Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
US CDC logo.svg
Agency overview
Formed October 27, 1992
Preceding agencies Office of National Defense Malaria Control Activities (1942)
Office of Malaria Control in War Areas (1942–1946)
Communicable Disease Center (1946–1967)
National Communicable Disease Center (1967–1970)
Center for Disease Control (1970–1980)
Centers for Disease Control (1980–1992)
Jurisdiction Federal government of the United States
Headquarters Druid Hills, Georgia
Employees 15,000
Annual budget 8.8 billion USD (2008)
Agency executive Thomas R. Frieden, MD, MPH, Director, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Parent agency United States Department of Health and Human Services

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (or CDC) are a United States federal agency under the Department of Health and Human Services headquartered in Druid Hills, unincorporated DeKalb County, Georgia, in Greater Atlanta.[1][2][3] It works to protect public health and safety by providing information to enhance health decisions, and it promotes health through partnerships with state health departments and other organizations. The CDC focus national attention on developing and applying disease prevention and control (especially infectious diseases and foodborne pathogens and other microbial infections), environmental health, occupational safety and health, health promotion, injury prevention and education activities designed to improve the health of the people of the United States. The CDC is the United States' national public health institute and is a founding member of the International Association of National Public Health Institutes IANPHI.

Contents

History

CDC headquarters in Druid Hills, Georgia, as seen from Emory University

The CDC was founded in 1942 during World War II as the Office of National Defense Malaria Control Activities.[4] Preceding its founding, organizations with global influence in malaria control were the Malaria Commission of the League of Nations and the Rockefeller Foundation.[5] The Rockefeller Foundation greatly supported malaria control,[5] sought to have the governments take over some of its efforts, and collaborated with the agency.[6]

The new agency was a branch of the U.S. Public Health Service and Atlanta was chosen as the location because malaria was endemic in the Southern United States. The agency changed names (see infobox on top right) before adopting the title Communicable Disease Center in 1946. Offices were located on the sixth floor of the Volunteer Building on Peachtree Street. With a budget at the time of about $1 million, 59 percent of its personnel were engaged in mosquito abatement and habitat control with the objective of control and eradication of malaria in the United States[7][citation needed] (see National Malaria Eradication Program). Among its 369 employees, the main jobs at CDC were originally entomology and engineering. In CDC's initial years, more than six and a half million homes were sprayed. In 1946, there were only seven medical officers on duty and an early organization chart was drawn, somewhat fancifully, in the shape of a mosquito.

CDC leader Dr. Joseph Mountin continued to advocate for public health issues and to push for CDC to extend its responsibilities to many other communicable diseases. In 1947, CDC made a token payment of $10 to Emory University for 15 acres (61,000 m2) of land on Clifton Road in DeKalb County, the home of CDC headquarters today. CDC employees collected the money to make the purchase. The benefactor behind the “gift” was Robert Woodruff, Chairman of the Board of the Coca-Cola Company. Woodruff had a long-time interest in malaria control; it had been a problem in areas where he went hunting.

The mission of CDC expanded beyond its original focus on malaria to include sexually transmitted diseases when the Venereal Disease Division of the U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) was transferred to the CDC in 1957. Shortly thereafter, Tuberculosis Control was transferred (in 1960) to the CDC from PHS, and then in 1963 the Immunization program was established.[8]

It became the National Communicable Disease Center (NCDC) effective July 1, 1967.[4] The organization was renamed the Center for Disease Control (CDC) on June 24, 1970, and Centers for Disease Control effective October 14, 1980.[4] An act of the United States Congress appended the words "and Prevention" to the name effective October 27, 1992; however, Congress directed that the initialism CDC be retained because of its name recognition.[9] CDC now operates under the Department of Health and Human Services umbrella.

Currently the CDC focus has broadened to include chronic diseases, disabilities, injury control, workplace hazards, environmental health threats, and terrorism preparedness. CDC combats emerging diseases and other health risks, including birth defects, West Nile virus, obesity, avian, swine, and pandemic flu, E. coli, and bioterrorism, to name a few. The organization would also prove to be an important factor in preventing the abuse of penicillin.

