts to pass it off as something it is not, in order to increase the piece’s value, and the third who discovers that a work is a fake, but sells it as an original anyway.False Impressions: The Hunt for Big-Time Art Fakes, Thomas Hoving, Simon & Schuster, 1996.]
Copies, replicas, reproductions and
pastiches are often legitimate works, and the distinction between a legitimate reproduction and deliberate forgery is blurred. For example, Guy Hainused original molds to reproduce several of Auguste Rodin's sculptures. However, when Hain then signed the reproductions with the name of Rodin's original foundry, the works became deliberate forgeries.
Johan Barthold Jongkind.
An art forger must be at least somewhat proficient in the type of art he is trying to imitate. Many forgers were once fledging artists who tried, unsuccessfully, to break into the market, eventually resorting to forgery. Sometimes, an original item is borrowed or stolen from the owner in order to create a copy. Forgers will then return the copy to the owner, keeping the original for himself. In 1799, a . The painter made a copy of the original and returned the copy in place of the original. The forgery was discovered in 1805, when the original came up for auction and was purchased for the royal collection.
Although many art forgers reproduce works solely for money, some have claimed that they have created forgeries to expose the credulity and snobbishness of the art world. Essentially the artists claim, usually after they have been caught, that they have performed only “
hoaxes of exposure”.
Some exposed forgers have later sold their reproductions honestly, by attributing them as copies, and some have actually gained enough notoriety to become famous in their own right. Forgeries painted by the late
Elmyr de Hory, featured in the film " F for Fake" directed by Orson Welles, have become so valuable that forged de Horys have appeared on the market.
Forgers usually copy works by deceased artists, but a small number imitate living artists. In May 2004, Norwegian painter
Kjell Nupennoticed that the Kristianstadgallery was selling unauthorized, signed copies of his work.
Claims have surfaced recently, alleging that
art dealers and auction houses have been overly eager, by accepting forgeries as genuine, and selling them quickly, to turn a profit. If a dealer finds the work is a forgery, he may quietly withdraw the piece and return it to its previous owner—giving the forger an opportunity to sell it elsewhere. [http://www.aic.gov.au/conferences/artcrime/polkwho.pdf "Who Wins and Who Loses When Art isStolen or Forged?"] Some potential buyers may not be concerned with the provenance of the item, as long as it can pass for the genuine piece in their social circles.
Some forgers have created false paper trails relating to a piece, in order to make the work appear genuine. British art dealer
John Drewecreated false documents of provenancefor works forged by his partner John Myatt, and even inserted pictures of forgeries into the archives of prominent art institutions. [http://www.ifla.org/IV/ifla69/papers/047e-Houghton.pdf "Art libraries as a source of false provenance"] Experts and institutions may also be reluctant to admit their own fallibility. Art historian Thomas Hoving estimates that various types of forged art comprise up to 40% of the art market.
Methods of detection
The most obvious forgeries are revealed as clumsy copies of previous art. A forger may try to create a "new" work by combining the elements of more than one work. The forger may omit details typical to the artist they are trying to imitate, or add
anachronisms, in an attempt to claim that the forged work is a slightly different copy, or a previous version of a more famous work. To detect the work of a skilled forger, investigators must rely on other methods.
Technique of examination
Often a thorough examination (sometimes referred to as Morellian Analysis. ['http://www.artexpertswebsite.com/pages/research-pages/forensic.html' 'Forensic Analysis by Hans H. Buhr'] ) of the piece is enough to determine authenticity. For example, a sculpture may have been created obviously with modern methods and tools. Some forgers have used artistic methods inconsistent with those of the original artists, such as incorrect characteristic brushwork, perspective, preferred themes or techniques, or have used colors that were not available during the artist’s lifetime to create the painting. Some forgers have dipped pieces in chemicals to "age" them and some have even tried to imitate worm marks by drilling holes into objects (See image, right).
While attempting to authenticate artwork, experts will also determine the piece’s
provenance. If the item has no paper trail, it is more likely to be a forgery. Other techniques forgers use which might indicate that a painting is not authentic include:
* Frames, either new or old, that have been altered in order to make forged paintings look more genuine.
* To hide inconsistencies or manipulations, forgers will sometimes glue paper, either new or old, to a painting's back, or cut a forged painting from its original size.
* Recently added labels or artist listings, onto unsigned works of art, unless these labels are as old as the art itself, suspicion should be aroused.
* While art restorers legitimately use new stretcher bars when the old bars have worn, new stretcher bars on old canvases might be an indication that a forger is attempting to alter the painting’s identity.
* Old nail holes or mounting marks on the back of a piece, might indicate that a painting has been removed from its frame, doctored and then replaced into either its original frame or different frame.
