Kinase

In chemistry and biochemistry, a kinase, alternatively known as a phosphotransferase, is a type of enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from high-energy donor molecules, such as ATP, to specific target molecules (substrates); the process is termed "phosphorylation" (An enzyme that "removes" phosphate groups from targets is known as a phosphatase.)

Types

One of the largest group of kinases are protein kinases, which act on and modify the activity of specific proteins. These are used extensively to transmit signals and control complex processes in cells. Up to 518 different kinases have been identified in humans. Their enormous diversity and role in signaling makes them attractive targets for drug design.

Various other kinases act on small molecules (lipids, carbohydrates, amino acids, nucleotides, and more), either for signaling or to prime them for biochemical reactions in metabolism. These are named after their substrates.

ee also

* Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase
* Signal transduction
* G protein-coupled receptor


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • kinase — [ kinaz ] n. f. • 1902; du gr. kinein « mettre en mouvement » et ase ♦ Biochim. Enzyme capable d activer par phosphorylation un métabolite, un autre enzyme (phosphorylase kinase) ou une protéine impliquée dans la réponse cellulaire à certains… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Kinase — Enzymklassifikation EC, Kategorie …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • kinase — ki nase (k[imac] n[=a]s), n. (Biochemistry) One of a class of enzymes that catalyze transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to another molecule; it is a type of phosphorylase. [PJC] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • kinase — 1902, from Gk. kinein to move (see CITE (Cf. cite)) + chemical suffix ASE (Cf. ase) …   Etymology dictionary

  • kinase — [kī′nās΄, kin′ās΄] n. [ KIN(ETIC) + ASE] an enzyme capable of activating a zymogen or one causing the transfer of the terminal phosphate group, generally from ATP, to a receiving molecule …   English World dictionary

  • Kinase — Les kinases, appelées à tort phosphorylases[1] (catalyseur de la phosphorolyse), sont des enzymes du groupe des transférases catalysant les réactions de phosphorylation par l ajout d un ion phosphate à une molécule cible. La molécule cible,… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • kinase — /kuy nays, nayz, kin ays, ayz/, n. Biochem. a transferase that catalyzes the phosphorylation of a substrate by ATP. [1900 05; KIN(ETIC) + ASE] * * * ▪ enzyme  an enzyme that adds phosphate groups (PO43−) to other molecules. A large number of… …   Universalium

  • kinase — Widely used abbreviation for phosphokinase, an enzyme catalysing transfer of phosphate from ATP to a second substrate usually specified in less abbreviated name, eg. creatine phosphokinase (creatine kinase), protein kinase. Serine/threonine… …   Dictionary of molecular biology

  • kinase — noun Etymology: International Scientific Vocabulary, from kinetic Date: 1947 any of various enzymes that catalyze the transfer of phosphate groups from a high energy phosphate containing molecule (as ATP) to a substrate compare protein kinase …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • kinase — 1. An enzyme catalyzing the conversion of a proenzyme to an active enzyme; e.g., enteropeptidase (enterokinase). 2. An enzyme catalyzing the transfer of phosphate groups. For individual kinases, see specific name. * * * ki·nase …   Medical dictionary

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”