- Tatar invasions
Mongol invasion of Europefrom the east took place over the course of three centuries, from the Middle Agesto the early modernperiod.
The terms "Tatars" or "Tartars" are applied to nomadic
Turkic peoples who, themselves, were conquered by Mongols and incorporated to their horde. They mainly composed of Kipchaks.
Golden Hordeforces led by Batu Khan, (a grandson of Gengis Khan), began attacking Europein 1223, starting with Cumans, Volga Bulgariaand Kievan Rus'. They destroyed many Russian cities including Kiev, [ [https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/citd/RussianHeritage/4.PEAS/4.L/12.III.5.html The Destruction of Kiev] ] Vladimir and Moscow on the process, sparing Novgorod and Pskov however. They would continue to their march towards the "Great Sea" (Atlantic Ocean) where further conquest is not possible. They defeat German, Polish, and Hungarian armies before turning back to go home; upon learning the death of Ögedei Khan (third son of Gengis Khan, uncle of Batu Khan), in 1241 which saved the rest of Europe from a promising catastrophe.
Battle of Kalka Riverwas fought. Mongol attack to Volga Bulgariahas failed
* 1236: Volga Bulgaria and
Cumanswere conquered, making Russians next target
* 1237: Ryazan was devastated
* 1238: Vladimir and Moscow were devastated,
Battle of the Sit Riveris fought shortly after
* 1238-1239: Rostov, Uglich, Yaroslavl, Kostroma, Kashin, Ksnyatin, Gorodets, Galich, Pereslavl-Zalessky, Yuriev-Polsky, Dmitrov, Volokolamsk, Tver and Torzhok were devastated. In the west, Chernigov and Pereyaslav were sacked.
* 1240: Destruction of Kiev
Battle of Legnicaand Battle of Mohiwere fought, respectively. Devastation of Poland and Hungary following Mongol victories. Death of Ögedei Khan; Retreating of Mongol-Tatar army. Devastation of Bulgaria in the return.
* 1259: First Mongol raid against
Lithuaniaand second raid against Poland.
* 1265: Raid against
* 1271, 1274, 1282 and 1285: Raids against
* 1275: Second raid against Lithuania.
* 1285: Second raid against
* 1287: Third raid against Poland.
The Tatars succeeded in establishing control over Rus' principalities. It included both pillages and bloody massacres in Russian cities.
* 1252: Horde of Nevruy devastated
* 1273: Tatar twice attacked Novgorod territory, devastated
* 1274: Tatars devastated
* 1275: Tatar invasion of south-eastern Russia, pillage of
* 1278: Tatars pillaged Ryazan principality.
* 1281: The horde of Kovdygay and Alchiday destroyed Murom and Pereslavl, ruined vicinities of
Suzdal, Rostov, Vladimir, Yuriev-Polskiy, Tver, Torzhok.
* 1282: Tatars attacked on
* 1283: Tatars ruined Vorgolsk, Rylsk and
Lipetskprincipality, occupied Kurskand Vorgol.
* 1285: The Tatar commander Eltoray, the son of Temir, pillaged Ryazan and
* 1293: The Tatar commander Dyuden came to Russia and devastated 14 towns, including
Murom, Moscow, Kolomna, Vladimir, Suzdal, Yuriev, Pereslavl, Mozhaisk, Volok, Dmitrov, Uglitch. In the same summer "Tatar tsarevitch" Takhtamir looted Tver' principality and captived slaves in Vladimirprincipality.
In 1347, the Genoese possession of Caffa, a great trade emporium on the
Crimean peninsula, came under siege by an army of Mongolwarriors under the command of Janibeg. Epidemicof bubonic plaguehad been ravaging Central Asiaprior to the conflict in Kaffa. Brought across the Silk Road, the Mongols used disease infected corpses as a biological weapon. The corpses were catapulted over the city walls, infecting the inhabitants. [Svat Soucek. "A History of Inner Asia". Cambridge University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-521-65704-0. P. 116.] The Genoese traders fled, transferring the plague via their ships into the south of Europe, whence it rapidly spread. It is estimated that between one-quarter and two-thirds of the of Europe's population died from the outbreak of the Black Deathbetween 1348 and 1350.
In 1380 Tatars were defeated in the
Battle of Kulikovoby the Grand Prince of Muscovy, Dmitri Donskoi. In 1382 the Golden Horde under Khan Tokhtamyshsacked Moscow, burning the city and carrying off thousands of inhabitants as slaves. Muscovy remained a vassalof the Golden Hordeuntil the Great standing on the Ugra riverin 1480. Polandwas invaded by Tatars from the Crimean Khanatein 1506 with an army of 10,000 men, who were summarily destroyed. Tatar forces invaded again in 1589, invading Lwówand Tarnopol, but were beaten back by Cossackforces.
