- Clement Attlee
The Right Honourable
The Earl Attlee
KG OM CH FRS PC
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom In office
26 July 1945 – 26 October 1951
Monarch George VI Deputy Herbert Morrison Preceded by Winston Churchill Succeeded by Winston Churchill Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom In office
19 February 1942 – 23 May 1945
Prime Minister Winston Churchill Preceded by Office Created Succeeded by Herbert Morrison Leader of the Opposition In office
26 October 1951 – 25 November 1955
Monarch George VI
Prime Minister Winston Churchill
Sir Anthony Eden
Preceded by Winston Churchill Succeeded by Herbert Morrison In office
23 May 1945 – 26 July 1945
Monarch George VI Prime Minister Winston Churchill Preceded by Arthur Greenwood Succeeded by Winston Churchill In office
25 October 1935 – 22 May 1940
Monarch George VI Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald Preceded by George Lansbury Succeeded by Hastings Lees-Smith Leader of the Labour Party In office
25 October 1935 – 25 November 1955
Deputy Arthur Greenwood
Preceded by George Lansbury Succeeded by Hugh Gaitskell Deputy Leader of the Labour Party In office
25 October 1933 – 25 October 1935
Leader George Lansbury Preceded by John Robert Clynes Succeeded by Arthur Greenwood Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs In office
15 February 1942 – 24 September 1943
Prime Minister Winston Churchill Preceded by Viscount Cranborne Succeeded by Viscount Cranborne Minister of Defence In office
27 July 1945 – 20 December 1946
Prime Minister Himself Preceded by Winston Churchill Succeeded by A. V. Alexander Lord President of the Council In office
24 September 1943 – 23 May 1945
Prime Minister Winston Churchill Preceded by Sir John Anderson Succeeded by The Lord Woolton Lord Privy Seal In office
24 September 1943 – 23 May 1945
Prime Minister Winston Churchill Preceded by Sir Kingsley Wood Succeeded by Sir Stafford Cripps Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster In office
23 May 1930 – 13 March 1931
Preceded by Sir Oswald Mosley Succeeded by The Lord Ponsonby of Shulbrede Member of Parliament
for Walthamstow West
23 February 1950 – 26 December 1955
Preceded by Valentine McEntee Succeeded by Edward Redhead Member of Parliament
15 November 1922 – 23 February 1950
Preceded by Sir William Pearce Succeeded by Walter Edwards (Stepney) Personal details Born Clement Richard Attlee
3 January 1883
London, England, UK
Died 8 October 1967(aged 84)
Westminster Hospital, London, England
Resting place Westminster Abbey Nationality British Political party Labour Spouse(s) Violet Attlee Alma mater University College, Oxford Profession Lawyer, Soldier (served in World War I as a Major) Religion Agnostic
Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, PC, FRS (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was a British Labour politician who served as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951, and as the Leader of the Labour Party from 1935 to 1955. He was also the first person to hold the office of Deputy Prime Minister, under Winston Churchill in the wartime coalition government, before leading the Labour Party to a landslide election victory over Churchill's Conservative Party in 1945. He was the first Labour Prime Minister to serve a full Parliamentary term, and the first to command a Labour majority in Parliament.
The government he led put in place the post-war settlement, based upon the assumption that full employment would be maintained by Keynesian policies, and that a greatly enlarged system of social services would be created – aspirations that had been outlined in the wartime Beveridge Report. Within this context, his government undertook the nationalisation of major industries and public utilities as well as the creation of the National Health Service. After initial Conservative opposition to Keynesian fiscal policy, this settlement was broadly accepted by all parties until Margaret Thatcher became Prime Minister in 1979.
His government also presided over the decolonisation of a large part of the British Empire when India, Pakistan, Burma, Ceylon and Jordan were granted independence. The British Mandate of Palestine also came to an end with the creation of Israel on the day of British withdrawal.
Early life and family
Attlee was educated at Northaw School, a boys' preparatory school near Pluckley in Kent (which in 1952 was relocated and named Norman Court School), Haileybury College, and University College, Oxford, where he graduated with a Second Class Honours BA in Modern History in 1904. Attlee then trained as a lawyer, and was called to the Bar in 1906.
Life and career
From 1906 to 1909, Attlee worked as manager of Haileybury House, a charitable club for working-class boys in Limehouse in the East End of London run by his old school. Prior to this, his political views had been conservative. However, he was shocked by the poverty and deprivation he saw while working with slum children. He came to the view that private charity would never be sufficient to alleviate poverty, and only massive action and income redistribution by the state would have any serious effect. This caused him to convert to socialism. He joined the Independent Labour Party in 1908, and became active in London local politics.
In 1909 he worked briefly as secretary for Beatrice Webb, and from 1909 to 1910 he worked as secretary for Toynbee Hall. In 1911 he took up a government job as an "official explainer", touring the country to explain David Lloyd George's National Insurance Act. He spent the summer of that year touring Essex and Somerset on a bicycle, explaining the Act at public meetings.
