Ahvaz

Infobox City
official_name = Ahvaz
native_name = اهواز
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image_caption = White bridge.


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subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = IRN
subdivision_type1 = Province
subdivision_name1 = Khuzestan
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leader_title = Mayor
leader_name = Saeed Mombeini
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population_as_of = 2006 census
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population_total = 1,338,126
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population_density_km2 = 2000
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latd = 31 |latm = 19 | lats = 39 | latNS = N
longd = 48 |longm = 41 | longs = 38 | longEW = E
elevation_m = 17
elevation_ft = 52
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The city of Ahvaz or Ahwaz [cite web |url=http://www.bartleby.com/65/ah/Ahvaz.html |title=Ahvaz |accessdate=2007-01-27 |year=2001-05 |work=Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition.] ( _fa. اهواز "ahvāz" or _ar. الأحواز), is the capital of the Iranian province of Khūzestān. It is built on the banks of the Karun River and is situated in the middle of Khūzestān Province. The city has an average elevation of 20 meters above sea level. The city had a population of 1,338,126 in 2006. [ [http://www.sci.org.ir/portal/faces/public/census85/census85.natayej سرشماری عمومی نفوس و مسكن 1385 - درگاه ملی آمار ] ]

Etymology

The word "Ahvaz" is a Persianized form of the local "Ahwaz", which in turn itself is derived from a Persian word. The Dehkhoda Dictionary specifically defines the Market of the Khuzis", where "Suq" is Persian word "chahar-suy/sugh" for market, and "Ahwaz" is a plural (اسم جمع) of the form "af'āl" (افعال) of the word "Huz", or more precisely, the root "ha wa za" (ه و ز), which itself comes from the Persian "Huz", from Achaemenid inscriptions from where the term first appears. Thus, which refers to the non-Arabic original habitants of Khūzestān.

The term "Huz", meanwhile, is the Old Persian rendition of Suz (Susa-Susiana), the native Elamite name of the region. Old Persian commonly changed the initial "s" in a foreign word into an "h," most famously, in its rendition of the name the river and the people Sindh/Sindhi into Hind/Hindi, which was then Hellenized into Indus, whence India.

Location and roads

Ahwaz located 120 km north-west of Abadan and is accessible via following routes in addition of a single runway airport:
*Tehran-Khorramshahr national railway
*Ahvaz-Abadan highway (145 km)
*Ahvaz-Andimeshk (152 km) highway
*Ahvaz-Bandar-e Emam Khomeyni highway (175 km).

Ahvaz being the largest city in the province consists of two distinctive districts: the newer part of Ahvaz, the administrative and industrial center, has been built on the right bank of the Karun while residential areas are found in the old section of the city, on the left bank.

Climate

Ahvaz has long, hot summers and mild, short winters. The maximum temperature in summer could soar up to 54 degrees Celsius while in winters the minimum temperature could fall around 2 degrees Celsius. The annual rainfall is 195 mm.Fact|date=February 2007

History

For a more comprehensive historical treatment of the area, see the history section of Khūzestān Province.

Ancient history

Ahvaz is the anagram of "Avaz" and "Avaja" which appear in Darius's epigraph. This word appears in Naqsh-Rostam inscription as "Khaja" or "Khooja" too.Fact|date=April 2007

First named "Ōhrmazd-Ardašēr" (Persian: هرمزداردشیر) (Roamn "Hormizdartazir" [Dodgeon M. H. and Lieu S. N. C., "The Roman Eastern Frontier and The Persian Wars; A Documentary History", London (1991), p.35; ISBN 0-415-10317-7] ) it was built near the beginning of the Sassanid dynasty on what historians believe to have been the site of the old city of "Taryana", a notable city under the Persian Achaemenid dynasty. It was founded either by Ardashir I in 230 (cf. "Encyclopædia Iranica", al-Muqaddasi, et al.) or (according to the Middle Persian "Šahrestānīhā ī Ērānšahr") by his grandson Hormizd I; the town's name either combined Ardashir's name with the Zoroastrian name for God, "Ōhrmazd" or Hormizd's name with that of his grandfather. It became the seat of the province, and was also referred to as "Hūmšēr". During the Sassanid era, an irrigation system and several dams were constructed, and the city prospered. Examples of Sassanid-era dams are "Band-e Bala-rud", "Band-e Mizan", "Band-e Borj Ayar" and "Band-e Khak". The city replaced Susa, the ancient capital of Susiana, as the capital of what was then called Xuzestān.