* Signatures, on paintings or graphics, that look inconsistent with the art itself (either fresher, bolder, etc.).
* Unsigned work that a dealer has “heard” is by a particular artist.
More recently, magnetic signatures used in the
inkof bank notesare becoming popular for authentication of artworks. [cite news
url = http://in.news.yahoo.com/071104/139/6mt9e.html
title = Art forgery to be foiled by magnetic signatures]
If examination of a piece fails to reveal whether it is authentic or forged, investigators may attempt to authenticate the object using some, or all, of the forensic methods below:
Carbon datingis used to measure the age of an object up to 10,000 years old.
*“White Lead” Dating is used to pinpoint the age of an object up to 1,600 years old. [http://amath.colorado.edu/courses/2460/2006Spr/Lab1/Forgeries.pdf "Detecting Art Forgeries".]
X-raycan be used to detect earlier work present under the surface of a painting (see image, right). Sometimes artists will legitimately re-use their own canvasses, but if the painting on top is supposed to be from the 17th century, but the one underneath shows people in 19th century dress, the scientist will assume the top painting is not authentic. Also x-rays can be used to view inside an object to determine if the object has been altered or repaired.
X-ray diffraction(the object bends X-rays) is used to analyze the components that make up the paint an artist used, and to detect pentimenti (see image, right).
X-ray fluorescence(bathing the object with radiation causes it to emit X-rays) can reveal if the metals in a metal sculpture or if the composition of pigments is too pure, or newer than their supposed age. Or reveal the artist’s (or forger’s) fingerprints.
*Ultraviolet fluorescence and
infraredanalysis are used to detect repairs or earlier painting present on canvasses.
*Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry(
ICP-MS) are used to detect anomalies in paintings and materials. If an element is present that the investigators know was not used historically in objects of this type, then the object is not authentic.
Dendrochronologyis used to date a wooden object by counting the number of tree rings present in the object. This is of limited use, though, as to date the piece accurately the wood needs to have about 100 rings.
Stable isotopeanalysis can be used to determine where the marble used in a sculpture was quarried.
Thermoluminescence(TL) is used to date pottery. TL is the light produced by heat, older pottery produces more TL when heated than a newer piece. [http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/archaeology/dating/thermoluminescence.html "Thermoluminescence."]
*A feature of genuine paintings sometimes used to detect forgery is
Statistical analysis of
digital images of paintings is a new method that that has recently been used to detect forgeries. Using a technique called waveletdecomposition, a picture is broken down into a collection of more basic images called sub-bands. These sub-bands are analyzed to determine textures, assigning a frequencyto each sub-band. The broad strokes of a surface such as a blue sky would show up as mostly low frequency sub-bands whereas the fine strokes in blades of grass would produce high frequency sub-bands. [Erica Klarreich (2004). "Con artists. Scanning program can discern true art". "Science" News 166 (22): 340.] A group of thirteen drawings attributed to Pieter Brueghel the Elderwas tested using the wavelet decomposition method. Five of the drawings were known to be imitations. The analysis was able to correctly identify the five forged paintings. The method was also used on the painting "Virgin and Child with Saints", created in the studios of Pietro Perugino. Historians have long suspected that Perugino painted only a portion of the work. The wavelet decomposition method identified that at least four different artists had worked on the painting.
Problems with authentication
Art specialists, whom we now refer to as experts, began to surface in the art world during the late 1850s. At that time they were usually historians or museum
curators, writing books about paintings, sculpture, and other art forms. Communication amongst the different specialties was poor, and they often made mistakes when authenticating pieces. While many books and art catalogues were published prior to 1900, many were not widely circulated, and often did not contain information about contemporary artwork. In addition, these specialists lacked many of the important technological means that experts use to authenticate art today.
The fact that experts do not always agree on the authenticity of a particular item makes the matter of
provenancemore complex. Some artists have even accepted copies as their own work - Picassoonce said that he "would sign a very good forgery". fix
title=This claim needs references to reliable sources
cat-date=Category:Articles with unsourced statements Jean Corot painted over 700 works, but also signed copies made by others in his name, because he felt honored to be copied. Occasionally work that has previously been declared a forgery is later accepted as genuine; Vermeer's had been regarded as a forgery from 1947 until March, 2004, when it was finally declared genuine.
At times restoration of a piece is so extensive that the original is essentially replaced when new materials are used to supplement older ones. An art restorer may also add or remove details on a painting, in an attempt to make the painting more saleable on the contemporary art market. This, however, is not a modern phenomenon - historical painters often "retouched" other artist's works by repainting some of the background or details.
