Artist

The definition of an artist is wide-ranging and covers a broad spectrum of activities to do with creating art, practicing the arts and/or demonstrating an art. The normal meaning in both everyday speech and academic discourse is a practitioner in the visual arts only. The term is often used in the entertainment business, especially in a business context, for musicians and other performers (less often for actors). "Artiste" (the French for artist) is a variant used in English only in this context. Use of the term to describe writers, for example, is certainly valid, but less common, and mostly restricted to contexts like criticism.

Dictionary definitions

Wiktionary defines the noun 'artist' (Singular: artist; Plural: artists) as follows:
# A person who creates art.
# A person who creates art as an .
# A person who is skilled at some activityThe Oxford English Dictionary defines the older broad meanings of the term "artist,"

:* A learned person or Master of Arts (now rather obsolete):* One who pursues a practical science, traditionally medicine, astrology, alchemy, chemistry (also obsolete):* A follower of a pursuit in which skill comes by study or practice - the opposite of a theorist:* A follower of a manual art, such as a mechanic - partly obsolete:* One who makes their craft a fine art:* One who cultivates one of the fine arts - traditionally the arts presided over by the muses - now the dominant usage

A definition of Artist from Princeton.edu: creative person (a person whose creative work shows sensitivity and imagination).

History of the term

In Greek the word "techně" is often mistranslated into "art." In actuality, "techně" implies mastery of a craft (any craft.) The Latin-derived form of the word is "tecnicus", from which the English words , technology, technical are derived.

In Greek culture each of the nine Muses oversaw a different field of human creation:
* Calliope (the 'beautiful of speech'): chief of the muses and muse of epic or heroic poetry
* Clio (the 'glorious one'): muse of history
* Erato (the 'amorous one'): muse of love or erotic poetry, lyrics, and marriage songs
* Euterpe (the 'well-pleasing'): muse of music and lyric poetry
* Melpomene (the 'chanting one'): muse of tragedy
* Polyhymnia or Polymnia (the ' [singer] of many hymns'): muse of sacred song, oratory, lyric, singing and rhetoric
* Terpsichore (the ' [one who] delights in dance'): muse of choral song and dance
* Thalia (the 'blossoming one'): muse of comedy and bucolic poetry
* Urania (the 'celestial one'): muse of astronomy

No muse was identified with the visual arts of painting and sculpture. In ancient Greece sculptors and painters were held in low regard, somewhere between freemen and slaves, their work regarded as mere manual labour. ["In Our Time: The Artist" BBC Radio 4, TX 28th March 2002] The word art is derived from the Latin "ars", which, although literally defined means, "skill method" or "technique", holds a connotation of beauty. During the Middle Ages the word "artist" already existed in some countries such as Italy, but the meaning was something resembling "craftsman", while the word "artesan" was still unknown. An artist was someone able to do a work better than others, so the skilled excellency was underlined, rather than the activity field. In this period some "artisanal" products (such as textiles) were much more precious and expensive than paintings or sculptures. The first division into major and minor arts dates back to Leon Battista Alberti's works ("De re aedificatoria, De statua, De pictura"), focusing the importance of intellectual skills of the artist rather than the manual skills (even if in other forms of art there was a project behind). [P.Galloni, "Il sacro artefice. Mitologie degli artigiani medievali", Laterza, Bari, 1998)] With the Academies in Europe (second half of XVI century) the gap between fine and applied arts was definitely set. Many contemporary definitions of "artist" and "art" are highly contingent on culture, resisting aesthetic prescription, in much the same way that the features constituting beauty and the beautiful, cannot be standardized easily without corruption into kitsch.

The present day concept of an 'artist'

"Artist" is a descriptive term applied to a person who engages in an activity deemed to be an art. An artist also may be defined unofficially, as, "a person who expresses themselves through a medium". The word also is used in a qualitative sense of, a person creative in, innovative in, or adept at, an artistic practice.

Most often, the term describes those who create within a context of 'high culture', activities such as drawing, painting, sculpture, acting, dancing, writing, filmmaking, photography, and music—people who use imagination, talent, or skill to create works that may be judged to have an aesthetic value. Art historians and critics will define as artists, those who produce art within a recognized or recognizable discipline.

The term also is used to denote highly skilled people in non-"arts" activities, as well—crafts, law, medicine, alchemy, mechanics, mathematics, defense (martial arts), and architecture, for example. The designation is applied to high skill in illegal activities, such as "scam artist" (a person very adept at deceiving others, often profiting (semi-illegally) from other people) or "con artist" (a person very adept at committing fraud).

Often, discussions on the subject focus on the differences among "artist" and "technician", "entertainer" and "artisan," "fine art" and "applied art," or what constitutes art and what does not. The French word "artiste" (which in French, simply means "artist") has been imported into the English language where it means a performer (frequently in Music Hall or Vaudeville). Use of the word "artiste" can also be a pejorative term. [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=L2ChiO2yEZ0C&pg=PA40&lpg=PA40&dq=artist++uncomplimentary+%22artiste%22&source=web&ots=hxsr0c9Db2&sig=e66MaUj3vzQQJmsA2N9zdp3GMFo&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=7&ct=result] ]

The English word 'artist' has thus, a narrower range of meanings than the word 'artiste' in French.

