Trenton, New Jersey

Infobox Settlement
official_name = City of Trenton, New Jersey
settlement_type = City
nickname =
motto =


imagesize =
image_caption =


image_




mapsize = 250x200px
map_caption = Location of Trenton inside of Mercer County. Inset: Location of Mercer County highlighted in the State of New Jersey.


mapsize1 =
map_caption1 =
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_type1 =
subdivision_type2 = County
subdivision_name = United States
subdivision_name1 = New Jersey
subdivision_name2 = Mercer
government_type = Faulkner Act (Mayor-Council)
leader_title = Mayor
leader_name = Douglas H. Palmer
established_title = Founded
established_date = June 3, 1719
established_title = Incorporated
established_date = November 13, 1792
area_magnitude =
area_total_sq_mi = 8.1
area_total_km2 = 21.1
area_land_sq_mi = 7.6
area_land_km2 = 19.8
area_water_sq_mi = 0.5
area_water_km2 = 1.3
area_urban_sq_mi =
area_urban_km2 =
area_metro_sq_mi =
area_metro_km2 =
population_as_of = 2007
population_footnotes =
population_total = 82804
population_metro =
population_urban =
population_density_km2 = 4304.7
population_density_sq_mi = 11153.6
timezone = Eastern (EST)
utc_offset = -5
timezone_DST = EDT
utc_offset_DST = -4
latd = 40 |latm = 13 |lats = 18 |latNS = N
longd = 74 |longm = 45 |longs = 22 |longEW = W
elevation_m = 16
elevation_ft = 52
elevation_footnotes = [Gnis|885421|City of Trenton, Geographic Names Information System, accessed June 4, 2007.]
postal_code_type = ZIP codes
postal_code = 08608, 08609, 08610, 08611, 08618, 08619, 08620, 08625, 08628, 08629, 08638, 08641, 08648, 08650
area_code = 609
blank_name = FIPS code
blank_info = 34-74000GR|2 [ [http://mcdc2.missouri.edu/webrepts/commoncodes/ccc_nj.html A Cure for the Common Codes: New Jersey] , Missouri Census Data Center. Accessed July 14, 2008.]
blank1_name = GNIS feature ID
blank1_info = 0884540GR|3
footnotes =
website = [http://www.trentonnj.org/ www.trentonnj.org]

Trenton is the capital of the U.S. state of New Jersey and the county seat of Mercer County. As of 2007, the United States Census Bureau estimated that the City of Trenton had a population of 82,804.

Trenton dates back to June 3, 1719, when mention was made of a constable being appointed for Trenton, while the area was still part of Hunterdon County. Boundaries were recorded for Trenton Township as of June 3, 1719. Trenton became New Jersey's capital as of November 25, 1790, and the City of Trenton was formed within Trenton Township on November 13, 1792. Trenton Township was incorporated as one of New Jersey's initial group of 104 townships by an Act of the New Jersey Legislature on February 21, 1798. Portions of the township were taken on February 22, 1834, to form Ewing Township. A series of annexations took place over a fifty-year period, with the city absorbing South Trenton borough (April 14, 1851), portions of Nottingham Township (April 14, 1856), Chambersburg and Millham Township (both on March 30, 1888) and Wilbur borough (February 28, 1898)."The Story of New Jersey's Civil Boundaries: 1606-1968", John P. Snyder, Bureau of Geology and Topography; Trenton, New Jersey; 1969. p. 164.]

History

The first settlement which would become Trenton was established by Quakers in 1679, in the region then called the Falls of the Delaware, led by Mahlon Stacy from Handsworth, Sheffield, UK. Quakers were being persecuted in England at this time and North America provided the perfect opportunity to exercise their religious freedom.

