Journalism school

Journalism school

A journalism school is a school or department, usually part of an established university, where journalists are trained. "Journalism is the key to life," said one famous Nebraskan. An increasingly used short form for a journalism department, school or college is 'j-school'. Many of the most famous and respected journalists of the past and present had no formal training in journalism, but learned their craft on the job, often starting out as "copy boys"/"copy girls". Today, in many parts of the world it is usual for journalists to first complete university-level training which incorporates both technical skills such as research skills, interviewing technique and shorthand and academic studies in media theory, cultural studies and ethics.

Historically, in the United Kingdom entrants used first to complete a non media-studies related degree course, giving maximum educational breadth, prior to taking a specialist postgraduate pre-entry course. However, this has changed over the last ten years with journalism training and education moving to higher educational institutions. There are now over 60 universities in the UK offering BA honours degrees in journalism. Postgraduate courses are more well-established, some of which are either recognised by the National Union of Journalists (NUJ) or the National Council for the Training of Journalists (NCTJ).

History

The first program for journalism education was introduced by former Confederate General, Robert E. Lee [ [http://journalism.wlu.edu/prospects/prospects.html Journalism and Mass Communications-Washington and Lee University ] ] , during his presidency at Washington and Lee University, in Lexington, Virginia, in the 1860s. [http://journalism.wlu.edu/Journalism.pdf] The world's first journalism school was founded by Walter Williams as the Missouri School of Journalism at poop the University of Missouri in 1908. [ [http://journalism.missouri.edu/about/history.html Missouri School of Journalism: A Brief History of the Missouri School of Journalism ] ] Since then the journalism school has become standard at most major universities.Fact|date=August 2008


=Top journalism schools= There have been various attempts to rank journalism schools, and the question of which are the "best" or "top" journalism schools is frequently raised on the internet by students. Many institutions claim to be leading schools of journalism, and there is inevitably debate about which are the most appropriate criteria with which to evaluate and judge journalism schools. Awards are obvious indicators of a quality J-school, as are the quality of school graduates.


=Australia and New Zealand= In Australia, a ranking of all journalism schools in the country has been assembled based on graduating students' assessments of the quality of their courses: [http://www.jschool.com.au/topschools.php] . Top journalism schools in Australia include Jschool and the University of the Sunshine Coast. The New Zealand Training Organisation has published a list of that country's journalism schools recognised by industry. [http://www.journalismtraining.co.nz/schools.html]


=Europe= The Centre de Formation des Journalistes ( CFJ [ [http://www.cfpj.com/cfj/ CFJ - Centre de Formation des Journalistes] ] ) was founded in 1946 by two Resistance leaders. Located on the rue du Louvre in Paris, many of the leading journalists in France today graduated from this school and come back to help train today's students. Europe's most long-established postgraduate centre of journalism education is the highly-regarded Department of Journalism at City University, London [ [http://www.devstud.org.uk/events/Media-awareness-co-training-DSA-City-web.doc A New Mechanism For Improved Media Representation And Public Participation In Development] ] [ [http://www.educationuk.org/pls/hot_bc/bc_profile.page_pls_profile_details?x=919113605101&y=0&a=0&z=7287&p_lang=31&sec_id=26 Education UK] ] [ [http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2001/sep/03/mondaymediasection.choosingadegree Media studies? Do yourself a favour - forget it - "The Guardian"] ] [ [http://www.independent.co.uk/news/media/inside-story-the-graduates-531637.html "Inside Story: The Graduates" - The Independent] ] .

The UK's top-rated course by the National Council for the Training of Journalists is at Nottingham Trent University.

Cardiff University, Sheffield, University of Central Lancashire and Kingston University also have well-respected journalism departments. Issues from a European perspective in evaluating journalism schools are discussed by the president of the European Journalism Training Association: [http://www.fejs.org/files/Interview%20with%20Marianne%20Peters.pdf] .

In Russia, the MSU Faculty of Journalism is the leading journalism school. The majority of textbooks on journalism in Russian were written by MSU scientists.


=Latin America= An evaluation of developments in journalism education in Latin America has been undertaken by Professor Rosental Calmon Alves [http://www.thedialogue.org/publications/programs/policy/politics_and_institutions/press_freedom/FinalAlves.doc ] .

JOURNALISM SCHOOLS IN COLOMBIA

In this country the high court determined in 1998 that journalism were not a career or a profession, this High court said that is a human right, not a profession.

Because of that there are in Colombia many schools of communications where people study for working, most of all, in enterprises, not in mass media.

