Constantius II
Constantius II
Emperor of the Roman Empire

Bust of Constantius II
Reign 324 (November 13) – 337 (May 22): Caesar under his father, Constantine I
337 – 340: co-Augustus (ruled Asian provinces & Egypt) with Constantine II and Constans
340 – 350: co-Augustus (ruled Asian provinces & Egypt) with Constans
350361 (November 3): Sole Augustus of the Roman Empire
Full name Flavius Julius Constantius (from birth to accession);
Flavius Julius Constantius Caesar (as Caesar);
Flavius Julius Constantius Augustus (as Augustus)
Born 7 August 317(317-08-07)
Birthplace Sirmium, Pannonia Inferior (Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia)
Died 3 November 361(361-11-03) (aged 44)
Place of death Mopsuestia, Cilicia
Predecessor Constantine I
Successor Julian
Wives 1) Daughter of Julius Constantius
2) Eusebia
3) Faustina
Offspring Flavia Maxima Constantia, born posthumously, later married Gratian
Dynasty Constantinian
Father Constantine I
Mother Fausta

Constantius II (Latin: Flavius Julius Constantius Augustus;[1][2] August 7, 317 – November 3, 361), was Roman Emperor from 337 to 361. The second son of Constantine I and Fausta, he ascended to the throne with his brothers Constantine II and Constans upon their father's death.

In 340, Constantius' brothers clashed over the western provinces of the empire. The resulting conflict left Constantine II dead and Constans as ruler of the west until he was overthrown and assassinated in 350 by the usurper Magnentius. Unwilling to accept Magnentius as co-ruler, Constantius marched against him. Magnentius was defeated at the battles of Mursa Major and Mons Seleucus, committing suicide after the latter. This left Constantius as sole ruler of the empire.

His subsequent military campaigns against Germanic tribes were successful: he defeated the Alamanni in 354, and campaigned across the Danube against the Quadi and Sarmatians in 357. Contrastingly, in the east, the two decade old war against the Sassanids continued with mixed results.

As a consequence of the difficulty of managing the entire empire alone, Constantius elevated two of his cousins to the subordinate rank of Caesar. Constantius Gallus, the eldest surviving son of Constantius' half-uncle, Julius Constantius, was promoted in 351, but executed three years later for his supposedly violent and corrupt nature. Constantius then promoted Gallus' younger half-brother, Julian, who was Constantius' last surviving cousin and the man who would ultimately succeed him, in 355.

However, the actions of Julian in claiming the rank of Augustus in 360 led to war between the two. Ultimately, no battle ever took place as Constantius became ill and died late in 361, though not before naming his opponent as his successor.

Contents

Early life

Division of the Roman Empire among the Caesars appointed by Constantine I: from left to right, the territories of Constantine II, Constans I, Dalmatius and Constantius II. After the death of Constantine I (May 337), this was the formal division of the Empire, until Dalmatius was killed and his territory divided between Constans and Constantius.

Constantius was born in 317 at Sirmium, Pannonia. He was the third son of Constantine the Great, and second by his second wife Fausta, the daughter of Maximian. Constantius was made Caesar by his father on 13 November 324.[3]

When his father died at Constantinople on 22 May 337, Constantius was the nearest of his sons to that city. Although on campaign in the eastern provinces, he immediately returned to the city to oversee his father's funeral.[4]

The role of Constantius in the massacre of his relatives descended from the second marriage of his paternal grandfather Constantius Chlorus and Theodora) is unclear.[5][6] Eutropius, writing between 350 and 370, writes that Constantius merely sanctioned “the act, rather than commanding it”.[7] However, Eutropius was hostile to Constantius – he was a friend of Julian – Constantius’ cousin and ultimately his enemy. Constantius, his older brother Constantine II, his younger brother Constans, and three cousins Gallus, Julian and Nepotianus were left as the only surviving male relatives of Constantine the Great.

Meeting at Sirmium not long after the massacre, the three brothers proceeded to divide the Roman Empire among them, according to their father's will. Constantius received the eastern provinces, including Egypt, Syria, Thrace, and Asia Minor. Constantine II received Britannia, Gaul, Hispania, and Mauretania. Constans, though initially under the supervision of Constantine II, received Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Pannonia, Macedonia, and Achaea.[8]

Reign in the East

Missorium of Kerch depicting Constantius II on horseback with a spear. He is preceded by victory and accompanied by a guardsman.
Constantius II coin, celebrating the 15th year of his reign.