By 1719, the town adopted the name "Trent-towne", after William Trent, one of its leading landholders who purchased much of the surrounding land from Stacy's family. This name later was shortened to "Trenton".During the American Revolutionary War, the city was the site of George Washington's first military victory. On December 26, 1776, Washington and his army, after crossing the icy Delaware River to Trenton, defeated the Hessian troops garrisoned there (see Battle of Trenton). After the war, Trenton was briefly the national capital of the United States in November and December of 1784. The city was considered as a permanent capital for the new country, but the southern states favored a location south of the Mason-Dixon Line.

Trenton became the state capital in 1790, but prior to that year the Legislature often met here. The town was incorporated in 1792.

Geography

|

Trenton is located at coor dms|40|13|18|N|74|45|22|W|city (40.221741, -74.756138)GR|1.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.1 square miles (21.1 km²)—7.7 square miles (19.8 km²) of it is land and 0.5 square miles (1.3 km²) of it is water. The total area is 6.01% water.

Trenton borders Ewing Township, Lawrence Township, Hamilton Township, and the Delaware River. Several bridges across the Delaware River - the Trenton-Morrisville Toll Bridge, Lower Trenton Bridge and Calhoun Street Bridge - connect Trenton to Morrisville, Pennsylvania.

Trenton is located in almost the exact geographic center of the state (the official geographic center is 5 miles southeast of Trenton [http://www.usgs.gov/state/state.asp?State=NJ] ). Due to this, it is sometimes included as part of North Jersey and as the southernmost city of the Tri-State Region. Others consider it a part of the South Jersey and as the northernmost city of the Delaware Valley. Following the 2000 U.S. Census, Trenton was shifted from the Philadelphia metropolitan area to the New York metropolitan area. [http://www.njsetc.net/news/Metropolitan%20Area%20Revisions%20Based%20on%20Census%202000%2012-14%201-00.ppt] However, Mercer County constitutes its own metropolitan statistical area, formally known as the Trenton-Ewing MSA. [http://www.census.gov/population/estimates/metro-city/0312msa.txt] Locals consider Trenton to be a part of ambiguous Central Jersey, and thus part of neither region. These same locals are generally split as to whether they are within New York or Philadelphia's sphere of influence.

Climate

According to the Koppen climate classification, Trenton enjoys a humid subtropical temperate climate with some marine influence due to the nearby Atlantic Ocean. The four seasons are of approximately equal length, with precipitation fairly evenly distributed through the year. The temperature is rarely below zero or above 100 °F.

During the winter months, temperatures routinely fall below freezing, but rarely fall below 0 °F. The coldest temperature ever recorded in Trenton was -14 °F (-25.6 °C) on February 9, 1934. The average January low is 24 °F (-4.4 °C) and the average January high is 38 °F (3.3 °C). The summers are usually very warm, with temperatures often reaching into the 90 °F's, but rarely reaching into the 100 °F's. The average July low is 67 °F (19.4 °C) and the average July high is 85 °F (29.4 °C). The temperature reaches or exceeds 90 °F on 18 days each year, on average. The hottest temperature ever recorded in Trenton was 106 °F (41.1 °C) on July 9, 1936.

The average precipitation is 45.77 inches (1,163.1 mm) per year, which is fairly evenly distributed through the year. The driest month on average is February, with only 2.87 inches (72.9 mm) of rainfall on average, while the wettest month is July, with 4.82 inches (122.4 mm) of rainfall on average. Rainfall extremes can occur, however. The all-time single-day rainfall record is 7.25 inches (184.1 mm) on September 16, 1999, during the passage of Hurricane Floyd. The all-time monthly rainfall record is 14.55 inches (369.6 mm) in August 1955, due to the passage of Hurricane Connie and Hurricane Diane. The wettest year on record was 1996, when 67.90 inches (1,720 mm) of rain fell. On the flip side, the driest month on record was October 1963, when only 0.05 inches (1.27 mm) of rain was recorded. The driest year on record was 1957, when only 28.79 inches (731.27 mm) of rain was recorded.