Military service during World War I
During World War I, Attlee was given the rank of captain and served with the South Lancashire Regiment in the Gallipoli Campaign in Turkey. After a period of fighting in the heat, sand and flies he became ill with dysentery and was sent to hospital in Malta to recover. This may have saved his life, as while he was in hospital he missed the Battle of Sari Bair in which many of his comrades were killed.
Attlee had gained a reputation among his superiors as a competent leader. When he returned to the front, he was informed that his company had been chosen to hold the final lines when Gallipoli was evacuated. He was the last-but-one man to be evacuated from Suvla Bay (the last being General F.S. Maude).
The Gallipoli Campaign had been masterminded by Winston Churchill. Attlee believed that it was a bold strategy, which could have been successful if it had been better implemented. This gave him an admiration for Churchill as a military strategist, which improved their working relationship in later years.
He later served in the Mesopotamian Campaign in Iraq, where he was badly wounded at El Hannah after being hit in the leg by shrapnel from an exploding shell while taking enemy trenches. He was sent back to England to recover, and spent most of 1917 training soldiers. He was sent to France in June 1918 to serve on the Western Front for the last months of the war.
His decision to fight in the war caused a rift between him and his older brother Tom Attlee, who as a pacifist and a conscientious objector spent much of the war in prison. After the war, he returned to teaching at the London School of Economics until 1923.
Marriage and children
Attlee met Violet Millar on a trip to Italy in 1921. Within a few weeks of their return they became engaged and were married at Christ Church, Hampstead on 10 January 1922. It would come to be a devoted marriage, until her death in 1964. They had four children: (Lady) Janet Helen (b. 1923), (Lady) Felicity Ann (1925–2007), Martin Richard (1927–91) and (Lady) Alison Elizabeth (b. 1930).
Early political career
Attlee returned to local politics in the immediate post-war period, becoming mayor of the Metropolitan Borough of Stepney in 1919, one of London's poorest inner-city boroughs. During his time as mayor, the council undertook action to tackle slum landlords who charged high rents but refused to spend money on keeping their property in habitable condition. The council served and enforced legal orders on house-owners to repair their property. It also appointed health visitors and sanitary inspectors, and reduced the infant mortality rate.
In 1920, while mayor, he wrote his first book, The Social Worker, which set out many of the principles that informed his political philosophy and that were to underpin the actions of his government in later years. The book attacked the idea that looking after the poor could be left to voluntary action. He wrote:
"Charity is a cold grey loveless thing. If a rich man wants to help the poor, he should pay his taxes gladly, not dole out money at a whim."
He went on to write:
"In a civilised community, although it may be composed of self-reliant individuals, there will be some persons who will be unable at some period of their lives to look after themselves, and the question of what is to happen to them may be solved in three ways – they may be neglected, they may be cared for by the organised community as of right, or they may be left to the goodwill of individuals in the community. The first way is intolerable, and as for the third: Charity is only possible without loss of dignity between equals. A right established by law, such as that to an old age pension, is less galling than an allowance made by a rich man to a poor one, dependent on his view of the recipient’s character, and terminable at his caprice."
Member of Parliament
At the 1922 general election, Attlee became the Member of Parliament (MP) for the constituency of Limehouse in Stepney. He helped Ramsay MacDonald, whom at the time he admired, get elected as Labour Party leader at the 1922 Labour leadership election, a decision which he later regretted. He served as Ramsay MacDonald's parliamentary private secretary for the brief 1922 parliament.
Attlee opposed the 1926 General Strike, believing that strike action should not be used as a political weapon. However, when it happened he did not attempt to undermine it. At the time of the strike he was chairman of the Stepney Borough Electricity Committee. He negotiated a deal with the Electrical Trade Union that they would continue to supply power to hospitals, but would end supplies to factories. One firm, Scammell and Nephew Ltd, took a civil action against Attlee and the other Labour members of the committee (although not against the Conservative members who had also supported this). The court found against Attlee and his fellow councillors and they were ordered to pay £300 damages. The decision was later reversed on appeal, but the financial problems caused by the episode almost forced Attlee out of politics.
In 1927 he was appointed a member of the multi-party Simon Commission, a Royal Commission set up to examine the possibility of granting self-rule to India. As a result of the time he needed to devote to the commission, and contrary to a promise made to Attlee by MacDonald to induce him to serve on the commission, he was not initially offered a ministerial post in the Second Labour Government. However, his unsought service on the Commission was to equip Attlee (who was later to have to decide the future of India as Prime Minister) with a thorough exposure to India and many of its political leaders.
In 1930, Labour MP Oswald Mosley left the party after its rejection of his proposals for solving the unemployment problem. Attlee was given Mosley's post of Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. He was Postmaster-General at the time of the 1931 crisis, during which most of the party's leaders lost their seats. During the course of the second Labour government, Attlee had become increasingly disillusioned by Ramsay MacDonald, whom he came to regard as vain and incompetent, and later wrote scathingly of him in his autobiography.
