- Macaronic language
Macaronic refers to text spoken or written using a mixture of
languages, sometimes including bilingual puns, particularly when the languages are used in the same context (as opposed to different segments of a textbeing in different languages). The term is occasionally used of hybrid words, which are in effect internally macaronic. A rough equivalent in spoken language is code-switching, a term in linguisticsreferring to using more than one language or dialect in conversation.
Macaronic Latin specifically is a jumbled
jargonmade up of vernacular words given Latin endings, or for Latin words mixed with the vernacularin a pastiche(compare dog Latin).
The term "macaronic" has derogatory overtones, and it is usually reserved for works where the mixing of languages has a humorous or satirical intent. Most mixed-language literature indeed appears to be of that kind. It is a matter of debate whether the term can be applied to mixed-language literature of a more serious nature and purpose.
Mixed Latin-vernacular lyrics in Medieval Europe
Texts that mixed Latin and
vernacular languageapparently arose throughout Europeat the end of the Middle Ages--- a time when Latin was still the working language of scholars, clerics or university students, but was losing ground to vernacular among poets, minstrels and storytellers.
Carmina Burana" (collected ca. 1230) contains several poems mixing Latin with Medieval German or French. Another well-known example is the first stanza of the famous carol " In Dulci Jubilo", whose original version (written around 1328) had Latin mixed with German, with a hint of Greek. While some of those early works had a clear humorous intent, many used the language mix for lyrical effect.
Another early example in the Middle English recitals "The Towneley Plays" (ca. 1460). In play 24 ("The Talents"),
Pontius Pilatedelivers a speech in mixed English-Latin rhyme.
Latin-Italian macaronic verse
The term "macaronic" is believed to originate from
Paduain the late 14th century, apparently from "maccerone", a kind of pastaor dumplingeaten by peasants at that time. (That word is also the presumed origin of the modern Italian word " maccheroni".) [http://porticobooks.com/edu/archive/issue55.htm LinguaPhile online magazine, September 2007] ] . Its association with the genre comes from the "Macaronea", a comical poem by Tifi Odasiin mixed Latin and Italian, published in 1488 or 1489. Another example of the genre is " Tosontea" by Corrado of Padua, which was published at about the same time as Tisi's "Macaronea".
Tisi and his contemporaries clearly intended to satirize the broken Latin used by many doctors, scholars and bureaucrats of their time. While this "macaronic Latin" ("macaronica verba") could be due to ignorance or carelessness, it could also be the result of its speakers trying to make themselves understood by common folk without resorting to their "vulgar" language Giorgio Bernardi Perini, "Macaronica Verba." Il divenire di una trasgressione linguistica nel seno dell'Umanesimo". [http://www.fondazionecanussio.org/atti2000/bernardi.pdf] ] .
An important and unusual example of mixed-language text is the "
Hypnerotomachia Poliphili" of Francesco Colonna(1499), which was basically written using Italian syntax and morphology, but using a made-up vocabulary based on roots from Latin, Greek, and occasionally others. However, while the "Hypnerotomachia" is contemporary with Tisi's "Macaronea", its mixed language is not used for plain humor, but is rather as an aesthetic device to underscore the fantastic but refined nature of the book.
Tisi's "Macaronea" was a popular success, and the writing of humorous texts in Macaronic Latin became a fad in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, particularly in Italian. An important example was "Baldo" by
Teofilo Folengo, who described his own verses as "a gross, rude, and rustic mixture of flour, cheese, and butter"The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology, Oxford University Press (1996)] [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06124a.htm Teofilo Folengo in The Catholic Encyclopedia] ] .
Other mixed-language lyrics
Macaronic verse is especially common in cultures with widespread
bilingualismor language contact, such as Irelandbefore the middle of the nineteenth century. Macaronic traditional songs, such as " Siúil A Rúin" are quite common in Ireland. Macaronic songs became popular for a period among Highland immigrants to Glasgow, using English and Gaelic as a device to express the alien nature of the anglophone environment. The term "macaroni" itself was popular as it bears a superficial resemblance to a common Gaelic surname form: "Mac a ..." meaning "son of the ...".
Macaronic verse was also common in
medieval India, where the influence of the Muslimrulers led to poems being written alternatingly in indigenous medieval Hindiverse, followed by one in the Persian language. This style was used by the famous poet Amir Khusro, and it also played a major role in the rise of the Urduor Hindustanilanguage.
Modern macaronic literature
Macaronic text is still used by modern Italian authors, e.g. by
Carlo Emilio Gadda. Other examples are provided by the character Salvatore in Umberto Eco's " The Name of the Rose", and the peasant hero of his " Baudolino". Dario Fo' s " Mistero Buffo" ("Comic Mystery Play") features grammelotsketches using language with macaronic elements.
The novel "The Last Samurai" by
Helen DeWittDeWitt, Helen. "The Last Samurai" (Chatto and Windus, 2000: ISBN 0-7011-6956-7; Vintage, 2001: ISBN 0-09-928462-6)] includes portions of Japanese, Classical Greekand Inuktitut, although the reader is not expected to understand the passages that are not in English.
Macaronisms figure prominently in the "
The Trilogy" by the Polish novelist, Henryk Sienkiewicz.
"Mots D'Heures: Gousses, Rames" is a macaronic telling of
Mother Goose's rhymes: the text is in false French, which read aloud sounds like the English rhymes [ [http://www.aescon.com/aesconsulting/french/index.htm Mots D'Heures: Gousses, Rames] ] .
Two well-known examples of modern non-humorous macaronic verse are Byron's "Maid of Athens, ere we part" (1810, in English with a Greek refrain) George Byron, " [http://readytogoebooks.com/MOA-P43.htm Maid of Athens] "] .; and Pearsall's translation of the "In Dulci Jubilo" carol (1837, in mixed English-Latin verse).
An example of modern humorous macaronic verse is the anonymous English-Latin poem "
Carmen Possum" ("The Opossum's Song"), which is sometimes used as a teaching and motivational aid in elementary Latin language classes. Other similar examples are " The Motor Bus" by A. D. Godley, and the anonymous "Up I arose in verno tempore".
A more recent example is the "mużajki" or "mosaics" of Maltese poet
Antoine CassarGrech, Marija. [http://www.alwatan.com.kw/Default.aspx?MgDid=537975&pageId=327 "Mosaics: A symphony of multilingual poetry"] , The Daily Star (Kuwait), 25-08-2007] (2007), that mix English, Spanish, Maltese, Italian and French.
* UEFA Champions League Anthem
Franglais, a mixture of French and English often used for humorous effect
*it [http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multilinguismo_cosmopolita Multilinguismo cosmopolita] Cosmopolitan multilingualism
*it [http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poesia_multilingue Poesia multilingue] Multilingual poetry
*Posen, I. Sheldon English-French Macaronic Songs in Canada- A Research Note and Query in "Folksongs" [http://www.celat.ulaval.ca/acef/posena.htm]
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