The CDC has one of the few Biosafety Level 4 laboratories in the country,[10] as well as one of only two official repositories of smallpox in the world. The second smallpox store resides at the State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology VECTOR in the Russian Federation.

Budget and workforce

Main entrance

CDC’s FY2008 budget was $9.2 billion. As of 2008, staff numbered ~15,000 (including 6,000 contractors and 840 Commissioned Corps officers) in 170 occupations. Eighty percent have earned bachelor's degrees or higher; almost half have advanced degrees (Master's PhD, and/or M.D.).[11] CDC job titles also include engineer, entomologist, epidemiologist, biologist, physician, veterinarian, behaviorial scientist, nurse, medical technologist, economist, Public Health Advisor, health communicator, toxicologist, chemist, computer scientist, and statistician.[12]

In addition to the Atlanta headquarters, the CDC has 10 other locations in the United States and Puerto Rico. Those locations include Anchorage, Alaska; Cincinnati, Ohio; Fort Collins, Colorado; Hyattsville, Maryland; Morgantown, West Virginia; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Research Triangle Park, North Carolina; San Juan, Puerto Rico; Spokane, Washington; and Washington, D.C.

The CDC also conducts the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, the world’s largest, on-going telephone health survey system.[13]

The CDC offers grants that help many organizations each year bring health, safety and awareness to surrounding communities throughout the entire United States. As a government-run department, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention awards over 85 percent of its annual budget through these grants to accomplish its ultimate goal of disease control and quality health for all.[14]

Directors

At present, the President of the United States appoints the director. The appointment is automatic and does not require approval by the Senate. The director serves at the pleasure of the President and may be fired at any time.[15][16] Sixteen directors have served CDC or its predecessor agencies.[17][18]

  • L. L. Williams, MD (1942–1943)
  • Mark D. Hollis, ScD (1944–1946)
  • Raymond A. Vonderlehr, MD (1947–1951)
  • Justin M. Andrews, ScD (1952–1953)
  • Theodore J. Bauer, MD (1953–1956)
  • Robert J. Anderson, MD, MPH (1956–1960)
  • Clarence A. Smith, MD, MPH (1960–1962)
  • James L. Goddard, MD, MPH (1962–1966)
  • David J. Sencer, MD, MPH (1966–1977)
  • William H. Foege, MD, MPH (1977–1983)
  • James O. Mason, MD, MPH (1983–1989)
  • William L. Roper, MD, MPH (1990–1993)
  • David Satcher, MD, PhD (1993–1998)
  • Jeffrey P. Koplan, MD, MPH (1998–2002)[19]
  • Julie Gerberding, MD, MPH (2002–2008)
  • Thomas R. Frieden, MD, MPH (2009–present)[15]

Organizational restructuring

On April 21, 2005, the then-director of CDC, Dr. Julie Gerberding, formally announced the reorganization of CDC to "confront the challenges of 21st-century health threats".[20] The four Coordinating Centers—established under the G. W. Bush Administration and Gerberding—"diminished the influence of national centers under [their] umbrella" and were ordered cut under the Obama Administration and Frieden in 2009.[21]

Foundation

The CDC Foundation[22] operates independently from CDC as a private, nonprofit 501(c)(3) organization incorporated in the State of Georgia. The creation of the Foundation was authorized by section 399F of the Public Health Service Act to support the mission of CDC in partnership with the private sector, including organizations, foundations, businesses, educational groups, and individuals.