Many forgeries still escape detection;
Han van Meegeren, possibly the most famous forger of the 20th century, used historical canvasses for his Vermeer forgeries and created his own pigmentsto ensure that they were authentic. He confessed to creating the forgeries only after he was charged with treason, an offense which carried the death penalty. So masterful were his forgeries that van Meegeren was forced to create another "Vermeer" while under police guard, to prove himself innocent of the treason charges.
A recent, thought-provoking instance of potential art forgery involves the
Getty kouros, the authenticity of which has not been resolved. The Getty Kouros was offered, along with seven other pieces, to The J. Paul Getty Museumin Malibu, Californiain the spring of 1983. For the next twelve years art historians, conservators, and archeologists studied the Kouros, scientific tests were performed and showed that the surface could not have been created artificially. However, when several of the other pieces offered with the Kouros, were shown to be forgeries, its authenticity was again questioned. In May of 1992, the Kouros was displayed in Athens, Greece, at an international conference, called to determine its authenticity. The conference failed to solve the problem; while most art historians and archeologists denounced it, the scientists present believed the statue to be authentic. To this day, the Getty Kouros' authenticity remains a mystery and the statue is displayed with the date: "Greek, 530 B.C. or modern forgery". [http://orpheus.ucsd.edu/va11/abarientos/abarientos.html "Authentic or Not?"]
Recently, photographs have become the target of forgers, and as the market value of these works increase, so will forgery continue. Following their deaths, works by
Man Rayand Ansel Adamsbecame frequent targets of forgery. The detection of forged photography is particularly difficult, as experts must be able to tell the difference between originals and reprints.
In the case of photographer Man Ray [http://www.artcult.com/manray.htm "Major Man Ray Scandal in Paris"] print production was often poorly managed during his lifetime, and many of his negatives were stolen by people who had access to his studio. The possession of the photo-negatives would allow a forger to print an unlimited number of fake prints, which he could then pass off as original. Provided the forger was able to find a supply of unused photo paper produced 50 to 80 years ago, these fake prints would be nearly indistinguishable from originals.Further complicating matters, following Man Ray's death, control of printing copyrights fell to his widow, Juliet Man Ray, and her brother, who approved production of a large number of prints that Man Ray himself had earlier rejected. While these reprints are of limited value, the originals, printed during Man Ray's lifetime, have skyrocketed in value, leading many forgers to alter the reprints, so that they appear to be original.
Works of Art with Contested Provenance
Famous forgeriesKnown art forgers and dealers of forged art
The Rospigliosi Cupor The 'Cellini Cup'
Etruscan terracotta warriors
Giovanni Bastianini, Italian forger of renaissancesculptures
William Blundell, Forged Australian painters
Yves Chaudron, France - forged " Mona Lisa"
Zhang Daqian, forged Chinese art
Alceo Dossena, Italian sculptor
John Drewesold the work of John Myatt
Shaun Greenhalgh, British forger
Guy Hain, forged Rodin bronzes
Eric Hebborn, British-born forger of old masters
Elmyr de Hory, Hungarian-born painter of Picassos
Geert Jan Jansen, Dutch painter Karel Appelrecognized one of Jansen's forgeries as his own work.
Tom Keating, British forger
Fernand Legros, purveyor of forged art
Han van Meegeren, Dutchman who painted Vermeers
John Myatt, British painter, created forgeries for John Drewe
Ely Sakhai, who sold Gauguin's "Vase de Fleurs" twice
Jean-Pierre Schecrounforged Picasso
Emile Schuffenecker, French forger with Otto Wacker
* The Spanish Forger, French forger of medieval miniatures
* David Stein, US art dealer and painter
Tony Tetro, prolific US forger
Eduardo de Valfierno, art dealer who worked with forger Yves Chaudron
Otto Wacker, German purveyor of fake Van Gogh's
Kenneth Walton, prosecuted for selling forged paintings on eBay
* [E. M. Washington|Earl M
[arshawn ]Washington] , forger of prints that he attributed to a grandfather, allegedly named “E [arl ]M [ack ]Washington”.
* [http://www.mystudios.com/gallery/forgery/history/ "A History of Art Forgery."]
* [http://www.cycleback.com/printsexamination/ "Judging the Authenticity of Prints by The Masters."] by art historian David Rudd Cycleback
* [http://www.museum-security.org/forgery1.htm Museum Security Network]
* [http://www.spurlock.uiuc.edu/explorations/research/collecting.pdf "Careful Collecting: Fakes and Forgeries"]
* [http://whyfiles.org/081art_sci/5.html "Can science help solve art crime?"]
* [http://www.factmonster.com/spot/hoax5.html Famous Forgers]
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