There are only two schools of journalism:

University of Antioquia, a public institution in Medellín, offers Journalsim inside the Communcations faculty. [http://comunicaciones.udea.edu.co/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=9&Itemid=26] And University of Rosario in Bogotá, a private institution offers Public Opinion Journalism [http://www.urosario.edu.co/FASE1/ciencias_humanas/pregrado_periodismo_opinion.htm]


=North America= A listing (unranked) of Canadian journalism schools has been assembled by Canadian-Universities.net [http://www.canadian-universities.net/Universities/Programs/Journalism.html] . Journalism schools are listed and classified on the "J-Schools & Programs" page of [http://j-source.ca/ The Canadian Journalism Project] In the United States the Accrediting Council on Education in Journalism and Mass Communications (ACEJMC) [http://www2.ku.edu/~acejmc/index.html] applies nine standards in evaluating university programs: mission, governance and administration; curriculum and instruction; diversity and inclusiveness; full-time and part-time faculty; scholarship: research, creative and professional activity; student services; resources, facilities and equipment; professional and public service; and assessment of learning outcomes. The ACEJMCC has awarded accreditation to 109 university and college programs of study in journalism and mass communications, but does not attempt to rank the courses or programs. It accredits colleges, schools, Departments or "Divisions. The listing of a unit as accredited indicates that the unit has been judged by ACEJMC to meet its standards. That judgment is rendered after a self-study prepared by the faculty and administration of the unit and an independent evaluation of the unit by educators and practitioners.The listing shows the bachelor's and professional master's degree programs that were examined during the unit's most recent accreditation review. Some units offer degrees in addition to those listed here. ACEJMC does not accredit programs leading to the Ph.D., which is considered a research (and not a professional) degree. The Council does not list sequences or specialties.

"Editor & Publisher" has presented an unranked list of leading journalism schools [http://www.editorandpublisher.com/eandp/resources/journalism_schools.jsp] , while "U.S. News & World Report" produces annual lists of the top schools in advertising, print, and other categories based on responses to questionnaires sent to deans and faculty members. A list based on a variety of resources claims to identify the "ten most popular journalism schools in the United States" [http://www.chillibreeze.com/articles/schools-of-journalism.asp] . One critic has pointed to the anecdotal nature of much j-school ranking in the absence of effective tracking of journalism graduates' career paths [http://www.cjr.org/issues/2006/5/Graves.asp] . Generally, America's most prominent journalism programs are considered those at Columbia University, Northwestern University, and the University of Missouri. Other well-known programs include those at Ohio University, Indiana University, Michigan State University, Quinnipiac University, University of Florida, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.Fact|date=September 2008


=Debate about the role of journalism schools= One of the most cited critiques of a journalism school was Michael Lewis's article in "The New Republic" (1993), "J-school ate my brain" ( [http://www.uvm.edu/~tstreete/MediaCultureUVM/jschool_critique.html] ), which was strongly criticized by University of Maryland College of Journalism dean Reese Cleghorn in "American Journalism Review": [http://www.ajr.org/Article.asp?id=1710] . Discussion of the issues raised by Lewis was evident a decade later in the "Chronicle of Higher Education" colloquy on journalism education, [http://chronicle.com/colloquy/2002/jschool/] , "Columbia Journalism Review"'s "Searching for the perfect j-school", [http://www.cjr.org/issues/2002/6/school-cunningham.asp] , and "The j-school debate" in the Christian Science Monitor, [http://www.csmonitor.com/2002/0801/p09s02-coop.html] . Alternative approaches to journalism education were suggested in Jack Shafer's "Slate" article "Can J-school be saved? Professional advice for Columbia University" [http://www.slate.com/id/2071993/] . An article in "The Australian" discusses "What makes a good school of journalism". [http://www.theaustralian.news.com.au/story/0,20867,20447561-7582,00.html] . On the internet, a range of weblogs have been set up by journalism students to chronicle or to criticize their journalism colleges. Examples are: [http://jschoolyear.blogspot.com/] , [http://jschool05.blogspot.com/2004_08_01_jschool05_archive.html] , [http://the-pod.blogspot.com/2005_10_02_the-pod_archive.html] , [http://blog.jschool.com.au] . An example of a weblog criticising university journalism education in Australia is [http://www.whatswrongwiththejschool.blogspot.com/] . One journalism school in the UK, at the [http://www.westminsterjournalism.co.uk University of Westminster] , has established a clearing house where all students are expected to contribute to the development and content of their own education and training using blogs. Various commentaries on journalism education are related to criticisms of contemporary news media standards and values. One example is a paper by Jan Schaffer, executive director of J-Lab: the Institute for Interactive Journalism [http://www.j-lab.org/aejmcfuturespeech.shtml] . A controversial paper to Australia's peak newspaper industry body PANPA (Pacific Area Newspaper Publishers Association) by Professor John Henningham ("Journalism sold short in media courses") blamed industry lack of interest and university cost-cutting for falling standards in journalism education [http://www.jschool.com.au/media.php#journalismsoldshort] . In Canada, Mark Anderson of the Ottawa Citizen has argued the case for teaching business journalism in college rather than on the job [http://www.canada.com/ottawacitizen/news/business/story.html?id=5f18f975-b918-4d3f-b421-401d8c97828a&p=1] .

