Capetian dynasty

Royal house
surname = Capetian Dynasty
estate = France
coat of arms =
country = France
parent house = Robertian Dynasty
titles = King of France, Duke of Orléans, King of Spain, King of Navarre, Duke of Burgundy, King of Naples, King of Sicily, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, King of Portugal
founder = Hugh Capet
founding year = 987
nationality = Frankish
cadet branches = House of Burgundy

House of Valois

House of Bourbon

* House of Bourbon-Orléans
* House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies
* House of Bourbon-Parma
* House of Bourbon-Aubigne

"For the Direct Capetians, who ruled France 987–1328, see the House of Capet."

The Capetian dynasty is the largest European royal house. It includes any of the direct descendants of Hugh Capet of France. King Juan Carlos of Spain and Grand Duke Henri of Luxembourg are members of this family, both through the Bourbon branch of the dynasty.

Name origins and usage

The name of the dynasty derives from its founder, Hugh, who was known as "Hugh Capet". The meaning of "Capet" (a nickname rather than a surname of the modern sort) is unknown. While folk etymology identifies it with "cape", other suggestions suggest it to be connected to the Latin word "caput" ("head"), and thus explain it as meaning "chief" or "big head".citation

The name "Capetian" came to be applied to both the ruling house of France, and to the wider-spread male-line descendants of Hugh Capet, by historians. It was not a contemporary practice. The name "Capet" has also been used as a surname for French royals, particularly but not exclusively those of the House of Capet – one notable use was during the French Revolution, when the dethroned King Louis XVI (a member of the House of Bourbon, though a direct male-line descendant of Hugh Capet) and Queen Marie Antoinette (a member of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine) were referred to as "Louis and Antoinette Capet" (the Queen being addressed as "the Widow Capet" after the death of her husband).

The Robertians and before

The Robertians probably originated in the county Hesbaye, around Tongeren in modern-day Belgium. The first certain ancestor is Robert the Strong count of Paris. From this Robert is derived the dynastic surname given to the family prior to Hugh Capet's election as King of France: the Robertians or Robertines.

The sons of Robert the Strong were Odo and Robert, who both ruled as king of Western Francia. The family became Counts of Paris under Odo and Dukes of the Franks under Robert, possessing large parts of Neustria.

The Carolingian dynasty ceased to rule France upon the death of Louis V. After the death of Louis, the son of Hugh the Great, Hugh Capet, was elected by the nobility as king of France. Hugh was crowned at Noyon on July 3, 987 with the full support from Holy Roman Emperor Otto III. With Hugh's coronation, a new era began for France, and his descendants came to be named, after him, the Capetians.

Robertians (Robertiner) Family Branches

*Rodbert
**Ingerman of Hesbaye
***Ermengarde of Hesbaye, wife of Louis the Pious
**Cancor, founder of the Lorsch Abbey
**Landrada
***Saint Chrodogang, Archbishop of Metz, Abbot of the Lorsch Abbey
**Robert of Hesbaye
***Robert of Worms
****Robert the Strong
*****Odo, king of Western Francia
*****Richildis, married to a count of Troyes
*****Robert, king of Western Francia
******Emma, married Rudolph of Burgundy
******Adela, married Herbert II, Count of Vermandois
******Hugh the Great
*******Hugh Capet
********Hadwig, married Reginar IV, Count of Mons
********Robert II
*******Otto-Henry
*******Odo
*******Beatrix, married Frederick of Bar
*******Emma, married Richard I of Normandy
*******Herbert, bishop of Auxerre

Capetians through history

Over the course of the preceding centuries, Capetians spread throughout Europe, ruling every form of provincial unit from kingdoms to manors. Besides being the most numerous royal family in Europe, it also is one of the most incestual, especially in the Spanish MonarchyFact|date=January 2008.

alic Law

Salic Law, reestablished during the Hundred Years' War from an ancient Salic Frank tradition, caused the French monarchy to permit only direct male descendants of Hugh to succeed to the throne of France.

Without Salic Law, upon the death of Charles IV, the crown would have passed to Isabella of France, the last surviving child of Philip IV of France, and her heir, Edward III of England.