Opposition during the 1930s
Deputy Leader of the Labour Party
After the downfall of the second Labour government, the 1931 General Election was held. The election was a disaster for the Labour Party, which lost over 200 seats; most of the party's senior figures lost their seats, including Arthur Henderson the party leader. George Lansbury and Attlee were among the few surviving Labour MPs who had served in government. Accordingly, Lansbury became leader of the party and Attlee became deputy leader.
Attlee served as acting leader for nine months from December 1933, after Lansbury fractured his thigh in an accident. This raised his public profile. During this period, financial problems again almost forced Attlee to quit politics, as his wife was ill, and there was then no separate salary for the Leader of the Opposition. He was persuaded to stay on, however, by Stafford Cripps, a wealthy socialist who agreed to pay him an additional salary.
Leader of the Opposition
George Lansbury, a convinced pacifist, resigned as leader at the 1935 Labour Party conference, after the party voted in favour of sanctions against Italy for its aggression against Abyssinia, a policy which Lansbury strongly opposed. With a general election looming, the Parliamentary Labour Party then appointed Attlee as interim leader, on the understanding that a leadership election would be held after the general election.
Attlee led Labour through the 1935 general election, which saw the party stage a partial recovery from its disastrous performance in 1931, gaining over one hundred seats. In the post-election leadership contest held in November 1935, Attlee was opposed by Herbert Morrison and Arthur Greenwood. Morrison was seen as the favourite by many, but was distrusted by many sections of the party, especially the left. Arthur Greenwood's leadership bid was hampered by his alcohol problem. Attlee came first in both the first and second ballots, and subsequently retained the leadership, a post which he would retain until 1955.
Throughout the 1920s and most of the 1930s, the Labour Party's official policy, supported by Attlee, was to oppose rearmament, and support collective security under the League of Nations. However, with the rising threat from Nazi Germany, and the ineffectiveness of the League of Nations, this policy lost credibility. By 1937, Labour had jettisoned its pacifist position and came to support rearmament and oppose Neville Chamberlain's policy of appeasement.
In 1937, Attlee visited Spain and visited the British Battalion of the International Brigades fighting in the Spanish Civil War. One of the companies was named the 'Major Attlee Company' in his honour.
Deputy Prime Minister
Attlee remained opposition leader when war broke out in September 1939. The disastrous Norwegian campaign resulted in a motion of no confidence in the government. Although Chamberlain survived this, the reputation of his administration was so badly damaged that it was clear that a coalition government was necessary. The crisis coincided with the Labour Party Conference. Even if Attlee had been prepared to serve under Chamberlain (in a "national emergency government"), he would not have been able to carry the party with him. Consequently, Chamberlain tendered his resignation, and Labour and the Conservatives entered a coalition government led by Winston Churchill.
In the World War II coalition government, three interconnected committees ran the war. Churchill chaired the War Cabinet and the Defence Committee. Attlee was his regular deputy in these committees, and answered for the government in parliament when Churchill was absent. Attlee chaired the third body, the Lord President's Committee, which ran the civil side of the war. As Churchill was most concerned with executing the war, the arrangement suited both men.
Only he and Churchill remained in the war cabinet from the formation of the Government of National Unity to the 1945 election. Attlee was Lord Privy Seal (1940–42), Deputy Prime Minister (1942–45), Dominions Secretary (1942–43), and Lord President of the Council (1943–45). Attlee supported Churchill in his continuation of Britain's resistance after the French capitulation in 1940, and proved a loyal ally to Churchill throughout the conflict; when the war cabinet had voted on whether to negotiate peace terms, Attlee (along with fellow Labour minister Arthur Greenwood) voted in favour of fighting, giving Churchill the majority he needed to continue the war.
1945 general election
Following the end of the war in Europe in May 1945, Attlee and Churchill wanted the coalition government to last until Japan had been defeated. However, Herbert Morrison argued that the party would not accept this, and the Labour National Executive Committee agreed with him. Churchill responded by resigning as coalition Prime Minister and decided to call an election at once.
The war set in motion profound social changes within Britain, and led to a popular desire for social reform. This mood was epitomised in the Beveridge Report. The report assumed that the maintenance of full employment would be the aim of postwar governments, and that this would provide the basis for the welfare state. Immediately on its release, it sold hundreds of thousands of copies. All major parties were committed to this aim, but perhaps Attlee and Labour were seen by the electorate as the best candidates to follow it through.
Labour campaigned on the theme of "Let Us Face the Future" and positioned themselves as the party best placed to rebuild Britain after the war, while the Conservatives campaign centred around Churchill. With the hero status of Churchill, few expected a Labour victory. However Churchill made some errors during the campaign: His suggestion during a radio broadcast, that a Labour government would require "some form of a gestapo" to implement their socialist policies, was widely seen as being in bad taste, and backfired.
The results of the election when they were announced on 26 July, came as a surprise to almost everyone, including Attlee: Labour had been swept to power on a landslide, winning just under 50% of the vote, to the Conservatives' 36%. Labour won 393 seats, giving them a majority of 147.