Snowfall can vary even more year-to-year. The average snowfall is 24.9 inches (632.5 mm), but has ranged from as low as 2 inches (50.8 mm) (in the winter of 1918-19) to as high as 76.5 inches (1,943.1 mm) (in 1995-96). The heaviest snowstorm on record was the Blizzard of 1996 on January 7-8, 1996, when 24.2 inches (614.7 mm) buried the city. Snowstorms with accumulations of 12 inches (305 mm) or greater occur on average about once every 5 years.

In addition to the minor league teams, sports fans tend to lean towards Philadelphia when rooting for a major league team, especially since local football phenom Troy Vincent played for the Eagles.

Between 1948 and 1979 Trenton Speedway hosted world class auto racing. Famous drivers such as A. J. Foyt, Mario Andretti, Al Unser, Bobby Unser, Richard Petty and Bobby Allison all won major races on the one mile asphalt oval and then re-configured 1 1/2 mile race track. The speedway, which closed in 1980, was part of the larger New Jersey State Fairgrounds complex, which also closed in 1983. The former site of the speedway and fairgrounds is now the Grounds for Sculpture.

Points of interest

*Cadwalader Park - city park designed by noted landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted [http://www.ellarslie.org/] .
*Friends Burying Ground
*Old Barracks - last remaining colonial barracks in the country.
*New Jersey Statehouse
*New Jersey State Library
*New Jersey State Museum

Trivia

* Trenton is one of the only two state capitals which borders another state. The other such capital is Carson City, Nevada, which borders California. Alaska's capital city, Juneau, borders British Columbia, Canada.

* In 1896, the first professional basketball game was played in Trenton between the Trentons and the Brooklyn YMCA [http://www.capitalcentury.com/1900.html] .

*Porkroll (often incorrectly referred to as Taylor Ham outside the Trenton area [http://www.jerseyporkroll.com/what.htm] ) was invented in Trenton in 1856 by 19th century New Jersey Politician and Trenton native John Taylor.

* The term “Tomato Pie” was coined in the 1940’s by Felix "Phil" Pratico Sr. of Chambersburg. The first sign that ever read "Tomato Pies" was posted at “Nate’s Inn” (now called "Nate's Pub") on Lalor Street.

*In 1992, then Vice President Dan Quayle infamously misspelled the word 'potato' at a spelling bee in Trenton. [http://www.capitalcentury.com/1992.html]

* The Fugees' cover of the Bob Marley song "No Woman, No Cry" mentions both "Jersey" and "Trenchtown" in different verses, unintentionally leading some people to believe (erroneously) that Trenchtown is a nickname for Trenton.