Thus instead of the above succession, the French crown passed from the House of Capet after the death of Charles IV to Philip VI of France of the House of Valois, a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty,
*then to Louis XII of Valois-Orleans, a cadet line of the Valois,
*then to François d'Angoulème (who became François Ier), belonging to a cadet line of the Valois-Orleans,
*then to Henri de Navarre, (who became Henri IV of France), from the House of Bourbon, a cadet line of the Capetian Dynasty.

This did not affect monarchies not under that law such as Portugal, Spain, Navarre, and various smaller duchies and counties. Therefore, many royal families appear and disappear in the French succession or become cadet branches upon marriage. A complete list of the senior-most line of Capetians is available below.

Capetian Cadet Branches

The Capetian Dynasty has been broken many times into (sometimes rival) cadet branches. A cadet branch is a line of descent from another line than the senior-most. This list of cadet branches shows most of the Capetian cadet lines, although some sub-branches are not shown:
* House of Burgundy (1032-1361)
** Afonsine House of Burgundy (1109-1383)
* House of Vermandois (1085-1212)
* House of Dreux (1137-1345)
** Dukes of Brittany (1213-1341)
*** Montfort (1322-1488)
* House of Courtenay (1150-1727)
** House of Courtenay - Latin Emperors of Constantinople (1217-1283)
* House of Artois (1237-1472)
* Elder House of Anjou (initially ruling house of Sicily, then of Naples, became ruling house of Hungary) (1247-1382)
** Elder House of Anjou - Naples branch (1309-1343)
** Elder House of Anjou - Taranto branch (1294-1374)
** Elder House of Anjou - Durazzo branch (1309-1414)
* House of Bourbon (1268-1503)
** House of Bourbon - La Marche branch (became Vendome branch) (1356-1836)
*** House of Bourbon - Preaux branch (1385-1429)
*** House of Bourbon - La Carency branch (1393-1515)
*** House of Bourbon-Montpensier (1477-1608)
*** House of Bourbon - Condé branch (1557-1830)
**** House of Bourbon - Conti branch (1629-1814)
**** House of Bourbon - Soissons branch (1569-1641)
*** House of Bourbon-Orleans (1661-)
**** Orleans-Nemours, then (1891) House of Orleans-Braganza (1814-present)
***** Orleans-Alençon (1844-1970)
**** Orleans-Aumale (1822-1872)
**** Orleans-Montpensier, then Orleans-Galliera (1824-present)
*** House of Bourbon - Anjou or Spanish branch (1700-1833)
**** House of Bourbon-Parma (1748-present)
***** Parma-Luxembourg, called House of Nassau-Weilburg (1919-present)
**** House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies (1751-present)
**** House of Bourbon-Braganza (1752-1979), also called "Borbon y Braganza" or "Branch of the Infant Gabriel"
**** House of Bourbon - Molina or Carlist branch (1819-1936)
**** House of Bourbon - de Paula branch (1819-present) (became Anjou branch in 1933)
***** House of Bourbon - Barcelona branch (1933-)
*** House of Bourbon - Artois branch (1775-1883)
** House of Bourbon - Montpensier branch (1443-1527)
* House of Valois (1293-1498)
** House of Valois - Alencon branch (1325-1525)
** Younger House of Anjou (1356-1481)
** House of Valois-Burgundy (1364-1477)
*** House of Valois-Burgundy - Brabantine branch (1404-1430)
*** House of Valois-Burgundy - Nevers branch (1404-1491)
** House of Valois - Orleans branch (1392-1515)
*** House of Valois - Orleans-Angouleme branch (1407-1589)
* House of Évreux (1303-1400)
** House of Évreux - Navarre branch (1328-1425)