The story goes that when Attlee visited King George VI at Buckingham Palace to kiss hands, the notoriously laconic Attlee and the notoriously tongue-tied George VI stood for some minutes in silence, before Attlee finally volunteered the remark "I've won the election." The King replied "I know. I heard it on the Six O'Clock News."
Now Prime Minister, Attlee appointed Ernest Bevin as Foreign Secretary; Hugh Dalton was appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer (it had widely been expected to be the other way around). Stafford Cripps became President of the Board of Trade, while Herbert Morrison was given the post of Deputy Prime Minister and given overall control of Labour's nationalisation programme. Aneurin Bevan became Minister of Health, whilst Ellen Wilkinson, the only woman to serve in Attlee's government, became Minister of Education.
Health and Welfare reforms
A more extensive system of social welfare benefits was established by the Attlee Government, which did much to reduce acute social deprivation. The cumulative impact of the Attlee’s Government’s health and welfare policies was such that all the indices of health (such as statistics of school medical or dental officers, or of medical officers of health) showed signs of improvement, with continual improvements in survival rates for infants and increased life expectancy for the elderly.
In domestic policy, the party had clear aims. Attlee's first Health Secretary, Aneurin Bevan, fought against the general disapproval of the medical establishment in creating the British National Health Service; the publicly funded healthcare system, which offers treatment free at the point of use. Reflecting pent-up demand that had long existed for medical services, the NHS treated some 8.5 million dental patients and dispensed more than 5 million pairs of spectacles during its first year of operation. Although there are often disputes about its organisation and funding, British parties to this day must still voice their general support for the NHS in order to remain electable.
A large house-building programme was carried out with the intention of providing millions of people with high-quality homes. A housing bill passed in 1946 increased Treasury subsidies for the construction of local authority housing in England and Wales, while four out of five houses constructed under Labour were council properties, built to more generous specifications than before the Second World War, while subsidies kept down council rents. Altogether, these policies provided public-sector housing with its biggest ever boost up until that point, while low-wage earners particularly benefited from these developments. Although the Attlee Government failed to meet its targets owing to economic constraints, over a million new homes were built between 1945 and 1951 (a significant achievement under the circumstances) which ensured that decent, affordable housing was available to many low-income families for the first time ever.
Entitlement to sick leave was greatly extended, with sick pay schemes introduced for local authority administrative, professional and technical workers in 1946 and for various categories of manual workers in 1948., while worker’s compensation was significantly improved. Other changes included the creation of a National Parks system, the introduction of the Town and Country Planning system, the repeal of the Trades Disputes Act 1927, the introduction of a Dock Labour Scheme in 1947 (which sought to put an end to the casual system of hiring labour in the docks) and the introduction of a Miner’s Charter in 1946, which instituted a five-day workweek for miners and a standardised day wage structure. In the 1945-46 session, pensions and other benefits were substantially increased, and from 1945 to 1948, over 200 public Acts of Parliament were passed, with eight major pieces of legislation placed on the statute book in 1946 alone. As noted by the historian Kevin Jeffreys,
“Within eighteen months, Attlee’s cabinet had done more than any previous twentieth-century government to improve the lot of ordinary people.”
The government set about implementing William Beveridge's plans for the creation of a 'cradle to grave' welfare state, and set in place an entirely new system of social security. Among the most important pieces of legislation was the National Insurance Act 1946, in which people in work paid a flat rate of national insurance. In return, they (and the wives of male contributors) were eligible for flat-rate pensions, sickness benefit, unemployment benefit, and funeral benefit. Various other pieces of legislation provided for child benefit and support for people with no other source of income. In addition, the Criminal Justice Act of 1948 restricted imprisonment for juveniles and brought improvements to the probation and remand centres systems, while the passage of the Justices of the Peace Act of 1949 led to extensive reforms of magistrates courts. The New Towns Act of 1946 set up development corporations to construct new towns, while the Town and Country Planning Act of 1947 instructed county councils to prepare development plans and also provided compulsory purchase powers.
A block grant introduced in 1948 helped the social services provided by local authorities. Personal Social Services or welfare services were developed in 1948 for individual and families in general, particularly special groups such as the mentally disordered, deprived children, the elderly, and the handicapped. The Attlee Government also significantly increased pensions and other benefits, with pensions raised to the point that they became more of a living income than they had been before. The success of the Attlee Government's welfare legislation in reducing poverty was such that, in the general election of 1950,
“Labour propaganda could make much of the claim that social security had eradicated the most abject destitution of the 1930’s”.
Attlee's government also carried out their manifesto commitment for nationalisation of basic industries and public utilities. The Bank of England and civil aviation were nationalised in 1946. Coal mining, the railways, road haulage, canals and cable and wireless were nationalised in 1947, electricity and gas followed in 1948. The steel industry was finally nationalised in 1951. By 1951 about 20% of the British economy had been taken into public ownership.
Although nationalisation failed to provide workers with a greater say in the running of the industries that they worked in (as many on the Left had hoped), it did bring about significant material gains for workers in the form of higher wages and reduced working hours. As noted by the historian Eric Shaw, in the years following nationalisation, the electricity and gas supply companies became “impressive models of public enterprise” in terms of efficiency, while in relation the coal industry, the National Coal Board was not only profitable, but working conditions for miners had significantly improved as well.
