Kapiti Island

Kapiti Island is a small but conspicuous island about 8 km (5 miles) off the west coast of the lower North Island of New Zealand. It is 10 kilometres long, running south-west/north-east, and roughly 2 kilometres wide, being more or less rectangular in shape, and has an area of 19.65 km² (7.6 sq miles).

The island is separated from the mainland by the Rauoterangi channel. The highest point on the island is "Tuteremoana", 521 m. The seaward (west) side of the island is particularly rocky and has high cliffs, some hundreds of metres high, that drop straight into the sea. The cliffs are subject to very strong prevailing westerly winds and the scrubby vegetation that grows there is low and stunted due to these harsh environmental conditions. A cross-section of the island would show almost a right-angled triangle, revealing its origins from lying on a fault line (part of the same ridge as the Tararua Range).

The island's vegetation is dominated by scrub and forest of kohekohe, tawa, and kanuka. Most of the forest is naturally regenerating after years of burn-offs and farming, but some areas of original bush with 30 m (100 ft) trees remain.

Its name has been used since 1989 by the Kapiti Coast District Council, which includes towns such as Paraparaumu and Waikanae.

History

In the 1700s and 1800s Māori settled on the island. Te Rauparaha formed a base here, and his Ngāti Toa tribe regularly sailed in canoes on raiding journeys up to the Whanganui River and down to Marlborough.

The sea nearby was a nursery for whales, and during whaling times 2,000 people were based on the island. Oil was melted from the blubber and shipped to America for use in machinery, pre petroleum. Few whales are seen there now.

The conservation potential of the island was seen as early as 1870. It was reserved as a bird sanctuary in 1897 but it was not until 1987 that the New Zealand Department of Conservation took over the island. In the 1980s and 1990s efforts were made to return the island to a natural state; first sheep and possums were removed. In an action few thought possible for an island of its size, rats were eradicated in 1998.

In 2003 the anonymous Biodiversity Action Group claimed to have released 11 possums on the island. No evidence of the introduced possums has been found.

Present day

The island is the site of Kapiti Island Nature Reserve and adjoins Kapiti Marine Reserve. Most of it is in public ownership.

The island is home to a number of native birds (mostly re-introduced), including takahe, kokako, brown teal, stitchbirds, and tieke (saddleback), miromiro, piwakawaka, ruru, weka (hybrid of North and South Island subspecies), hihi, and toutouwai. The Brown Kiwi and Little Spotted Kiwi were released on the island between 1890 and 1910, and the island is now the stronghold for the latter species. Rat eradication has led to increases in Red-crowned Parakeets, North Island Robins, bellbirds, and saddlebacks, and the island is considered one of New Zealand's most important sites for bird recovery, as well as a major breeding site for sea birds. In April 2005, the critically endangered short-tailed bat was introduced to the island from a threatened population in the Tararuas, providing them with a separate, safer habitat.

Due to the proximity of Wellington, there are regular tourist trips to the island, limited to 50 people per day, and it is an especially popular destination for bird-watchers. Having no natural mammalian predators, New Zealand birds are trusting, and a visitor to the island is likely to be rewarded by seeing a number of species.

On 2007-06-14 one of the buildings at the DOC ranger station caught fire, sparking a major emergency operation to prevent the spread of fire to the native bush. 30 firefighters were flown to the island and managed to contain the blaze, preventing serious damage to the ecosystem. [Kay Blundel, [http://www.stuff.co.nz/4095335a10.html Mass effort quells Kapiti Island fire] , Dominion Post, 15 June 2007. Accessed 15 June 2007.]

External links

* [http://www.doc.govt.nz/templates/PlaceProfile.aspx?id=35101 DOC: Kapiti Island Nature Reserve]
* [http://www.doc.govt.nz/templates/page.aspx?id=33102 Short-tailed bat translocation project]

References

*"Kapiti"," Chris Maclean, The Whitcombe press, 1999


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