Noted residents

Some well-known Americans who were born and/or have lived in Trenton include:
* Greg Forester (born 1982), noted reporter, blogger, activist
* George Antheil (1900-1959), pianist, composer, writer, inventor
* Henry W. Antheil, Jr. (1912-1940), diplomatic code clerk, honored for service to United States
* Samuel Alito (born 1950), Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States
* New Atlantic, alternative rock band
* Bo Belinsky (1936-2001), former professional baseball player
* Elvin Bethea (1936-), Pro Football Hall of Fame defensive end who played his entire NFL career with the Houston Oilers. [ [http://www.databasefootball.com/players/playerpage.htm?ilkid=BETHEELV01 Elvin Bethea] , database Football. Accessed November 26, 2007.]
* John T. Bird (1829-1911), represented New Jersey's 3rd congressional district from 1869 to 1873. [ [http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=B000478 John Taylor Bird] , "Biographical Directory of the United States Congress". Accessed August 17, 2007.]
* James Bishop (1816-1895), represented ushr|New Jersey|3 in the United States House of Representatives from 1855-1857. [ [http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=B000487 James Bishop] , "Biographical Directory of the United States Congress". Accessed September 1, 2007.]
* Edward Bloor (born 1950), novelist
* Steve Braun (born 1948), former professional baseball player
* Betty Bronson (1907-1971), actress
* J. Hart Brewer (1844-1900), represented New Jersey's 2nd congressional district from 1881 to 1885. [ [http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=B000478 John Hart Brewer] , "Biographical Directory of the United States Congress". Accessed August 17, 2007.]
*James Buchanan (1839-1900) represented New Jersey's 2nd congressional district from 1885 to 1893. [ [http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=B001004 James Buchanan] , "Biographical Directory of the United States Congress". Accessed August 27, 2007.]
*Shawn Corey Carter (born 1969, a.k.a. Jay Z), rap mogul, CEO
*George Case (1915-1989), former outfielder for the Washington Senators.
*Terrance Cauthen (born 1976), lightweight boxer who won a bronze medal at the 1996 Summer Olympics. [Longman, Jere. [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E07E6D81E39F93AA25757C0A960958260 "BOXING;3 Friends Qualify for U.S. Boxing Team"] , "The New York Times", April 19, 1996. Accessed December 4, 2007. "Cauthen, 19, grew up 40 miles north, in Trenton, but he has fought out of Frazier's gym in Philadelphia for nine years."]
*Richie Cole, jazz alto saxophonist
*Richard Crooks, tenor and a leading singer at the New York Metropolitan Opera.
*David Dinkins (born 1927), first black mayor of New York City. [Bohlen, Celestine. [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=950DEFD9163BF934A2575AC0A96F948260 " THE NATION: David N. Dinkins; An Even Temper In the Tempest of Mayoral Politics"] , "The New York Times", September 17, 1989. Accessed April 11, 2008. "From his childhood, which he spent divided between New York City and Trenton, David Dinkins has kept steady control of his emotions, friends and family members say. When he was 6 years old, his mother left his father in Trenton and moved to New York, taking her two children with her. Mr. Dinkins later returned to Trenton, where he attended elementary and high school."]
*Al Downing (born 1941), former professional baseball player
*Samuel Gibbs French, Major General in the Confederate States Army. [Armstrong, Samuel S. [http://trentonhistory.org/His/Wars.htm "Trenton in the Mexican, Civil, and Spanish-American Wars"] , accessed May 9, 2007. "Samuel Gibbs French was a native of Trenton and graduated from West Point in 1843 with the brevet rank of Second Lieutenant and assigned to the Third U.S. Artillery, July 1, 1843."]
*Dave Gallagher (born 1960), former professional baseball player
*Greg Grant, former NBA player
*Tom Guiry (born 1981), actor
*Charles R. Howell (1904-1973), represented ushr|New Jersey|4 in the United States House of Representatives from 1949 to 1955. [ [http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=H000858 Charles Robert Howell] , "Biographical Directory of the United States Congress". Accessed September 10, 2007.]
*Elijah C. Hutchinson (1855-1932), represented ushr|New Jersey|4 from 1915–1923. [ [http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=H001012 Elijah Cubberley Hutchinson] , "Biographical Directory of the United States Congress". Accessed September 7, 2007.]
*William J. Johnston (1918-1990), Medal of Honor recipient for gallantry during World War II. [cite web
publisher = U.S. Army Center of Military History
title = Medal of Honor Recipients - World War II (G-L)
work = Medal of Honor Citations