Data and survey systems

Publications and film

The CDC campus in Atlanta houses facilities for the research of extremely dangerous biological agents. This setting was featured in the Dustin Hoffman film Outbreak, although the location depicted in the film was supposed to be the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases bio-research facility. The CDC figures prominently in the book "Ready to Go: The History and Contributions of U.S. Public Health Advisors" by B.E. Meyerson, F.A. Martich and G.P. Naehr (ASHA, 2008). The CDC labs figure prominently in the books "The Demon in the Freezer" and "The Hot Zone" by Richard Preston and "Virus Hunter" by C.J. Peters, former head of the Special Pathogens Branch at the CDC.[citation needed] The "Atlanta Plague center" which is in all likelihood a fictionalized version of the CDC appears in the Stephen King book The Stand. It was mentioned numerous times in the film Mission: Impossible II.

It has been recently featured as a topic of "Haven" and "TS-19" in the popular AMC original televised production; The Walking Dead. The building shown in the show was, however, not the CDC itself but the Cobb Energy Performing Arts Centre.

On May 18, 2011, the CDC issued a guide on its blog telling people how to prepare for a zombie apocalypse. The effort was part of an outreach campaign hoping to utilize popular culture to educate the general public about all-hazards preparedness.

Diseases with which the CDC is involved

Influenza

The CDC has launched campaigns targeting the transmission of the flu, including the swine flu (H1N1). The CDC has launched websites including [flu.gov] to educate people.

Other infectious diseases

The CDC's website (see below) has information on other infectious diseases, including smallpox, measles, and much more.

Non-infectious disease

The CDC also combats non-infectious diseases, including obesity.

CDC zombie apocalypse video contest

On May 18, 2011, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's blog published an article instructing the public on what to do to prepare for a zombie invasion. While the article did not claim that such a scenario was likely, it did use the popular culture appeal as a means of having individuals prepare for all potential hazards, such as earthquakes, tornadoes, and floods.[32]

Since the blog went viral, the CDC has announced an open contest for YouTube submissions of the most creative and effective videos covering preparedness for a zombie apocalypse (or apocalypse of any kind).

The CDC challenges contestants to upload imaginative videos to YouTube showing preparation to survive any emergency situation, be it flood, earthquake, hurricane or zombie apocalypse. The videos will be judged by the "CDC Zombie Task Force".

The CDC contest is open to all:

"... Individuals, groups, and even zombies can enter the contest. Participants are encouraged to use creative ways to prepare for an emergency. ..."

Submission are open until October 11, 2011. Details are available from the CDC website, [1]

See also

Portal icon Government of the United States portal
Portal icon Health and fitness portal
Portal icon Medicine portal