Capetians and their domains

*3 Latin Emperors (1216-1217, 1221-1261)
** Pierre (1216-1217)
** Robert (1221 - 1228)
** Baldwin II (1228-1261)
* 38 Kings of France (888-898, 922-923, 987-1792, 1814-1815, 1815-1848)
** Odo (888-898)
** Robert I (922-923)
** Hugues Capet (987-996)
** Robert II (996-1031)
** Henri I (1031-1060)
** Philippe I (1060-1108)
** Louis VI (1108-1137)
** Louis VII (1137-1180)
** Philippe II (1180-1223)
** Louis VIII (1223-1226)
** Louis IX (1226-1270)
** Philippe III (1271-1285)
** Philippe IV (1285-1314)
** Louis X (1314-1316)
** Jean I (1316)
** Philippe V (1316-1322)
** Charles IV (1322-1328)
** Philippe VI (1328-1350)
** Jean II (1350-1364)
** Charles V (1364-1380)
** Charles VI (1380-1422)
** Charles VII (1422-1461)
** Louis XI (1461-1483)
** Charles VIII (1483-1498)
** Louis XII (1498-1515)
** François I (1515-1547)
** Henri II (1547-1559)
** François II (1559-1560)
** Charles IX (1560-1574)
** Henri III (1574-1589)
** Henri IV (1589-1610)
** Louis XIII (1610-1643)
** Louis XIV (1643-1715)
** Louis XV (1715-1774)
** Louis XVI (1754-1792)
** Louis XVIII (1814-1824)
** Charles X (1824-1830)
** Louis-Philippe (1830-1848)
* 9 Kings and Queens of Portugal (1139-1580, 1640-1853)
** Afonso I Henriques (1112-1185)
** Sancho I (1185-1211)
** Afonso II (1211-1223)
** Sancho II (1223-1247)
** Afonso III (1247-1279)
** Dinis (1279-1325)
** Afonso IV (1325-1357)
** Pedro I (1357-1367)
** Fernando I (1367-1383)
* 11 Kings and Queens of Naples (1266-1442, 1700-1707, 1735-1806)
**Charles I (1266-1285)
**Charles II (1285-1309)
**Robert (1309-1343)
**Joanna I (1343-1382)
**Karol III (1382-1386)
**Ladislas (1386-1414)
**Joanna II (1414-1435)
**René I (1435-1442)
**Felipe (1700-1707)
**Carlos VII (1735-1759)
**Fernando IV (1759-1806)
* 4 Kings of Sicily (1266-1282, 1700-1713, 1735-1815)
**Charles I (1266-1285)
**Felipe (1700-1713)
**Carlos VII (1735-1759)
**Fernando III (1759-1815)
* 4 Kings of the Two Sicilies (1815-1860)
**Ferdinando I (1815-1825)
**Francis I (1825-1830)
**Ferdinando II (1830-1859)
**Francis II (1859-1860)
* 12 Kings of Navarre (1305-1441, 1572-1792)
** Louis I (1305-1316)
** Philippe II (1316-1322)
** Charles I (1322-1328)
** Jeanne II (1328-1349)
** Charles II (1349-1387)
** Charles III (1387-1425)
** Blanche of Navarre (1425-1441)
** Henry III (1572-1610)
** Louis II (1610-1643)
** Louis III (1643-1715)
** Louis IV (1715-1774)
** Louis V (1774-1792)
* 3 Kings and Queen of Poland (1370-1399, 1573-1574)
** Louis I of Hungary (1370-1382)
** Jadwiga of Poland (1384-1399)
** Henry V (1573-1574)
* 10 Kings and Queen of Spain (1700-1808, 1813-1868, 1874-1931, 1975-Present)
**Felipe V (1700-1724, 1724-1746)
**Luis I (1724)
**Fernando VI (1746-1759)
**Carlos III (1759-1788)
**Carlos IV (1788-1808, 1808)
**Fernando VII (1808)
**Fernando VII (1813-1833)
**Isabel II (1833-1868)
**Alfonso XII (1874-1885)
**Alfonso XIII (1886-1931)
**Juan Carlos (1975-Present)
* 2 Kings of Etruria (1801-1807)