Examples of art and artists

* Abstract: Jackson Pollock
* Actress: Greta Garbo
* Animation: Walt Disney
* Architect: Antoni Gaudí
* Ballet: Margot Fonteyn
* BioArt: Hunter O'Reilly
* Calligraphy: Rudolf Koch
* Ceramics: Grayson Perry
* Choreographer: Martha Graham
* Comics: Will Eisner
* Composer: Giuseppe Verdi
* Conceptual art: Sol LeWitt
* Cubism: Pablo Picasso
* Dancer: Isadora Duncan
* Designer: Arne Jacobsen
* Doll Maker: Greer Lankton
* Entertainer: PT Barnum
* Fashion designer: Alexander McQueen
* Fluxus art: Yoko Ono
* Game designer: Peter Molyneux
* Graphic Artist: Ludwig Merwart
* Graphic designer: Peter Saville
* Horticulture: André le Nôtre

* Illusionist: Houdini
* Illustrator: Quentin Blake
* Impressionism: Claude Monet
* Industrial designer: Pininfarina
* Jewelry: Fabergé
* Landscape architect: Frederick Law Olmsted
* Minimalist artist: Donald Judd
* Movie director: Sergei Eisenstein
* Muralist: Diego Rivera
* Musician: John Lennon
* Novelist: Charles Dickens
* Musical instrument maker: Stradivari
* Orator: Cicero
* Outsider Art: Nek Chand
* Painter: Rembrandt van Rijn
* Performance Art: Carolee Schneemann
* Photographer: Bill Brandt
* Photomontage: John Heartfield
* Pianist: Glenn Gould
* Playwright: Alan Bennett
* Poet: Pablo Neruda
* Potter: Bernard Leach
* Printmaker: William Hogarth
* Sculptor: Michelangelo Buonarotti
* Singer: Maria Callas
* Street Art: Banksy
* Surrealism: André Breton
* Typographer: Eric Gill

See also

* Art
* Art history
* Arts by region
* Fine art
* Mathematics and art
* Humanities
* Social sciences
*List of sculptors
*List of composers

Notes

References

*P.Galloni, Il sacro artefice. Mitologie degli artigiani medievali, Laterza, Bari, 1998
*C. T. Onions (1991). The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary. Clarendon Press Oxford. ISBN 0-19-861126-9


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Synonyms:

Look at other dictionaries:

  • artist — ARTÍST, Ă, artişti, ste, s.m. şi f. Persoană de talent care lucrează în mod creator într un domeniu al artei; p. restr. actor; p. ext. persoană care dă dovadă de talent în profesiunea pe care o exercită. ♢ Artist al poporului = titlu de supremă… …   Dicționar Român

  • artist — 1 Artist, artificer, artisan, architect mean one who makes something beautiful or useful or both. In their wider senses the words are often confused. The earliest and the continuing implication of artist is skill or proficiency (see artist under… …   New Dictionary of Synonyms

  • Artist — Sm Künstler (der Geschicklichkeitsübungen vorführt) erw. fach. (14. Jh., Bedeutung 19. Jh.) Entlehnung. Entlehnt aus ml. artista, dieses eine Täterbezeichnung zu l. ars (artis) f. Kunst, Wissenschaft, Geschicklichkeit . Das Wort bezeichnete im… …   Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen sprache

  • Artist — (franz.), Künstler, insbes. Gesamtbezeichnung für Kunstreiter, Akrobaten, Gymnastiker, Clowns, Tierbändiger (Dompteurs) etc. In Leipzig wurde neuerdings die Internationale Artistengenossenschaft begründet, die durch Hilfs und Sterbekassen,… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • artist — ► NOUN 1) a person who paints or draws as a profession or hobby. 2) a person who practises or performs any of the creative arts. 3) informal a habitual practitioner of a specified activity: a con artist. DERIVATIVES artistry noun. ORIGIN French… …   English terms dictionary

  • Artist — Art ist, n. [F. artiste, LL. artista, fr. L. ars. See {Art}, n., and cf. {Artiste}.] 1. One who practices some mechanic art or craft; an artisan. [Obs.] [1913 Webster] How to build ships, and dreadful ordnance cast, Instruct the articles and… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Artist — (v. fr.), 1) Künstler, bes. Maler od. Bildhauer; 2) Chemiker, u. mit chemischen Operationen sich Beschäftigender, wie Pharmaceut etc. Daher Artistisch, zur Kunst gehörig …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Artíst — (frz.), Künstler; jetzt bes. die Künstler des Variététheaters und Zirkus (Coupletsänger, Gymnastiker etc.); artistisch, zur Kunst gehörig, künstlerisch; Artistenfakultät, ehedem s.v.w. philos. Fakultät …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Artist — Artist, Künstler …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • artist — index practitioner Burton s Legal Thesaurus. William C. Burton. 2006 …   Law dictionary

  • àrtist — m (àrtistkinja ž) 1. {{001f}}onaj koji nastupa u varijeteima, noćnim lokalima, cirkusima kao akrobat, mađioničar, žongler i sl. 2. {{001f}}reproduktivni umjetnik koji savršeno vlada tehnikom svoga zvanja; besprijekoran umjetnik ✧ {{001f}}fr. ←… …   Veliki rječnik hrvatskoga jezika

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