The city had two sections; the nobles of the city lived in one part while the other was inhabited by merchants. [cf. "Encyclopædia Iranica"] When the Arabs invaded the area in 640, the part of the city home to the nobility was demolished but the "Hūj-ī-stānwāčār" "Market of Khūz State", the merchant area, remained intact. The city was therefore renamed "Sūq al-Ahwāz", "Market of the "Khuz", a semi-literal translation of the Persian name of this quarter - "Ahwāz" being the Arabic broken plural of "Hûz", taken from the ancient Persian term for the native Elamite peoples, "Hūja" (remaining in medieval "Xūzīg" "of the "Khuz" and modern "Xuzestān" "Khuz State", as noted by Yaqut al-Hamawi (1179-1229) and Abu-Mansoor Javalighi.

Medieval history

During the Umayyad and Abbasid eras, Ahvaz flourished as a center for the cultivation of sugarcane and as the home of many well-known scholars. It is discussed by such respected medieval historians and geographers as ibn Hawqal, Tabari, Istakhri, al-Muqaddasi, Ya'qubi, Masudi, and Mostowfi Qazvini. Nearby stood the Academy of Gundishapur, where the modern-day teaching hospital is said to have been first established.

Ahvaz was devastated in the bloody Mongol invasions of the 13th and 14th centuries. Ahvaz subsequently declined into a mere village. The dam and irrigation channels, no longer maintained, eroded and finally collapsed early in the 19th century. During this time Ahvaz was primarily inhabited by Arabs and a small number of Sabians. Some minor cultivation continued, while all evidence of sugarcane plantations had vanished, although ruins of sugarcane mills from the medieval era remained in existence. [X. de Planhol, "Encyclopædia Iranica"]

Modern history

In the 19th century, "Ahvaz was no more than a small borough inhabited mainly by Sha'ab Arabs and a few Sabeans (1,500 to 2,000 inhabitants according to Ainsworth in 1835; 700 according to Curzon in 1890)." ["Encyclopædia Iranica", p.690, see entry: "Ahvaz"]

In the 1880s, under Qajar rule, the Karun River was dredged and re-opened to commerce. A newly-built railway crossed the Karun at Ahvaz. The city again became a commercial crossroads, linking river and rail traffic. The construction of the Suez Canal further stimulated trade. A port city was built near the old village of Ahvaz, and named "Bandar-e-Naseri" in honor of Nassereddin Shah Qajar.

Oil was found near Ahvaz in the early 20th century, and the city once again grew and prospered as a result of this newfound wealth. From 1897-1925, Sheikh Khaz'al controlled this area and the name was changed to "Naseriyeh". Afterwards, during the Pahlavi period, it resumed its old name, "Ahvaz". The government of the Khūzestān Province was transferred there from Shûshtar in 1926. The trans-Iranian railroad reached Ahvaz in 1929 and by the World War II, Ahvaz had become the principal built-up area of interior of Khūzestān. Professional segregation remained well marked between various groups in that period still feebly integrated: Persians, sub-groupings of Persians and Arabs. Natives of the Isfahan region held an important place in retail trade, owners of cafes and hotels and as craftsmen. ["Ibid", p.690]

Iraq attempted to annex Khūzestān and Ahvaz in 1980, resulting in the Iran–Iraq War (1980-1988). Ahvaz was close to the front lines and suffered badly during the war.

Iraq had pressed its claims to Khūzestān in part because many of the inhabitants of the area spoke Arabic rather than Persian, the dominant language in Iran. Iraq had hoped to exacerbate ethnic tensions and win over popular support for the invaders. Most accounts say that the Iranian Arab inhabitants resisted the Iraqis rather than welcome them as liberators. However, some Iranian Arabs claim that as a minority they face discrimination from the central government; they agitate for the right to preserve their cultural and linguistic distinction and more provincial autonomy. See "Politics of Khūzestān".

During the year 2005 the city witnessed a series of bomb explosions. Many government sources relate these events to developments in Iraq, accusing foreign governments of organising and funding Arab separatist groups.

Contemporary Ahvaz

In 1989, the "Foolad Ahvaz" steel facility was built close to the town. This company is best known for its company-sponsored football club, Foolad F.C., which was the chart-topper for Iran's Premier Football League in 2005. Ahvaz is also home to another IPL football team, Esteghlal Ahvaz F.C..