**Louis (1801-1803)
**Charles Louis (1803-1807)
* 4 Kings and Queen of Hungary (1310-1386)
**Károly I) (1310-1342)
**Lajos, I (1342-1382)
**Mária (1382-1385, 1386-1395)
**Károly II (1385-1386)
* 9 Prince and Princesses of Achaea (1278-1289, 1313-1322, 1333-1381, 1383-1386)
**Charles I (1278-1285)
**Charles II (1285-1289)
**Louis (1313-1316)
**Robert (1318-1322)
**Robert (1333-1364)
**Catherine (1333-1346)
**Philippe (1364-1373)
**Jeanne I (1373-1381)
**Charles III (1383-1386)
* 2 Grand Dukes of Luxembourg (1964-Present)
**Jean (1964-2000)
**Henri (2000-Present)
* 21 Dukes and Duchess of Burgundy (956-1002, 1026-1361, 1363-1482)
**Otto of Paris (956-965)
**Eudes-Henri (965–1002)
**Henri I (1026–1032)
**Robert I (1032–1076)
**Hughes I (1076–1079)
**Odo I (1079–1103)
**Hughes II (1103–1143)
**Odo II (1143–1162)
**Hughes III (1162–1192)
**Odo III (1192–1218)
**Hughes IV (1218–1272)
**Robert II (1272–1306)
**Hughes V (1306–1315)
**Odo IV (1315–1349)
**Philippe I of Rouvre (1349–1361)
**Jean I the Good, also John II of France (1361–1363)
**Philippe II the Bold (1363–1404)
**Jean II the Fearless (1404–1419)
**Philippe III the Good (1419–1467)
**Charles the Bold (1467–1477)
**Marie the Rich (1477–1482)
* 15 Dukes and Duchess of Brittany (1212-1345, 1364-1532)
**Pierre I (1213-1237)
**Jean I (1237-1286)
**Jean II (1286-1305)
**Arthur II (1305-1316)
**Jean III (1312-1341)
**Jean IV (1341-1345)
**Jean V (1364-1399)
**Jean VI (1399-1442)
**François I (1442-1450)
**Pierre II (1450-1457)
**Arthur III (1457-1458)
**François II (1458-1488)
**Anna (1488-1514)
**Claudia (1514-1524)
**François IV (1524-1532)
* 6 Dukes and Duchess of Hainaut (1253-1256, 1417-1482, 1700-1713)
* 6 Dukes and Duchess of Brabant (1405-1482)
** Antoine (1406-1415)
** Jean IV (1415-1427)
** Philippe I (1427-1430)
** Philippe II (1430-1467)
** Charles (1467-1477)
** Marie (1477-1482)
* 6 Dukes and Duchess of Luxembourg (1412-1415, 1419-1482, 1700-1713)
* 3 Dukes of Lorraine (1431-1473)
**René I (1431-1453)
**Jean II (1453-1470)
**Nicholas I (1470-1473)
* 1 Duchess of Guelders (1477-1482)
* 1 Duchess of Limburg (1477-1482)
* 1 Duke of Milan (1700-1713)
* 7 Dukes and Duchess of Parma (1731-1735, 1748-1802, 1814-1859)
* 2 Duchess and Duke of Lucca (1817-1847)
* 7 Margraves and Marchionesses of Namur (1217-1237, 1429-1482, 1700-1713)
* 9 Counts and Countess of Provence (1245-1481)
* 1 Count of Portugal (1093-1112)
** Henrique (1093-1112)
* 8 Counts and Countesses of Burgundy (Franche Comte) (1329-1382, 1383-1482)
* 6 Counts and Countess of Flanders (1383-1482, 1700-1713)
* 3 Counts and Countess of Holland (1433-1482)
* 3 Counts and Countess of Zeeland (1433-1482)