List of Journalism Schools and Programs

United States and Canada

* [http://www.brooklyn.liu.edu/journalism The Department of Journalism] at Long Island University's Brooklyn Campus
* Henry W. Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communication at the University of Georgia
* The W. Page Pitt School of Journalism and Mass Communications at Marshall University
*The Elon University School of Communications
*The Department of Journalism, Roy H. Park School of Communications, Ithaca College
*The College of Communications Department of Journalism at the Pennsylvania State University
* College of Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Nebraska-Lincoln
* The Department of Journalism at Ball State University
* The College of Communication and Information Sciences at The University of Alabama
* A.Q. Miller School of Journalism & Mass Communications at Kansas State University
* William Allen White School of Journalism & Mass Communications at University of Kansas
* American University School of Communication-Journalism Programs
* The Department of Journalism at New York University
* Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Southern California, and the University of Pennsylvania
* University of Oregon School of Journalism and Communication
* The Edward R. Murrow School of Communication at Washington State University
* Philip Merrill College of Journalism at the University of Maryland
* Carleton School of Journalism at Carleton University
* Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism
* Gaylord College of Journalism and Mass Communication at the University of Oklahoma
* S. I. Newhouse School of Public Communications at Syracuse University.
* Ernie Pyle School of Journalism at Indiana University
* E.W. Scripps School of Journalism at Ohio University
* [http://www.fairfield.edu/x2957.html Journalism] at Fairfield University
* University of Texas School of Journalism
* Michigan State University School of Journalism
* Medill School of Journalism at Northwestern University
* Missouri School of Journalism at University of Missouri
* [http://www.nyfa.com/film_school/programs/filmmaking/nbc.php NBC News School of Digital Journalism in affiliation with New York Film Academy ]
* School of Journalism at Loyola University Chicago
* Point Park University in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
* Ryerson School of Journalism at Ryerson University
* University of Florida School of Journalism
* UC Berkeley Graduate School of Journalism
* UC Irvine offers an undergraduate degree in Literary Journalism.
* USC School of Journalism and Mass Communications - Columbia, South Carolina
* University of Colorado School of Journalism and Mass Communication
* Donald W. Reynolds School of Journalism at the University of Nevada, Reno
* University of Wisconsin-Madison
* Eastern Illinois University in Charleston, IL
* University of Iowa Adler School of Journalism
* Walter Cronkite School of Journalism and Mass Communication at Arizona State University
* Boston University College of Communication
* School of Communications and Theater at Temple University
* [School of Journalism and Communication at University of Oregon
* [School of Journalism and Mass Communication at Kent State University
* School of Journalism and Mass Communication at University of Minnesota
* School of Journalism and Mass Communication at University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
* School of Journalism and Broadcasting at Western Kentucky University
* School of Communication at American University
* College of Communication at DePaul University
* The Department of Journalism at the University of Arizona
* The Department of Journalism at the University at Albany
* The Department of Journalism and Mass Communications at Washington and Lee University
* The Department of Journalism at Middle Tennessee State University
* The Department of Mass Communications at University of South Florida
* [http://www.comm.uiuc.edu College of Communications] at University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign
* The Manship School of Mass Communication at Louisiana State University
* The Washington Journalism Center in Washington, D.C.
* University of Western Ontario
* [http://www.journalism.columbia.edu Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism] in New York City
* School of Media and Public Affairs at The George Washington University
* School of Media Arts and Design at James Madison University
* Department of Mass Communications at St. Cloud State University (St. Cloud, MN)
* The P. I. Reed School of Journalism at West Virginia University

Latin America- Colombia:University of Antioquia Journalsim career.Rosario university Public Opinion Journalism

Asia

* Indian Institute of Mass Communication (IIMC), New Delhi
* Asian College of Journalism, Chennai
* A J K Mass Communication Research Centre, Jamia, New Delhi
* [http://www.hkbu.edu.hk/~jour/index.html Department of Journalism] , Hong Kong Baptist University
* Institute for Journalism and Society, Hong Kong Baptist University
* [http://jmsc.hku.hk/ Journalism and Media Studies Centre] , University of Hong Kong
* [http://cmc.upd.edu.ph Department of Journalism at the College of Mass Communication] , University of the Philippines Diliman
* [http://www.pup.edu.ph/colleges Department of Journalism, College of Communication] , Polytechnic University of the Philippines
* [http://www.aijc.com.ph/ Asian Institute of Journalism and Communication]
* Department of Journalism, Shih Hsin University, Taiwan
* Department of Journalism, National Chengchi University, Taiwan
* Department of Journalism & Communication Studies, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taiwan

Australia and New Zealand

* University of Technology, Sydney - Journalism Department

Europe

* Nottingham Trent University Centre for Broadcasting and Journalism - Nottingham, England
* CELSA Paris - Sorbonne University, France
* CFJ Paris-based Journalism School and Training center, Paris, France
* City University Journalism Department - London, England
* JMG, University of Gothenburg - Gothenburg, Sweden
* Leeds University - Institute of Communications Studies - Yorkshire, England
* London College of Communication - University of the Arts, London - London, England
* Moscow State University Faculty of Journalism - Moscow, Russia
* Westminster University Journalism Department - London, England
* Kingston University Journalism Department


=See also=
* Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication
* National Association of Hispanic Journalists
* Nieman Foundation for Journalism
* Religion Newswriters Association

References

External links

* [http://www2.ku.edu/~acejmc/STUDENT/PROGLIST.SHTML ACEJMC list of accredited programs]
* [http://www.shorthandworld.co.uk/journalism.html Shorthand and the Journalist]


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