There are few details of the early years of Constantius' sole reign in the eastern provinces. He spent most of his time defending the eastern border against invasions by the aggressive Sassanid Empire under king Shapur II. These conflicts were mainly limited to Sassanid sieges of the major fortresses of Roman Mesopotamia, including Nisibis (Nusaybin), Singara, and Amida (Diyarbakir). Although Shapur seems to have been victorious in most of the confrontations, the Sassanids were able to achieve little.[9][10] However, the Romans won a decisive victory at the Battle of Narasara, killing Shapur's brother, Narses.[9][11] Ultimately, Constantius was able to push back the invasion, Shapur failing to make any significant gains.[10] Meanwhile, his brother Constantine desired to retain control of Constans' realm – leading Constantius' two brothers into open conflict. Constantine was killed in 340 near Aquileia during an ambush.[7] As a result, Constans took control of his deceased brother’s realms and became sole ruler of the Western two-thirds of the empire. This division lasted until 350, when Constans was assassinated by forces loyal to the usurper Magnentius.[7][12]

War against Magnentius

Bronze coin of Constantius II (337–361), found in Karghalik, modern China.

This new state of affairs was unacceptable to Constantius, who felt that as the only surviving son of Constantine the Great, the position of emperor was his alone.[13] He was determined to march west across the empire to fight the usurper. However, feeling that the east still required some sort of imperial presence, he elevated his cousin Constantius Gallus to Caesar of the eastern provinces. As an extra measure to ensure the loyalty of his cousin, he married the elder of his two sisters, Constantina, to him.[13]

Before facing Magnentius, Constantius first came to terms with Vetranio, a loyal general in Illyricum who had recently been acclaimed emperor by his soldiers. Vetranio immediately sent letters to Constantius pledging his loyalty, which Constantius may have accepted simply in order to stop Magnentius from gaining more support. These events may have been spurred by the action of Constantina, who had since traveled east to marry Gallus. Constantius subsequently sent Vetranio the imperial diadem and acknowledged the general‘s new position as Augustus. However, when Constantius arrived Vetranio willingly resigned his position and accepted Constantius’ offer of a comfortable retirement in Bithynia.[14]

The defeat of Magnentius in 353 left Constantius as sole Roman Emperor.

The following year, Constantius clashed with Magnentius in Pannonia with a large army. The ensuing Battle of Mursa Major was one of the largest and most bloody battles between two Roman armies in Roman history.[15][16][17][18] The result was a victory for Constantius, but a costly one. However, Magnentius himself managed to survive the battle and, determined to fight on, withdrew into northern Italy. Rather than pursuing his opponent, Constantius then turned his attention to securing the Danubian border, where he spent the early months of 352 campaigning against the Sarmatians along the middle Danube. After having achieved his aims in that region, Constantius finally advanced on Magnentius in Italy. This action leading the cities of Italy to switch their allegiance to him and eject Magnentius’ garrisons. Again, Magnentius withdrew, this time to southern Gaul.[19]

In 353, Constantius and Magnentius met for what would be the final time at the Battle of Mons Seleucus in southern Gaul, and again, Constantius emerged the victor.[19] Soon after, Magnentius, realizing the futility of continuing his position, committed suicide on 10 August 353.[20]

Sole ruler of the empire

Constantius spent much of the rest of 353 and early 354 on campaign against the Alamanni on the Danube frontier. The campaign was successful and raiding by the Alamanni ceased temporarily. In the meantime, Constantius had been receiving some disturbing reports regarding the actions of his cousin Gallus.[21] Possibly as a result of these reports, Constantius concluded a peace with the Alamanni, and traveled to Mediolanum (Milan).[22]

Constantius Gallus was a paternal cousin of Constantius. In 350, he was made Caesar by Constantius and was married to the Emperor's sister, Constantina. However, his mismanagement of the eastern provinces led to his downfall and death in 354.