The Attlee Government placed strong emphasis on improving the quality of life in rural areas, benefiting both farmers and other consumers. Security of tenure for farmers was introduced, while consumers were protected by food subsidies and the redistributive effects of deficiency payments. Between 1945 and 1951, the quality of rural life was improved by improvements in gas, electricity, water services, as well as in leisure and public amenities. In addition, the 1947 Transport Act improved provision of rural bus services, while the Agriculture Act 1947 established a more generous subsidy system for farmers. Legislation was also passed in 1947 and 1948 which established a permanent Agricultural Wages Board to fix minimum wages for agricultural workers.
The Attlee Government ensured provisions of the Education Act 1944 were fully implemented, with free secondary education becoming a right for the first time. In addition, the school leaving age was raised to 15 in 1947, while increased Treasury funds were made available for education, particularly for upgrading school buildings suffering from years of neglect and war damage. “Prefab” classrooms were also built and 928 new primary schools were constructed between 1945 and 1950. State scholarships to universities were increased, while free milk was made available to all schoolchildren for the first time.
An Emergency Training Scheme was also introduced which turned out an extra 25,000 teachers in 1945-51. Despite these achievements, Attlee's government failed to introduce comprehensive education as many socialists had hoped as a means of making the educational system less meritoric, although this reform was eventually carried out by Harold Wilson's government.
Nevertheless, the most significant problem remained the economy; the war effort had left Britain nearly bankrupt. The war had cost Britain about a quarter of its national wealth. Overseas investments had been wound up to pay for the war. The transition to a peacetime economy, and the maintaining of strategic military commitments abroad led to continuous and severe problems with the balance of trade. This meant that strict rationing of food and other essential goods were continued in the post war period, to force a reduction in consumption in an effort to limit imports, boost exports and stabilise the Pound Sterling so that Britain could trade its way out of its crisis.
The abrupt ending of the American Lend-Lease program in August 1945 almost caused a crisis. This was mitigated by the Anglo-American loan negotiated in December 1945 by John Maynard Keynes, which provided some respite. The conditions attached to the loan included making the pound fully convertible to the dollar. When this was introduced in July 1947, it led to a currency crisis and convertibility had to be suspended after just five weeks. Britain benefited from the American Marshall Aid program from 1948, and the economic situation improved significantly. However another balance of payments crisis in 1949 forced Chancellor of the Exchequer Stafford Cripps into devaluation of the pound.
Despite these problems, one of the main achievements of Attlee's government was the maintenance of near full employment. The government maintained most of the wartime controls over the economy, including control over the allocation of materials and manpower, and unemployment rarely rose above 500,000, or 3% of the total workforce. In fact labour shortages proved to be more of a problem. In addition, the inflation rate was also kept low.
One area where the government was not quite as successful was in housing, which was also the responsibility of Aneurin Bevan. The government had a target to build 400,000 new houses a year to replace those which had been destroyed in the war, but shortages of materials and manpower meant that less than half this number were built. Neverheless, millions of people were rehoused as a result of the Attlee government's housing policies, and between August 1945 and December 1951, 1,016,349 new homes were completed in England, Scotland, and Wales.
In addition, when the Attlee Government was voted out of office in 1951, it had left the economy in better shape than they had found it in 1945, while the period from 1946 to 1951 saw continuous full employment and steadily rising living standards, which increased by about 10% per annum. During that same period, the economy grew by 3% a year, and by 1951 the United Kingdom had “the best economic performance in Europe, while output per person was increasing faster than in the United States.” Careful planning after 1945 also ensured that demobilisation was carried out without having a negative impact upon economic recovery, and that unemployment would be kept at very low levels.
1947 proved to be a particularly difficult year for the government; an exceptionally cold winter that year caused coal mines to freeze and cease production, creating widespread power cuts and food shortages. The crisis led to an unsuccessful plot by Hugh Dalton to replace Attlee as Prime Minister with Ernest Bevin. Later that year Stafford Cripps tried to persuade Attlee to stand aside for Bevin. However these plots petered out after Bevin refused to co-operate. Later that year, Hugh Dalton resigned as Chancellor after inadvertently leaking details of the budget to a journalist. He was replaced by Cripps.
Relations with the press and Royal family
Attlee's government faced constant hostility from Conservative supporting sections of society, including the Conservative supporting press. The Sunday Times journalist James Margach, wrote of the Attlee years; "I have never known the Press so consistently and irresponsibly political, slanted and prejudiced". As early as 1946 the Attorney-General Sir Hartley Shawcross attacked "the campaign of calumny and misrepresentation which the Tory Party and the Tory stooge press has directed at the Labour government. Freedom of the press does not mean freedom to tell lies". In 1946 the government set up a Royal Commission on the press which eventually led to the setting up of the Press Council in 1953.