date = July 16 2007
url = http://www.history.army.mil/html/moh/wwII-g-l.html
accessdate = 2008-01-28
]
*Dahntay Jones (born 1980), professional basketball player
*Nicholas Katzenbach (born 1922), United States Attorney General in the Johnson Administration.
*Patrick Kerney (born 1976), professional football player
*Tad Kornegay (born 1982) defensive back for the Saskatchewan Roughriders in the Canadian Football League. [ [http://www.cfl.ca/index.php?module=roster&func=display&ros_id=425 CFL.ca Player Profile] . Accessed December 17, 2007.]
*Ernie Kovacs (1919-1962), comedian
*Judith Light (born 1949), actress
*Nia Long (born 1970), actress
*Craig Mack (born 1971), rapper
*N. Gregory Mankiw (born 1958), macroeconomist. [Andres, Edmund L. [http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9502EFDD133CF93BA15751C0A9659C8B63 "A Salesman for Bush's Tax Plan Who Has Belittled Similar Ideas"] , "The New York Times", February 28, 2003.]
* Zebulon Pike (1779-1813), explorer and namesake of Pikes Peak. [Baldwin, Tom. [http://www.courierpostonline.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080825/NEWS01/808250336/1006/NEWS01 "Where did Pike peak? Colo. explorer got start in New Jersey"] , "Courier-Post", August 25, 2008. Accessed September 19, 2008. "Nineteenth century Jersey explorer Zebulon Pike was born in Lamberton, now a part of south Trenton, but gave his name to Colorado's 14,000-foot Pikes Peak."]
*D. Lane Powers (1896-1968), represented ushr|New Jersey|4 in the United States House of Representatives from 1933 to 1945. [ [http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=P000488 David Lane Powers] , "Biographical Directory of the United States Congress". Accessed September 9, 2007.]
*Poor Righteous Teachers, hip-hop group
*Dennis Rodman (born 1961), former professional basketball star
*Bob Ryan (born 1946), sportswriter, regular contributor on the ESPN show "Around the Horn"
*Daniel Bailey Ryall (1798-1864), United States Representative from New Jersey, in office from 1839-1841. [ [http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=R000554 Daniel Bailey Ryall] , "Biographical Directory of the United States Congress". Accessed September 3, 2007.]
*Norman Schwarzkopf, Jr. (born 1934), Commander-in-Chief of the U.S. Central Command in the Gulf War
*Antonin Scalia (born 1936), Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States
*Charles Skelton (1806-1879), represented New Jersey's 2nd congressional district in the United States House of Representatives from 1851 to 1855. [ [http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=R000300 Charles Skelton] , "Biographical Directory of the United States Congress". Accessed August 25, 2007.]
*Sommore (born 1967), comedian
*Robert Stempel (born 1933), former chairman and CEO of General Motors.
*Gary Stills (born 1974), professional football player
*Mike Tiernan (1867-1918), major league baseball playercite book |editor=Reichler, Joseph L.| title=The Baseball Encyclopedia |origyear=1969 |edition= 4th edition |year= 1979|publisher= Macmillan Publishing |location= New York|language= |id= ISBN 0-02-578970-8 ]
*Ty Treadway, host of Merv Griffin's Crosswords [http://www.crosswords.tv/bios/ty-treadway.asp]
*Troy Vincent (born 1971), professional American football player, current president of the NFL Players Association
*Allan B. Walsh (1874-1953), represented the 4th congressional district from 1913 to 1915. [ [http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=W000095 Allan Bartholomew Walsh] , "Biographical Directory of the United States Congress". Accessed September 6, 2007.]
* Charlie Weis (born 1956), Notre Dame football coach. [ [http://cachewww.patriots.com/team/index.cfm?ac=coachbio&bio=515 Charlie Weis] , New England Patriots. Accessed August 18, 2007.]
* Ira W. Wood (1856-1931), represented ushr|New Jersey|4 from 1904 to 1913. [ [http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=W000695 Ira Wells Wood] , "Biographical Directory of the United States Congress". Accessed September 6, 2007.]
*Kareem McKenzie (born 1979), an offensive tackle for the New York Giants of the National Football League, was born in Trenton.
* Chill Will (born 1988), rapper

References

External links

* [http://www.trentonnj.org/ City of Trenton website]
* [http://www.trentonlocalnews.com/ Trenton local community news]
* [http://www.trenton.k12.nj.us/ Trenton Public Schools]
*
* [http://nces.ed.gov/ccd/schoolsearch/school_list.asp?Search=1&DistrictID=3416290 Data for the Trenton Public Schools] , National Center for Education Statistics
* [http://trentonhistory.org/ Trenton Historical Society]
*
* [http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/34/3474000.html US Census Data for Trenton, NJ]


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