Once there, he decided to first call Ursicinus, Gallus’ magister equitum, to Mediolanum for reasons that remain unclear.[23] Constantius then requested the presence of Gallus and Constantina.[24] Although at first Gallus and Constantina complied with the order, when Constantina died in Bithynia,[24] Gallus began to hesitate. However, after some convincing by one of Constantius’ agents,[25] Gallus continued his journey west, passing through Constantinople and Thrace to Poetovio (Ptuj) in Pannonia.[26][27]

In Poetovio, Gallus was arrested by the soldiers of Constantius under the command of Barbatio.[28] He was then moved to Pola, and interrogated. Once there, Gallus claimed that it was Constantina who was to blame for all the trouble that had been caused while he was in charge of the eastern provinces.[29] At first, this so greatly angered Constantius that he immediately ordered Gallus' execution.[30] Soon after however, he changed his mind and recanted his order.[31][32] Unfortunately for Gallus, this order was delayed by Eusebius, one of Constantius‘ eunuchs, and as a result Gallus was executed.[27]

More usurpers and Julian

On 11 August 355, the magister militum Claudius Silvanus revolted in Gaul. Silvanus had surrendered to Constantius after the Battle of Mursa Major. Constantius had made him magister militum in 353, with the purpose of blocking the German threats, a feat that Silvanus achieved by bribing the German tribes with the money he had collected. A plot organized by members of Constantius' court led the emperor to recall Silvanus. After Silvanus revolted, he received a letter by Constantius that recalled him to Milan, but which made no reference to the revolt. Ursicinus, who was meant to replace Silvanus, bribed some troops, and Silvanus was killed.

However, Constantius realised that too many threats still faced the Empire, and he could not possibly handle all of them by himself, so on 6 November 355,[33] he elevated his last remaining relative, Julian, to the rank of Caesar.[34] A few days later, Julian was married to Helena, the last surviving sister of Constantius.[35] Not long after Constantius sent Julian off to Gaul.[36]

Constantius II depicted in the Chronography of 354 dispensing largesse (a Renaissance copy of a Carolingian copy).

Constantius spent the next few years overseeing affairs in the western part of the empire primarily from his base at Mediolanum. In 357 he visited Rome for the first and only time in his life. The same year he forced Sarmatian and Quadi invaders out of Pannonia and Moesia Inferior, then subsequently led a successful counter-attack across the Danube against the enemy.[37]

In the winter of 357–8, Constantius received ambassadors from Shapur II who demanded that Rome restore the lands surrendered by Narseh.[38][39] Despite rejecting these terms,[40][41] Constantius still tried to avert war with the Sassanid Empire by sending two embassies to Shapur II.[42][43][44] As a result of Constantius' rejection of his terms, Shapur II launched another invasion of Roman Mesopotamia. In 360, when news reached Constantius that Shapur II had destroyed Singara,[45] and taken Kiphas (Hasankeyf), Amida,[46] and Ad Tigris (Cizre),[47] he decided to travel east to face the re-emergent threat.

Usurpation of Julian and crises in the east

In the meantime, Julian had won some victories against the Alemanni tribe, who had once again invaded Roman Gaul. However, when Constantius requested reinforcements from Julian’s army for the eastern campaign, the Gallic legions revolted and proclaimed Julian Augustus.[48][49][50][51]

However, on account of the immediate Sassanid threat, Constantius was unable to directly respond to his cousin’s usurpation other than by sending missives by which he tried to convince Julian to resign the title of Augustus and be satisfied with that of Caesar. By 361, Constantius saw no alternative but to face the usurper with force; and yet the threat of the Sassanids remained. Constantius had already spent part of early 361 unsuccessfully attempting to re-take the fortress of Ad Tigris.[52] After a time he had withdrawn to Antioch to regroup and prepare for a confrontation with Shapur II.[53] However, the campaigns of the previous year had inflicted heavy losses on the Sassanids and they did not attempt another round of campaigns that year. This temporary respite in hostilities allowed Constantius to turn his full attention to facing Julian.[54]

Death

Constantius immediately gathered his forces and set off west. However, by the time he reached Mopsuestia in Cilicia, it was clear that he was fatally ill and would not survive to face Julian. Apparently, realising his death was near, Constantius had himself baptised by Euzoius, the Semi-Arian bishop of Antioch, and then declared that Julian was his rightful successor.[54] Constantius II died of fever on 3 November 361.[55]

Marriages and children

Constantius II was married three times:

First to a daughter of his half-uncle Julius Constantius, whose name is unknown. She was a full-sister of Gallus and a half-sister of Julian. She died c. 352/3.

