- Jewish Combat Organization
The Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa (ŻOB, Polish for the "Jewish Combat Organization"; called in
Yiddishיידישע קאמף ארגאניזאציע) was a World War II resistance movement, which was instrumental in engineering the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. [ [http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/303571/Jewish-Fighting-Organization Jewish Fighting Organization] at Britannica Online Encyclopedia] [ [http://www.experiencefestival.com/ydowska_organizacja_bojowa Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa - Final Deportation and Uprising] ] ŻOB took part in a number of other resistance activities as well. Notably, a second Jewish resistance organization called the ŻZW formed primarily of former officers of the Polish Armyin late 1939—and operating side by side—was at least equally instrumental in the Jewish armed struggle.
Offshoot of Jewish youth groups
The seeds of the ŻOB were planted on
22 July 1942, when the German Nazis under SSGeneral Jurgen Stroopbegan the Gross Aktion Warschausealing the fate of the Jews confined in the Warsaw Ghetto. "All Jewish persons living in Warsaw, regardless of age and sex, [would] be resettled in the East." [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=vjJimC--9-kC&pg=PA73&lpg=PA73&dq=%22all+jewish+persons+living+in+warsaw+regardless+of+age+and+sex%22+%22be+resettled+in+the+east%22&source=web&ots=Y_nopqBrlj&sig=nMhZD0zWdhL7qAEt5Bw6H3fVQnQ books.google.com] ] Thus began massive " deportations" of about 254,000 Jews, all of whom were sent to the Treblinka extermination camp. The Gross Aktion lasted until 12 September 1942. Overall it decimated the once thriving WarsawJewish community of some 300,000 to a mere 55,000–60,000 inhabitants.
The youth groups that were instrumental in forming the ŻOB had anticipated German intentions to annihilate Warsaw
Jewryand began to shift from an educational and cultural focus to self-defense and eventual armed struggle. [pl icon 23 IV 1943, Warsaw: [http://dziedzictwo.polska.pl/katalog/skarb,Odezwa_Zydowskiej_Organizacji_Bojowej_do_walki_o_wolnosc_z_dnia_23_IV_1943_roku,gid,116293,cid,2389.htm?body=desc Odezwa Żydowskiej Organizacji Bojowej z pozdrowieniami z walczącego getta i wezwaniem do walki o wspólną wolność Żydów i Polaków.] Polska.pl Skarby Dziedzictwa Narodowego; Nask, 2008]
Unlike the older generation, the youth groups took these reports seriously and had no illusions about the true intentions of the Germans. A document published three months before the start of the deportations by
Hashomer Hatzairdeclared: "We know that Hitler's system of murder, slaughter and robbery leads steadily to a dead end and the destruction of the Jews." [http://www1.yadvashem.org/about_holocaust/documents/part2/doc125.html]
Because of their ability to view the situation objectively, a number of the leftist Zionist youth groups like
Hashomer Hatzairproposed the creation of a self-defense organization at a meeting of Warsaw Jewish leaders in March 1942. The proposal was rejected by the General Jewish Labour Union Bund who believed that a fighting organization would fail without the help of Polish resistance. Others rejected the notion of armed insurgency saying that there was no evidence of a threat of deportation. Moreover, they argued any armed resistance would provoke the Germans to retaliate against the whole Jewish community. [ [http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Society_&_Culture/artzi.html The History of Hashomer Hatzair at Jewish Virtual Library] ] [ [http://www.hashomerhatzair.net Hashomer Hatzair World Movement] ]
ŻOB resistance to the second deportation
18 January 1943, the Nazis began a second wave of deportations. The first Jews the Germans rounded up included a number of ŻOB fighters who had intentionally crept into the column of deportees. Led by Mordechai Anielewiczthey waited for the appropriate signal, then stepped out of formation, and fought the Nazis with small arms. The column scattered and news of the ŻOB action quickly spread throughout the ghetto. During this small deportation, the Nazis only managed to round up about 5,000 to 6,000 Jews.
The deportations lasted four days during which the Germans met other acts of resistance from the ŻOB. When they left the ghetto on
22 January 1943, the remaining Jews regarded it as a victory, however Israel Gutman, a member of the ŻOB who subsequently became one of the leading authors on Jewish Warsaw wrote, "It [was] not known [to the Jews] that the Germans had not intended to liquidate the entire ghetto by means of the January deportations." However, Gutman concludes that the " [January] deportations... had a decisive influence on the ghetto's last months."
Final deportation and uprising
The final deportation began on the eve of
Passover, 19 April 1943. The streets of the ghetto were vacant; most of the remaining 30,000 Jews were hiding in carefully prepared bunkersincluding their headquarters located in Ulica Mila 18, many of which had electricity and running water, however they offered no route of escape.
When the Germans marched into the ghetto, they met fierce armed resistance from fighters attacking from open windows in vacated apartments. The defenders of the ghetto utilized
guerrilla warfaretactics and had the strategic advantage not only of surprise but also of being able to look down on their opponents. This advantage was lost when the Germans began systematically burning all of the buildings of the ghetto forcing the fighters to leave their positions and seek cover in the underground bunkers. The fires above consumed much of the available oxygen below ground, turning the bunkers into suffocating death traps.
16 May 1943, the German Police General Jürgen Stroop, who had been in charge of the final deportation, officially declared what he called the "Grossaktion", finished. To celebrate he razed Warsaw's Great Synagogue. The ghetto was destroyed and what remained of the uprising was suppressed.
Even after the destruction of the ghetto, small numbers of Jews could still be found in the underground bunkers, on both sides of the ghetto wall. In fact, during the last months of the ghetto some 20,000 Jews fled to the
Aryanside. Some Jews who escaped the final destruction of the ghetto, including youth group members and leaders Kazik Ratajzer, Zivia Lubetkin, Icchak Cukiermanand Marek Edelman, would participate in the 1944 Warsaw Uprisingagainst the Nazis.
While many members and leaders of the
youth groupsperished in the Warsaw Ghetto, the Zionist youth movements themselves are still alive and thriving all over the world. One can still find the leftistyouth groups Hashomer Hatzairand Habonim Drorin countries like Argentina, Australia, Canada, Chile, Israel, Italy, Mexico, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The rightist youth group Betar enjoys a large following as well but mostly in Western Europe and the United States, and Bnei Akivais the largest Religious Zionist youth movement in the world, with branches in many countries.
* [http://motlc.wiesenthal.com/site/pp.asp?c=ivKVLcMVIsG&b=476137 The battle of the ghetto]
* [http://www.ucis.pitt.edu/eehistory/H200Readings/Topic4-R3.html Jews Under Occupation]
*pl icon [http://polish-jewish-heritage.org/Pol/june_04_wojskowy.htm Żydowski Związek Wojskowy]
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