Relations with the Royal Family were also strained. A letter from Queen Elizabeth (later the Queen Mother), dated 17 May 1947, showed "her decided lack of enthusiasm for the socialist government" and describes the British electorate as "poor people, so many half-educated and bemused" for electing Attlee over Winston Churchill, whom she saw as a war hero. That said, according to Lord Wyatt, this was to be expected as the Queen Mother was "the most right-wing member of the Royal Family."
Postwar Europe and the Cold War
In foreign affairs, Attlee's cabinet was concerned with four issues: postwar Europe, the onset of the cold war, the establishment of the United Nations, and decolonisation. The first two were closely related, and Attlee was assisted in these matters by Ernest Bevin. Attlee attended the later stages of the Potsdam Conference in the company of Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin.
In the immediate aftermath of the war, the Government faced the challenge of managing relations with Britain's former war-time ally, Stalin and the Soviet Union. Attlee's Foreign Secretary, the former trade union leader Ernest Bevin, was passionately anti-communist, based largely on his experience of fighting communist influence in the trades union movement. Bevin's initial approach to the USSR as Foreign Secretary has been described by historian Kenneth O. Morgan as "wary and suspicious, but not automatically hostile".
In an early "good-will" gesture that was later heavily criticised, the Attlee government allowed the Soviets access, under the terms of a 1946 UK-USSR Trade Agreement, to several Rolls-Royce Nene jet engines. The Soviets, who at the time were well behind the West in jet technology, reverse-engineered the Nene, and installed their own version in the MiG-15 interceptor, used to good effect against US-UK forces in the subsequent Korean War, as well as in several later MiG models.
After Stalin took political control of most of Eastern Europe and began to subvert other governments in the Balkans, Attlee's and Bevin's worst fears of Soviet intentions were borne out. The Attlee government then became instrumental in the creation of the successful NATO defence alliance to protect Western Europe against any Soviet aggression. In a crucial contribution to the economic stability of post-War Europe, Attlee's cabinet was instrumental in promoting the American Marshall Plan for the economic recovery of Europe.
A group of left wing Labour MPs organised under the banner of "Keep Left", urged the government to steer a middle way between the two emerging superpowers, and advocated the creation of 'third force' of European powers to stand between the USA and USSR. However, deteriorating relations between Britain and the USSR, and Britain's economic reliance on America, steered policy towards supporting America.
Fear of Soviet and American intentions led, in January 1947, to a secret meeting of senior cabinet ministers, where it was decided to press ahead with the development of Britain's independent nuclear deterrent, an issue which later caused a split in the Labour Party, although the first successful test did not occur until 1952, after Attlee had left office.
In 1950 American president Harry S. Truman said that atomic weapons may be used in the Korean War. Attlee became concerned with the power America possessed and therefore called a meeting of some foreign affairs ministers in order to discuss the issue that had evolved.
Attlee's government was responsible for the first significant decolonisation of part of the British Empire – India. Attlee appointed Lord Louis Mountbatten Viceroy of India, and agreed to Mountbatten's request for plenipotentiary powers for negotiating Indian independence. In view of implacable demands by the political leadership of both Hindu and Islamic communities in British India for a separate Hindu and a separate Muslim homeland, Mountbatten conceded the notion of two nations consisting of a Hindu-majority India and a Muslim-majority Pakistan (which at the time incorporated East Pakistan, now Bangladesh).
The drawing of borders was accomplished at the cost of large-scale population movements and heavy communal bloodshed on both sides. The independence of Burma and Ceylon was also negotiated around this time. Some of the new countries became British Dominions, the genesis of the modern Commonwealth of Nations.
One of the most urgent problems concerned the future of the Palestine Mandate. British policies there were perceived by the Zionist movement and the Truman administration as pro-Arab and anti-Jewish, and in the face of armed revolt of Jewish militant groups and increasing violence of the local Arab population Britain had found itself unable to control events. This was a very unpopular commitment and the evacuation of British troops and subsequent handing over of the issue to the UN was widely supported by the public.
The government's policies with regard to the other colonies, however, particularly those in Africa, were very different. A major military base was built in Kenya, and the African colonies came under an unprecedented degree of direct control from London, as development schemes were implemented with a view to helping solve Britain's desperate post-war balance of payments crisis, and raising African living standards. This 'new colonialism' was, however, generally a failure: in some cases, such as a then-infamous Tanganyika groundnut scheme, spectacularly so.
Demise of Attlee's government
The Labour Party was returned to power in the general election of 1950 with a much reduced parliamentary majority under the first-past-the-post voting system, despite an increase in the popular vote. It was at this time that a degree of Conservative opposition recovered at the expense of the declining Liberal Party. Although Attlee's second government was less radical than the first, it oversaw the passage of a number of reforms, relating to issues such as industry in development areas, the restoration of land which had been devastated by ironstone pollution, and river pollution.
By 1951, the Attlee government was looking increasingly exhausted, with several of its most important ministers having died or ailing. The party split in 1951 over the austerity budget brought in by Hugh Gaitskell to pay for the cost of Britain's participation in the Korean War: Aneurin Bevan, architect of the National Health Service (NHS), resigned to protest against the new charges for "teeth and spectacles" introduced by the budget, and was joined in this action by the later prime minister, Harold Wilson.