Second, to Eusebia, a woman of Macedonian origin from the city of Thessaloniki, whom Constantius married before his defeat of Magnentius in 353. She died in 360.

Third and lastly, in 360, to Faustina, who gave birth to Constantius' only child, a posthumous daughter named Flavia Maxima Constantia, who later married Emperor Gratian.

Religious issues

Constantius seems to have had a particular interest in the religious state of the Roman Empire. As a Christian Roman Emperor, Constantius made a concerted effort to promote Christianity at the expense of Roman polytheism (‘paganism’). As such, over the course of his reign, he issued a number of different edicts designed specifically to carry out this agenda (see below). Constantius also took an active part in attempting to shape the Christian church.

Paganism

In spite of the some of the edicts issued by Constantius, it should be recognised that he was not fanatically anti-pagan – he never made any attempt to disband the various Roman priestly colleges or the Vestal Virgins,[56] he never acted against the various pagan schools, and, at times, he actually made some effort to protect paganism. In fact, he even ordered the election of a priest for Africa.[56] Also, he remained pontifex maximus until his death, and was deified by the Roman Senate after his death. The relative moderation of Constantius' actions toward paganism is reflected by the fact that it was not until over 20 years after Constantius' death, during the reign of Gratian, that any pagan senators protested their religion's treatment.[57]

Pagan-related edicts issued by Constantius (by himself or with others) included:

  • The banning of sacrifices;[58]
  • The closing of pagan temples;[59]
  • Edicts against soothsayers and magicians.[60]

Christianity

Although often considered an Arian,[61] Constantius ultimately preferred a third, compromise version that lay somewhere in between Arianism and the Nicene Creed, retrospectively called Semi-Arianism.[62][63] As such, during his reign, Constantius made a concerted attempt to mold the Christian church to follow this compromise position, and to this end, he convened several Christian councils during his reign, the most notable of which were one at Rimini and its twin at Seleuca, which met in 359 and 360 respectively. "Unfortunately for his memory the theologians whose advice he took were ultimately discredited and the malcontents whom he pressed to conform emerged victorious," writes the historian A.H.M. Jones. "The great councils of 359–60 are therefore not reckoned ecumenical in the tradition of the church, and Constantius II is not remembered as a restorer of unity, but as a heretic who arbitrarily imposed his will on the church."[64]

Christian-related edicts issued by Constantius (by himself or with others) included:

  • Exemption from compulsory public service for the clergy;[65]
  • Exemption from compulsory public service for the sons of clergy;[66]
  • Tax exemptions for clergy and their servants,[67] and later for their family;[68]
  • Clergy and the issue of private property;[69]
  • Bishops exempted from being tried in secular courts;[70]
  • Christian prostitutes only able to be bought by Christians.[71]

Judaism

Judaism faced some severe restrictions under Constantius, who seems to have followed an anti-Jewish policy in line with that of his father.[72] Early in his reign, Constantius issued a double edict in concert with his brothers limiting the ownership of slaves by Jewish people[73] and banning marriages between Jews and Christian women.[73] A later edict issued by Constantius after becoming sole emperor decreed that a person who was proven to have converted from Christianity to Judaism would have their entire property confiscated by the state.[74] However, Constantius' actions in this regard may not have been so much to do with Jewish religion as Jewish business; apparently, it was often the case that privately-owned Jewish businesses were in competition with state-owned businesses. As such, Constantius may have sought to provide as much of an advantage to the state-owned businesses as possible by limiting the skilled workers and the slaves available to the Jewish businesses.[72]

Jew-related edicts issued by Constantius (by himself or with others) included:

  • Weaving women who moved from working for the government to working for Jews, must be restored to the government; Jews may not marry Christian women; Jews may not attempt to convert Christian women;[73]
  • Any non-Jewish slave bought by a Jew will be confiscated by the state; if a Jew attempts to circumcise a non-Jewish slave, the slave will be freed and the Jew shall face capital punishment; any Christian slaves owned by a Jew will be taken away and freed;[73]
  • A person who is proven to have converted from Christianity to Judaism shall have their property confiscated by the state.[74]