From 1569 the
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealthsuffered a series of Tatar invasions, the goal of which was to loot, pillage and capture slaves into jasyr. The borderland area to the south-east was in a state of semi-permanent warfare until the 18th century. Some researchers estimate that altogether more than 3 million people, predominantly Ukrainiansbut also Circassians, Russians, Belarusiansand Poles, were captured and enslaved during the time of the Crimean Khanate. A constant threat from Crimean Tatarssupported the appearance of Cossackdom. [ [http://www.avalanchepress.com/Soldier_Khan.php Soldier Khan] ] [ [http://www.americanthinker.com/2005/04/the_living_legacy_of_jihad_sla.html The living legacy of jihad slavery] ]
For years the Khanates of Kazan and Astrakhan routinely made raids on Russian principalities forslaves and to plunder towns. Russian chronicles record about 40 raids of Kazan Khans on the Russian territories in the first half of the 16th century. [The Full Collection of the Russian Annals, vol.13, SPb, 1904] The
Muscovywas also being invaded by Nogai Hordeand Crimean Khanatewhich were successors of the Golden Horde. In 1521, the combined forces of Crimean Khan Mehmed Giray and his Kazan allies attacked Moscow and captured thousands of slaves. [ [http://www.allempires.com/article/index.php?q=The_Crimean_Khanate The Tatar Khanate of Crimea] ]
In the beginning of
16th centurythe wild steppe began near old Ryazanon the Oka Riverand Elets on the Sosna, inflow of Don. Crimean Tatars owning tactics of attacks in perfection, choosed a way on watersheds. The main way to Moscowwas "Muravski shliach", gone from crimean Perekop up to Tula between the rivers of two basins, Dnieper and Northern Donets. Having gone deep in the populated area on 100-200 kilometers, Tatars turned back and, having unwrapped wide wings, looted and captured slaves. For a long time, until the early 18th century, the khanate maintained a massive slave tradewith the Ottoman Empire. Captives were on sale to Turkey and the Middle East. In Crimea, about 75% of the population consisted of slaves. [ [http://www.britannica.com/blackhistory/article-24157 Historical survey > Slave societies] ] The Crimean city of Kafa was the main slave market.
Annually Moscow mobilized in the spring up to sixty-five thousand soldiers for boundary service. The defensive lines were applied, consisting of a circuit of fortresses and cities.
Cossacksand young noblemen were in structure of sentry and patrol services that observed Crimean Tatarsand nomads of Nogai Horde in steppe. About 30 major Tatar raids were recorded into Muscovite territories between 1558-1596. [ [http://coursesa.matrix.msu.edu/~fisher/hst373/readings/inalcik6.html Supply of Slaves] ]
In 1571 the Crimean khan
Devlet I Giraywith hordes in 120 thousand horsemen devastated Moscow. The Crimean Khanate was undoubtedly one of the strongest powers in Eastern Europe until the 18th century.
The Russian population of the borderland suffered annual Tatar invasions and tens of thousands of soldiers were required to protect the southern boundaries. This was heavy burden for the state and slowed its social and economic development.
Since Crimean Tatars did not permit settlement of Russians to southern regions where soil is better and the season is long enough, Muscovy had to depend on poorer regions and labour intensive agriculture.
Historians estimate that up to half of
Hungary's two million population at that time were victims of the Mongol invasion of Europe. [ [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-34789/Hungary The Mongol invasion: the last Arpad kings] ] About half of the Russian population may have died during the Mongol invasion of Rus'. [ [http://www.parallelsixty.com/history-russia.shtml History of Russia, Early Slavs history, Kievan Rus, Mongol invasion] ] Colin McEvedy("Atlas of World Population History, 1978") estimates the population of Russia-in-Europe dropped by 500,000 people, from 7.5 to 7 million in 1300. [ [http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/warstat0.htm#Mongol Mongol Conquests] ]
Timeline of Mongol conquests
Mongol invasion of Russia
Rogerius of Apulia
Grand Duchy of Moscow
Ottoman wars in Europe
List of wars in the Muslim world
Islam in Europe
List of Tatar and Mongol raids against Russian states
Destruction under the Mongol Empire
Vasily Klyuchevsky, "The Course of Russian History", Vol. 2.
* [http://www.zum.de/whkmla/military/russia/milxcrimeantatars.html List of Wars of the Crimean Tatars]
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