Labour lost the general election of 1951 to Churchill's renewed Conservatives, despite polling more votes than in the 1945 election and more votes nationwide than the Conservative party, and, indeed, the most votes Labour had ever won.
Return to opposition and retirement
Following the defeat in 1951, Attlee continued to lead the party in opposition. His last four years as leader are widely seen as one of the Labour Party's weaker periods. Many Labour MPs felt Attlee should have retired at the end of 1951 and let a younger man lead the party, which became split between its right wing led by Hugh Gaitskell and its left led by Aneurin Bevan. One of his main reasons for staying on as leader was to frustrate the leadership ambitions of Herbert Morrison, whom Attlee disliked for political and personal reasons. (Ernest Bevin had died shortly before Labour lost office.) Attlee had reportedly at one time favoured Aneurin Bevan to succeed him as leader, but this became problematic after the latter split the party.
Attlee, now aged 72, contested the 1955 general election against Anthony Eden, which saw the Conservative majority increase considerably. He retired as leader of the party on 14 December 1955, having led Labour for twenty years, and was succeeded by Hugh Gaitskell.
He retired from the Commons and was elevated to the peerage to take his seat in the House of Lords as Earl Attlee and Viscount Prestwood on 16 December 1955. In 1958 he was, along with Bertrand Russell, one of a group of notables to establish the Homosexual Law Reform Society, which campaigned for the decriminalisation of homosexual acts in private by consenting adults, a reform which was voted through parliament nine years later.
He attended Churchill's funeral in January 1965 – elderly and frail by then, he had to remain seated in the freezing cold as the coffin was carried, having tired himself out by standing at the rehearsal the previous day. After the service Attlee had to be helped down the steps of St Paul's Cathedral by Sir Anthony Eden and a Guards officer. A heavy pipe and cigarette smoker from an early age, Attlee had breathing problems in his later years.
He lived to see Labour return to power under Harold Wilson in 1964, but also to see his old constituency of Walthamstow West fall to the Conservatives in a by-election in September 1967. Clement Attlee died of pneumonia at the age of 84 at Westminster Hospital on 8 October 1967.
On his death, the title passed to his son Martin Richard Attlee, 2nd Earl Attlee (1927–91). It is now held by Clement Attlee's grandson John Richard Attlee, 3rd Earl Attlee. The third earl (a member of the Conservative Party) retained his seat in the Lords as one of the hereditary peers to remain under an amendment to Labour's 1999 House of Lords Act.
When Attlee died, his estate was sworn for probate purposes at a value of £7,295, a relatively modest sum for so prominent a figure.
"A modest man, but then he has so much to be modest about", is a quote about Attlee that is very commonly ascribed to Churchill (although Churchill in fact denied saying it, and respected Attlee's service in the War Cabinet). Attlee's modesty and quiet manner hid a great deal that has only come to light with historical reappraisal. In terms of the machinery of government, he was one of the most businesslike and effective of all the British prime ministers. Indeed he is widely praised by his successors, both Labour and Conservative.
His leadership style of consensual government, acting as a chairman rather than a president, won him much praise from historians and politicians alike. Christopher Soames, Britain's Ambassador to France during the government of Edward Heath - and later a cabinet minister under Margaret Thatcher - remarked that "Mrs. Thatcher was not really running a team. Every time you have a Prime Minister who wants to make all the decisions, it mainly leads to bad results. Attlee didn't. That's why he was so damn good." Even Thatcher herself wrote in her 1995 memoirs, which charted her beginnings in Grantham to her victory in the 1979 General Election, that she admired Attlee: "Of Clement Attlee, however, I was an admirer. He was a serious man and a patriot. Quite contrary to the general tendency of politicians in the 1990s, he was all substance and no show".
Attlee's administration presided over the successful transition from a wartime economy to peacetime, tackling problems of demobilisation, shortages of foreign currency, and adverse deficits in trade balances and government expenditure. Further domestic policies that he brought about included the establishment of the National Health Service and post-war Welfare State, which became key to the reconstruction of post-war Britain. Attlee and his ministers did much to transform Britain into a more prosperous and egalitarian society during their time in office, with reductions in poverty and a rise in the general economic security of the population.
In foreign affairs, he did much to assist with the post-war economic recovery of Europe, though this did not lead to a realisation that this was where Britain's future might lie. He proved a loyal ally of America at the onset of the cold war. Because of his style of leadership it was not he but Ernest Bevin who masterminded foreign policy.
It was Attlee's government that decided Britain should have an independent atomic weapons programme, and work began on it in 1947. Bevin, Attlee's Foreign Secretary, famously stated that "We've got to have it and it's got to have a bloody Union Jack on it." However, the first operational British A Bomb was not detonated until October 1952, about one year after Attlee had left office.