Reputation

Constantius II is a particularly difficult figure to judge properly, mainly as a result of the hostility of most sources that mentions him. A.H.M Jones writes that Constantius "appears in the pages of Ammianus as a conscientious emperor but a vain and stupid man, an easy prey to flatterers. He was timid and suspicious, and interested persons could easily play on his fears for their own advantage."[75] However, Kent & M. and A. Hirmer suggest that Constantius "has suffered at the hands of unsympathetic authors, ecclesiastical and civil alike. To orthodox churchmen he was a bigoted supporter of the Arian heresy, to Julian the Apostate and the many who have subsequently taken his part he was a murderer, a tyrant and inept as a ruler".[76] They go on to add, "Most contemporaries seem in fact to have held him in high esteem, and he certainly inspired loyalty in a way his brother could not".[76] In the military sphere, the campaigns of Constantius and his subordinates on the Rhine and Danube frontiers in the late 350s restored stability to those regions after the troubles caused by Magnentius' revolt.

Ancestry

Footnotes

  1. ^ In Classical Latin, Constantius' name would be inscribed as FLAVIVS IVLIVS CONSTANTIVS AVGVSTVS.
  2. ^ CIL 06, 40776 = AE 1934, 00158 = AE 1950, 00174 = AE 1951, 00102 = AE 1982, 00011
  3. ^ DiMaio Jr., M. & Frakes, R. 'DIR-Constantius II' from De Imperatoribus Romanis [1]
  4. ^ Odahl, C.M., Constantine and the Christian Empire (2004), p. 275
  5. ^ X. Lucien-Brun, "Constance II et le massacre des princes," Bulletin de l'Association Guillaume Budé ser. 4 (1973): 585–602; Joe W. Leedom, "Constantius II: Three Revisions," Byzantion 48 (1978): 132–145, and Michael DiMaio and Duane Arnold, "Per Vim, Per Caedem, Per Bellum: A Study of Murder and Ecclesiastical Politics in the Year 337 A.D," Byzantion, 62(1992), 158ff. Cited in DiMaio and Frakes.
  6. ^ Zosimus, New History II.57-8
  7. ^ a b c Eutropius, Historiae Romanae Breviarium X.9
  8. ^ Zosimus, New History II.57
  9. ^ a b Festus, Brevarium XXVII
  10. ^ a b Dignas, B. & Winter, E., Rome and Persia in Late Antiquity (2007), p. 89
  11. ^ Theophanes, Chronicle A.M. 5815
  12. ^ Zosimus New History II.58-9
  13. ^ a b Zosimus, New History II.60
  14. ^ Zosimus, New History II.59
  15. ^ Zonaras, Extracts of History XIII.8.5–13
  16. ^ Julian the Apostate, The Caesars XLII.9–10
  17. ^ Zosimus, New History II.46.2
  18. ^ Eutropius, Roman History X.12
  19. ^ a b Potter, D.S., The Roman Empire at Bay: AD 180–395 (2004), p. 474
  20. ^ Eutropius, Historiae Romanae Breviarium X.12
  21. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae 14.1.10
  22. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XIV.10.16
  23. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XIV.11.3–5
  24. ^ a b Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XIV.11.6
  25. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XIV.11.11–12
  26. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XIV.11.19
  27. ^ a b Banchich, T.M., 'DIR-Gallus' from De Imperatoribus Romanis
  28. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XIV.11.20
  29. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XIV.11.22
  30. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XIV.11.23
  31. ^ Zonaras, Extracts of History XIII.9.20
  32. ^ Libanius, Orations XVIII.152
  33. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XV.8.17
  34. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XV.8.5–16
  35. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XV.8.18
  36. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XV.8.18
  37. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XVI.12
  38. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XVII.5.3–8
  39. ^ Zonaras, Extracts of History XII.9.25-7
  40. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XVII.5.9–14
  41. ^ Zonaras, Extracts of History XII.9.28-9
  42. ^ Libanius, Epistle 331
  43. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XVII.14.1–3 & XVIII.6.17-8
  44. ^ Eunapius, Lives of the Sophists VI. 5.1–10
  45. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XX.6
  46. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XIX
  47. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XX.7.1–16
  48. ^ Julian the Apostate, Letter To The Senate And People of Athens, X.12–17
  49. ^ Libanius, Orations XII.58 & XVIII.90-1
  50. ^ Eutropius, Historiae Romanae Breviarium X.15.1
  51. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XX.4.1–2
  52. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XX.11.6–25
  53. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XXI.7.7 & 13.1–5
  54. ^ a b Vagi, D.L. & Coquand, T., Coinage and History of the Roman Empire (2001), p. 508
  55. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Res Gestae XXI.15.2
  56. ^ a b Vasiliev, A.A, History of the Byzantine Empire 324–1453 (1958), p. 68
  57. ^ Salzman, M.R., The Making of a Christian Aristocracy: Social and Religious Change in the Western Roman Empire (2002), p. 182
  58. ^ Codex Theodosianus 16.10.2 & 16.10.6
  59. ^ Codex Theodosianus 16.10.4 & 16.10.6
  60. ^ Codex Theodosianus 9.16.4, 9.16.5 & 9.16.6
  61. ^ Jones, A.H.M, The Later Roman Empire, 284–602: a Social, Economic and Administrative Survey (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, 1986), p. 118
  62. ^ Pelikan, J.J., The Christian Tradition (1989), pp. 209–10
  63. ^ Gaddis, M., There is No Crime for Those who Have Christ (2005), p. 92
  64. ^ Jones, A.H.M, The Later Roman Empire, 284–602: a Social, Economic and Administrative Survey (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University, 1986), p. 118.
  65. ^ Codex Theodosianus 16.2.9
  66. ^ Codex Theodosianus 16.2.11
  67. ^ Codex Theodosianus 16.2.8
  68. ^ Codex Theodosianus 16.2.14
  69. ^ Codex Theodosianus 16.2.15, 12.1.49 & 8.4.7
  70. ^ Codex Theodosianus 16.2.12
  71. ^ Codex Theodosianus 15.8.1
  72. ^ a b Schäfer, P., The History of the Jews in the Greco-Roman World (2003), pp. 180–1
  73. ^ a b c d Codex Theodosianus 16.9.2
  74. ^ a b Codex Theodosianus 16.8.7
  75. ^ Jones, A.H.M., Later Roman Empire, p. 116.
  76. ^ a b Kent, J.P.C., Hirmer, M. & Hirmer, A. Roman Coins (1978), p. 54