Transportation

* Ahvaz is accessible via freeways to Isfahan and Shiraz, and roadways to Tehran.
* A metro urban railway system is being built by the Ahvaz urban railway. It will be a 23Km underground line with 24 stations.
* The airport is served by Iran Asseman Airlines (Dubai, Kuwait, Tehran), Caspian Airlines (Dubai), Iran Air (Isfahan, Kuwait, Tehran), Iran Air Tours (Isfahan, Mashad, Shiraz, Tehran), Kish air (Tehran)

Colleges and universities

Ahvaz is also known for its universities as well as its role in commerce and industry. Ahvaz institutes of higher learning include:

* Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences
* [http://www.put.ac.ir/ Petroleum University of Technology] fa icon
* Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz
* [http://www.iau-asrc.ac.ir/ Islamic Azad University of Ahvaz] fa icon

ome famous Ahvazis

* Will V. Bet-Sayad, Scientist and artist, FDA
* Sousan S. Altaie, PHD Scientific Policy Advisor, OIVD CDRH, FDA
* Ezzat Negahban, Patriarch of modern Iranian archaeology.
* Mehrangiz Kar, Human rights activist.
* Ahmad Mahmoud, Novelist.
* Hamid Dabashi, Intellectual historian, cultural and literary critic
* Siavash Ghomeyshi, well-known singer and music composer.
* Patrick Monahan, British Comedian.
* Parviz Abnar, Iranian Sound recordist.
* Mohammad Reza Eskandari, Iran's current minister of Agriculture
* Abu Nuwas, famous figure in Arabic poetry.
* Ali Shamkhani, Iranian Minister of Defence (1997-2005)
* Hossein Kaebi, national football star
* Hamid Zangeneh, economist, author, and activist.
* Jalal Kameli Mofrad, national football player
* Hossein Shokrkon, Industrial and organizational psychologist
* Seyed Kazem Alavi Fazel, Psychiatrist, X-Chancellor of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences
* Hamed Haddadi, NBA basketball player
* Mohammad Mousavi Ney soloist
* Ali ibn Abbas al-Majusi, the famous physician
* Naubakht, an astronomer, and his sons;
* Ibn Sakkit Doraghi Ahwazi, Writer in the early years after invasion of Islam
* Sattaar Oraki Pouri, Iranian Pianist and Composer
* Farid Omran, Originally from Abadan, Globally recognised composer
* Reza Taheri, Football player, based in Husby (Sweden)
* mehrzad payandeh,famouse violonist
* mrs zafari,famouse english teacher

Gallery

References

ee also

* Mandaeism, Mandaic language
* Khūzestān Province
* Politics of Khūzestān
* Gundeshapur
* Susa
* Elam
* Choqa Zanbil
* History of Iran
* Takhti Stadium (Ahvaz)

External links

* [http://www.ahwazcity.com/ Ahvaz Municipal Office] fa icon
* [http://www.iran-usu.org/index1.html Union of Iranian Southern Universities] fa icon
* [http://www.fooladfc.ir/ Foolad Ahvaz Football Club] fa icon
* [http://www.ahwazbazar.com/ Ahwaz Bazaar Directory] fa icon


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  • Ahvaz — Ahvaz …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Ahvaz — [ä wäz′ä väz′] city in SW Iran: pop. 580,000: also Ahwaz [ä wäz′] * * * Ah·vaz or Ah·waz (ä wäzʹ) A city of southwest Iran north northeast of Basra, Iraq. Modern Ahvaz was built on extensive ruins of an ancient Persian city. Population: 828,380.… …   Universalium

  • Ahvaz — [ä wäz′ä väz′] city in SW Iran: pop. 580,000: also Ahwaz [ä wäz′] …   English World dictionary

  • Ahvaz — 31° 17′ N 48° 43′ E / 31.28, 48.72 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Ahvaz — Ahwaz احواز Puente sobre el río Karún en Ahvaz …   Wikipedia Español

  • Ahvaz — Original name in latin Ahvz Name in other language Ahvaz, Ahvaz ahwaz, Ahvaz Ahvz, Ahwaz, Ahwz, Akhvaz, Bandar Nasiri, Bandar Nsir Bandar e Naser, Bandar e Ner, Naseri, Nasiri, Nsiri, Ner a wa shi, afuvuAhvazazu, ahwaz, alahwaz, Ахваз, Авоз State …   Cities with a population over 1000 database

  • Ahvaz — or Ahwaz geographical name city SW Iran on the Karun population 579,826 …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Ahvāz — ► C. de Irán, cap. de la prov. de Khuzistán; 579 826 h …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Ahvaz — /aˈvaz/ (say ah vahz) noun a town in south western Iran …   Australian English dictionary

  • Ahvaz — …   Useful english dictionary

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