enior Capets

Throughout most of history, the Senior Capet and the King of France were synonymous terms. Only in the time before Hugh Capet took the crown for himself and after the reign of Charles X is the term necessary to identify which. However, since the Salic Law provided for the succession of the French throne for most of French history, here is a list of all the predecessors of the French monarchy, all the French kings from Hugh until Charles, and all the Legitimist pretenders thereafter. All dates are for seniority, not reign. It is important to note that historians class the predecessors of Hugh Capet as "Robertians", not "Capetians".

Noblemen in Neustria and their descendants (dates uncertain):
* Cheribert (Until 636)
* Chrodobertus (From 636)
* Lambert I (Until 650)
* Chrodobertus (650-653)
* Lambert II (653-741)

Count in the Upper Rhine Valley and Wormgau:
* Rutpert I (741-757)
* Thuringbert (757-770)
* Rutpert II (770-807)
* Rutpert III (807 -834)
* Rutpert IV (834-866)

King of France:
* Odo (866-898)
* Robert I (898-923)

Count of Paris:
* Hugh (923-956)

King of France:
* Hughes (956-996)
* Robert II (996-1031)
* Henri I (1031-1060)
* Philippe I (1060-1108)
* Louis VI (1108-1137)
* Louis VII (1137-1180)
* Philippe II (1180-1223)
* Louis VIII (1223-1226)
* Louis IX (1226-1270)
* Philippe III (1271-1285)
* Philippe IV (1285-1314)
* Louis X (1314-1316)
* Jean I (1316)
* Philippe V (1316-1322)
* Charles IV (1322-1328)
* Philippe VI (1328-1350)
* Jean II (1350-1364)
* Charles V (1364-1380)
* Charles VI (1380-1422)
* Charles VII (1422-1461)
* Louis XI (1461-1483)
* Charles VIII (1483-1498)
* Louis XII (1498-1515)
* François I (1515-1547)
* Henri II (1547-1559)
* François II (1559-1560)
* Charles IX (1560-1574)
* Henri III (1574-1589)
* Henri IV (1589-1610)
* Louis XIII (1610-1643)
* Louis XIV (1643-1715)
* Louis XV (1715-1774)
* Louis XVI (1774-1793)
* Louis XVII (1793-1795)
* Louis XVIII (1795-1824)
* Charles X (1824-1836)

Count of Marnes:
*Louis XIX (1836-1844)

Count of Chambord:
*Henri (1844-1883)

Count of Montizón:
*Juan (1883-1887)

Duke of Madrid:
*Carlos (1887-1909)

Duke of Anjou and Madrid:
*Jacques (1909-1931)

Duke of San Jaime:
*Alfonso Carlos (1931-1936)

King of Spain:
*Alfonso XIII (1936-1941)

Duke of Anjou and Segovia:
*Jacques Henri (1941-1975)

Duke of Anjou and Cádiz:
*Alphonse (1975-1989)

Duke of Anjou:
*Louis (1989-Present)

The Capetian dynasty today

Many years have passed since the Capetian monarchs ruled a large part of Europe, however they still remain as kings, as well as other titles. Currently two Capetian monarchs still rule in Spain and Luxembourg. In addition, seven pretenders represent exiled dynastic monarchies in Brazil, France, Spain, Portugal, Parma and Two Sicilies. The current legitimate senior family member is Louis Alfonso, the Duke of Anjou, who also holds the Legitimist claim to the French throne. Overall, dozens of branches of the Capetian dynasty still exist throughout Europe.

Current Capetian rulers

* Juan Carlos, King of Spain (since 1975)
* Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg (since 2000)

Current Capetian pretenders

* Louis Alphonse, Duke of Anjou, Legitimist pretender to France since 1989
* Infante Carlos, Duke of Calabria, pretender to the Two Sicilies since 1964
* Prince Carlo, Duke of Castro, pretender to the Two Sicilies since 2008
* Prince Sixtus Henry of Bourbon-Parma, Carlist pretender to Spain since 1979
* Prince Henry, Count of Paris, Orléanist pretender to France since 1999
*Duarte Pio, Duke of Braganza, pretender to Portugal since 1976.

Further reading

*Fawtier, Robert. "The Capetian Kings of France: Monarchy & Nation (987–1328)". Macmillan, 1960. (translated from French edition of 1941)
*Le Hête, Thierry. "Les Capetiens: Le Livre du Millenaire". Editions Christian, 1987.

External links

* [http://genealogy.euweb.cz/capet/index.html Genealogies of the Capetian dynasty from Genealogy.eu]


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