- Auxiliary verb
In linguistics, an auxiliary verb is a verb that gives further semantic or syntactic information about a main or full verb. In English, the extra meaning provided by an auxiliary verb alters the basic meaning of the main verb to make it have one or more of the following functions: passive voice, progressive aspect, perfect aspect, modality, or emphasis. It is also called helping verb, helper verb, auxiliary verb, or verbal auxiliary, and abbreviated aux.
In English, every clause has a finite verb which consists of a main verb (a non-auxiliary verb) and optionally one or more auxiliary verbs, each of which is a separate word. Examples of finite verbs include write (no auxiliary verb), have written (one auxiliary verb), and have been written (two auxiliary verbs). Many languages, including English, feature some verbs that can act either as auxiliary or as main verbs, such as be ("I am writing a letter" vs "I am a postman") and have ("I have written a letter" vs "I have a letter"). In the case of be, it is sometimes ambiguous whether it is auxiliary or not; for example, "the ice cream was melted" could mean either "something melted the ice cream" (in which case melt would be the main verb) or "the ice cream was mostly liquid" (in which case be would be the main verb).
- 1 Functions of the English auxiliary verb
- 2 Properties of the English auxiliary verb
- 3 Non-Indo-European languages
- 4 See also
- 5 References
Functions of the English auxiliary verb
The auxiliary verb be is used with a past participle to form the passive voice; for example, the clause "the door was opened" implies that someone (or something) opened it, without stating who (or what) it was. Because many past participles are also stative adjectives, the passive voice can sometimes be ambiguous; for example, "at 8:25, the window was closed" can be a passive-voice sentence meaning, "at 8:25, someone closed the window", or a non-passive-voice sentence meaning "at 8:25, the window was not open". Perhaps because of this ambiguity, the verb get is sometimes used colloquially instead of be in forming the passive voice, "at 8:25, the window got closed."
The auxiliary verb be is used with a present participle to form the progressive aspect; for example, "I am riding my bicycle" describes what the subject is doing at the given (in this case present) time without indicating completion, whereas "I ride my bicycle" is a temporally broader statement referring to something that occurs habitually in the past, present, and future. Similarly, "I was riding my bicycle" refers to the ongoing nature of what I was doing in the past, without viewing it in its entirety through completion, whereas "I rode my bicycle" refers either to a single past act viewed in its entirety through completion or to a past act that occurred habitually.
The auxiliary verb have is used with a past participle to indicate perfect aspect: a current state experienced by the subject as a result of a past action or state. For example, in "I have visited Paris" the current state is one of having a Paris visit in one's past, while the past action is visiting Paris. The past action may be ongoing, as in "I have been studying all night". An example involving the result of a past state rather than a past action is "I have known that for a long time", in which the past state still exists (I still know it) along with the resultant state (I am someone who knew that at some past time). An example involving the result of a past state that no longer exists is "I have felt bad in the past, but not recently". The alternative use of had instead of have places the perspective from which the resultant state is viewed in the past: "By 1985 I had visited Paris" describes the 1985 state of having a prior Paris visit.
Modality means the attitude of the speaker to the action or state being expressed, in terms of either degree of probability ("The sun must be down already", "The sun should be down already", "The sun may be down already", "The sun might be down already"), ability ("I can speak French"), or permission or obligation ("You must go now", "You should go now", "You may go now"). See modal verb and English modal verb.
Do, does, or did plays a dummy (place-filling) role in transforming affirmative sentences with simple (one-word) verbs into questions or negatives. If an affirmative statement has a two-word verb (auxiliary plus main verb), a question is formed by inverting the order of the subject and the auxiliary, and a negative is formed by inserting "not" between the auxiliary and the main verb. But in the absence of an auxiliary verb, the dummy "do" is inserted as an auxiliary for either of these purposes: for example, "I go" → "Do I go?", "I do not go"; "He goes" → "Does he go?", "He does not go"; "I went" → "Did I go?", "I did not go".
The auxiliaries do, does, and did are also used for emphasis in positive declarative statements in which the verb otherwise contains only one word: "I do like this shirt!", "He does like this shirt", "I did like that shirt".
Properties of the English auxiliary verb
Auxiliaries take not (or n't) to form the negative, e.g. cannot (can’t), will not (won’t), should not (shouldn’t), etc. In certain tenses, in questions, when a contracted auxiliary verb can be used, the position of the negative particle n't moves from the main verb to the auxiliary: cf. Does it not work? and Doesn't it work?.
Auxiliaries invert to form questions:
- "You will come."
- "Will you come?"
Auxiliaries can appear alone where a main verb has been omitted, but is understood:
- "I will go, but she will not."
The verb do can act as a pro-VP (or occasionally a pro-verb) to avoid repetition:
- "John never sings in the kitchen, but Mary does."
- "John never sings in the kitchen, but Mary does in the shower."
Auxiliaries can be repeated at the end of a sentence, with negation added or removed, to form a tag question. In the event that the sentence did not use an auxiliary verb, a dummy auxiliary (a form of do) is used instead:
- "You will come, won't you?"
- "You ate, didn't you?"
- "You won't (will not) come, will you?"
- "You didn't (did not) eat, did you?"
- "You (do) know how to dance, don't you?"