See also

  • Itineraries of the Roman emperors, 337–361

References

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External links

Constantius II
Born: 7 August 317 Died: 3 November 361
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Constantine I
Roman Emperor
337–361
Served alongside: Constans and Constantine II
Succeeded by
Julian
Political offices
Preceded by
Sextus Anicius Faustus Paulinus,
Julius Julianus
Consul of the Roman Empire
326
with Constantine I
Succeeded by
Lucius Valerius Maximus Basilius,
Flavius Constantius
Preceded by
Ursus,
Polemius
Consul of the Roman Empire
339
with Constans
Succeeded by
Septimius Acindynus,
Lucius Aradius Valerius Proculus
Preceded by
Petronius Probinus,
Antonius Marcellinus
Consul of the Roman Empire
342
with Constans
Succeeded by
Marcus Maecius Memmius Furius Baburius Caecilianus Placidus,
Flavius Romulus
Preceded by
Amantius,
Marcus Nummius Albinus
Consul of the Roman Empire
346
with Constans
Succeeded by
Vulcacius Rufinus,
Eusebius
Preceded by
Magnentius,
Gaiso
Consul of the Roman Empire
352–354
with Constantius Gallus,
Decentius,
Paulus,
Magnentius
Succeeded by
Arbitio,
Lollianus Mavortius
Preceded by
Arbitio,
Lollianus Mavortius
Consul of the Roman Empire
356–357
with Julian the Apostate
Succeeded by
Neratius Cerealis,
Datianus
Preceded by
Eusebius,
Hypatius
Consul of the Roman Empire
360
with Julian the Apostate
Succeeded by
Taurus,
Florentius


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