References

  1. ^ Home Page. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved on November 19, 2008.
  2. ^ Groundbreaking held for new CDC virus research labs. Atlanta Journal-Constitution. December 3, 1985. A21. Retrieved on February 5, 2011. "[The new facility will sit behind and be connected to CDC's red-brick complex of buildings on Clifton Road in DeKalb County[...]"
  3. ^ "Druid Hills CDP, GA." United States Census Bureau. Retrieved on May 5, 2009.
  4. ^ a b c "Records of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Record Group 442) 1921-2004". Guide to Federal Records. United States: National Archives and Records Administration. 2010-11-09. http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/442.html. Retrieved 2009-10-04. 
  5. ^ a b Nájera JA (June 2001). "Malaria control: achievements, problems and strategies". Parassitologia 43 (1-2): 1–89. PMID 11921521. 
  6. ^ Stapleton DH (2004). "Lessons of history? Anti-malaria strategies of the International Health Board and the Rockefeller Foundation from the 1920s to the era of DDT". Public Health Rep 119 (2): 206–15. PMC 1497608. PMID 15192908. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1497608. 
  7. ^ Division of Parasitic Diseases (2010-02-08). "Malaria Control in War Areas (MCWA) (1942-1945)". The History of Malaria, an Ancient Disease (2004). Atlanta, Georgia: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/malaria/history/index.htm#mcwa. Retrieved 2011-03-21. 
  8. ^ Beth E. Meyerson, Fred A. Martich, and Gerald P. Naehr (2008). Ready to Go: The History and Contributions of U.S. Public Health Advisors. (Research Triangle Park: American Social Health Association).
  9. ^ CDC (1992). "CDC: the nation's prevention agency". MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 41 (44): 833. PMID 1331740. Archived from the original on 2010-11-18. http://cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/00017924.htm. 
  10. ^ "CDC Special Pathogens Branch". http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/spb/mnpages/disinfo.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-19. 
  11. ^ Office of the Associate Director for Communication (2010-05-19). "State of CDC: Budget and Workforce" (XHTML). CDC Impact Story Topics. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/about/stateofcdc/html/budget-workforce.htm. Retrieved 2011-03-21.  For more data on 2008, click on the "2008" link.
  12. ^ "Top Jobs at the CDC". Employment Information Homepage. CDC. 2008-04-01. http://www.cdc.gov/employment/menu_topjobs.html. Retrieved 2011-03-21. 
  13. ^ "Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System". CDC: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. http://www.cdc.gov/BRFSS/. Retrieved 2006-08-05. 
  14. ^ "CDC Grants at LoveToKnow Charity". http://charity.lovetoknow.com/CDC_Grants. Retrieved 2010-01-11. 
  15. ^ a b Wilgoren, Debbi and Shear, Michael D. "Obama Chooses NYC Health Chief to Head CDC." Washington Post. May 16, 2009.
  16. ^ Etheridge, Elizabeth W. Sentinel for Health: A History of the Centers for Disease Control. Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 1992. ISBN 978-0-520-07107-0; Patel, Kant; Rushefsky, Mark E.; and McFarlane, Deborah R. The Politics of Public Health in the United States. M.E. Sharpe, 2005. ISBN 978-0-7656-1135-2.
  17. ^ "Past CDC Directors/Administrators". Office of Enterprise Communication. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services). February 19, 2009. http://www.cdc.gov/about/history/pastdirectors.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-19. 
  18. ^ Records of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Administrative History. Retrieved 2009-10-04.
  19. ^ http://ianphi.org/who-we-are/biography-executive.cfm/third/executive/staff_id/0DC197D2-123F-73FE-89B61A336FB4B8D5
  20. ^ "CDC Office of Director, The Futures Initiative". CDC—National Center for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/futures/g_letter_04-21-05.htm. Retrieved 2008-12-28. 
  21. ^ New Chief Orders CDC to Cut Management Layers
  22. ^ CDCfoundation.org
  23. ^ "CDC Data and Statistics". CDC - National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. http://www.cdc.gov/scientific.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-10. 
  24. ^ "Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System". CDC - National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. http://www.cdc.gov/BRFSS/. Retrieved 2006-08-10. 
  25. ^ "NCHS - Mortality Data - About the Mortality Medical Data System". CDC - National Center for Health Statistics. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/about/major/dvs/about.htm. Retrieved 2007-01-09. 
  26. ^ http://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/Data_Stats/index.htm
  27. ^ "CDC - Publications". CDC - National Center for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/doc.do/id/0900f3ec8021ee7a. Retrieved 2006-08-10. 
  28. ^ "State of CDC Report: Fiscal Year 2005". CDC - National Center for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/about/stateofcdc/index.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-10. 
  29. ^ "Programs In Brief: Home Page". CDC - National Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on July 18, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060718013207/http://www.cdc.gov/programs/. Retrieved 2006-08-10. 
  30. ^ "Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report - MMWR". CDC - National Center for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/. Retrieved 2006-08-10. [dead link]
  31. ^ "Emerging Infectious Diseases". CDC - National Center for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/index.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-10. 
  32. ^ Kraven, Vlad. "CDC Zombie Warning". "Earlier today the CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention) issued a preparedness guide on their blog, informing citizens on how to be ready for the rise of the undead.". http://emergency.cdc.gov/socialmedia/zombies_blog.asp. Retrieved 18 May 2011. 
  33. ^ "Chinese center for disease control and prevention". Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.chinacdc.net.cn/n272562/. Retrieved 2008-12-28. 

External links

Coordinates: 33°47′56″N 84°19′32″W / 33.798817°N 84.325598°W / 33.798817; -84.325598


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