Similar negative auxiliary verbs are found in Nivkh and the Salish and Chimakuan languages formerly spoken in northwestern North America. Salish and Chimakuan languages also have interrogative auxiliary verbs that form questions in the same manner as negative verbs do negated statements.
In many non-Indo-European languages, the functions of auxiliary verbs are largely or entirely replaced by suffixes on the main verb. This is especially true of epistemic possibility and necessity verbs, but extends to situational possibility and necessity verbs in many indigenous languages of North America, indigenous Australian languages and Papuan languages of New Guinea.
Hawaiian Creole English
In Hawaiian Creole English, a creole language based on a vocabulary drawn largely from English, auxiliaries are used for any of tense, aspect, and modality expression. The preverbal auxiliary wen indicates past tense (Ai wen see om "I saw him"). The future marker is the preverbal auxiliary gon or goin "am/is/are going to": gon bai "is going to buy". These tense markers indicate relative tense: that is, past or future time relative to some benchmark that may or may not be the speaker's present (e.g., Da gai sed hi gon fiks mi ap "the guy said he [was] gonna fix me up". There are various preverbal modal auxiliaries: kaen "can", laik "want to", gata "have got to", haeftu "have to", baeta "had better", sapostu "am/is/are supposed to". Waz "was" can indicate past tense before the future marker gon and the modal sapostu: Ai waz gon lift weits "I was gonna lift weights"; Ai waz sapostu go "I was supposed to go". There is a preverbal auxiliary yustu for past tense habitual aspect : yustu tink so "used to think so". The progressive aspect can be marked with the auxiliary ste in place of or in addition to the verbal suffix -in: Wat yu ste it? = Wat yu itin? "What are you eating?" Ste can alternatively indicate perfective aspect: Ai ste kuk da stu awredi "I cooked the stew already". Stat is an auxiliary for inchoative aspect when combined with the verbal suffix -in: gon stat plein "gonna start playing". The auxiliary pau without the verbal suffix indicates completion: pau tich "finish(ed) teaching". Aspect auxiliaries can co-occur with tense-marking auxiliaries: gon ste plei "gonna be playing"; wen ste it "was eating".
Hawaiian:ch.6; is an isolating language, so its verbal grammar exclusively relies on unconjugated auxiliary verbs. It has indicative and imperative moods, the imperative indicated by e + verb (or in the negative by mai + verb). In the indicative its verbs can optionally be marked by ua + verb (perfective aspect, but frequently replaced by the unmarked form); ke + verb + nei (present tense progressive aspect; very frequently used); and e + verb + ana (imperfective aspect, especially for non-present time).
In Mandarin Chinese, another isolating language, auxiliary verbs are distinguished from adverbs:pp.181-2 in that (1) yes-no questions can be answered with subject + auxiliary (e.g., Nǐ néng lái ma? Wǒ néng "Can you come? I can" is correct) but not with subject + adverb (e.g., Nǐ yídìng lái ma? Wǒ yídìng "Will you definitely come? I definitely" is incorrect), and (2) an auxiliary but not an adverb can be used in the yes-or-no construction verb + "not" + verb (as in Nǐ néng bu néng lái? "you can not can come?").
In Mandarin the auxiliary verbs have six properties that distinguish them from main verbs::pp.173-174:
- They must co-occur with a verb (or an understood verb).
- They cannot be accompanied by aspect markers.
- They cannot be modified by intensifiers such as "very".
- They cannot be nominalized (used in phrases meaning, for example, "one who can")
- They cannot occur before the subject.
- They cannot take a direct object.
The auxiliary verbs in Mandarin:pp.182-3 include three meaning "should", four meaning "be able to", two meaning "have permission to", one meaning "dare", one meaning "be willing to", four meaning "have to", and one meaning either "will" or "know how".
- ^ Nancy Harrison (1985). Writing English: a user's manual. Taylor & Francis. p. 104. ISBN 0709937083.
- ^ James R. Hurford (1994). Grammar: a student's guide. Cambridge University Press. p. 20. ISBN 0521456274.
- ^ Sakoda, Kent, and Jeff Siegel, Pidgin Grammar, Bess Press, 2003.
- ^ Dahl, Osten, Tense and Aspect Systems, Blackwell, 1985.
- ^ Pukui, Mary Kawena, and Samuel H. Elbert, New Pocket Hawaiian Dictionary, U. of Hawaii Press, 1992: grammar section, pp. 225-243.
- ^ a b c Li, Charles N., and Sandra A. Thompson, Mandarin Chinese: A Functional Reference Grammar, Univ. of California Press, 1989.
- The English Verb 'An Exploration of Structure and Meaning', Michael Lewis. Language Teaching Publications. ISBN 0-906717-40-X
Lexical categories and their features Noun VerbVerb formsVerb types
Accusative · Ambitransitive · Andative/Venitive · Anticausative · Autocausative · Auxiliary · Captative · Catenative · Compound · Copular · Defective · Denominal · Deponent · Ditransitive · Dynamic · ECM · Ergative · Frequentative · Impersonal · Inchoative · Intransitive · Irregular · Lexical · Light · Modal · Monotransitive · Negative · Performative · Phrasal · Predicative · Preterite-present · Reflexive · Regular · Separable · Stative · Stretched · Strong · Transitive · Unaccusative · Unergative · Weak
Adjective Adverb Pronoun Preposition
Inflected · Casally modulated
Conjunction Determiner Classifier Particle Complementizer Other
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