Though a socialist, Attlee still believed in the British Empire of his youth, an institution that, on the whole, he thought was a power for good in the world. Nevertheless, he saw that a large part of it needed to be self-governing. Using the Dominions of Canada, Australia, and New Zealand as a model, he began the transformation of the Empire into the Commonwealth.
His greatest achievement, surpassing many of these, was, perhaps, the establishment of a political and economic consensus about the governance of Britain that all parties, whether Labour, Conservative or Liberal subscribed to for three decades, fixing the arena of political discourse until the later 1970s.
On 30 November 1988, a bronze statue of Clement Attlee was unveiled by Harold Wilson (the next Labour prime minister after Attlee) outside Limehouse Library in his former constituency. By then Wilson was the last surviving member of Attlee's cabinet and the unveiling of the statue would be the last public appearance by Wilson, who was by then in the first stages of Alzheimer's Disease and who died in May 1995 after a decade of ill health. In April 2011, Limehouse Library having closed in 2003, the Attlee statue was unveiled in its new home at Queen Mary University of London.
Although possessed of a genial personality, Clement Attlee was notably taciturn in his relations with the Press, sometimes offering only monosyllabic answers to reporters' questions. He was seldom referred to by his forenames; usually he was referred to as "C. R. Attlee" or "Mr. Attlee."
Although one of his brothers became a clergyman and one of his sisters a missionary, Attlee himself is usually regarded as an agnostic. In an interview he described himself as "incapable of religious feeling", saying that he believed in "the ethics of Christianity" but not "the mumbo-jumbo". When asked whether he was an agnostic, Attlee replied "I don't know".
Appearance in popular culture
- Attlee composed this limerick about himself to demonstrate how he was often underestimated:-
- Few thought he was even a starter.
- There were many who thought themselves smarter.
- But he finished PM,
- CH and OM,
- An earl and a Knight of the Garter.
- Source: Jones, B., Barry Jones' Dictionary of World Biography, 1998
- An alternative version also exists, which may reflect Attlee's use of English more closely:-
- There were few who thought him a starter,
- Many who thought themselves smarter.
- But he ended PM,
- CH and OM,
- an Earl and a Knight of the Garter.
- Source: Kenneth Harris, "Attlee" (Weidenfeld and Nicholson, London, 1982)
- Lord Beginner's song "General Election" was inspired by Attlee's victory in the 1950 British general election.
- In 1981, Attlee again entered British popular culture as one of the famous English people taunted by name in Bjørge Lillelien's legendary commentary immediately after Norway defeated England in a FIFA World Cup qualifier.
- Played by Patrick Troughton in Edward & Mrs. Simpson.
- Appeared as a character in the play Tom and Clem, by Stephen Churchett. In the original production in 1997, Alec McCowen played Attlee, and Michael Gambon played Tom Driberg.
- Played by Alan David in the final episode of the BBC sitcom Goodnight Sweetheart,
- The main character in the BBC Radio 4 Saturday Play That Man Attlee. Broadcast on 15 September 2007, it was written by Robin Glendinning, with Bill Wallis playing Attlee.
- Played by Richard Attlee, his grandson, in Jerome Vincent’s 'Stuffing Their Mouths with Gold'; the story of how the National Health Service came to be. Broadcast on Radio 4 on 4 July 2008, the day before the 60th anniversary of the founding of the NHS.
- Played by Bill Paterson in Into the Storm (2009).
- Family Allowances Act 1945
- Law Reform (Contributory Negligence) Act 1945
- Housing (Financial and Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1946
- Coal Industry Nationalisation Act 1946
- Furnished Houses (Rent Control) Act 1946
- National Health Service Act 1946
- National Insurance Act 1946
- National Insurance (Industrial Injuries) Act 1946
- New Towns Act 1946
- Trade Disputes and Trade Unions Act 1946
- Hill Farming Act 1946
- Agriculture Act 1947
- Pensions (Increase) Act 1947
- Electricity Act 1947
- Town and Country Planning Act 1947
- Transport Act 1947
- Fire Services Act 1947
- National Assistance Act 1948
- Children Act 1948
- Agricultural Holdings Act 1948
- Employment and Training Act 1948
- Nurseries and Child-Minders Regulation Act 1948
- Law Reform (Personal Injuries) Act 1948
- Local Government Act 1948
- Representation of the People Act 1948
- Housing Act 1949
- House of Commons (Redistribution of Seats) Act 1949
- Landlord and Tenant (Rent Control) Act 1949
- Lands Tribunal Act 1949
- Legal Aid and Advice Act 1949
- Adoption of Children Act 1949
- Marriage Act 1949
- National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949
- Parliament Act 1949
- Representation of the People Act 1949
- Distribution of Industry Act 1950
- Workmen's Compensation (Supplementation) Act 1951
Attlee's cabinet 1945–50
- Clement Attlee: Prime Minister and Minister of Defence
- Lord Jowitt: Lord Chancellor
- Herbert Morrison: Deputy Prime Minister, Lord President of the Council and Leader of the House of Commons
- Arthur Greenwood: Lord Privy Seal
- Hugh Dalton: Chancellor of the Exchequer
- Ernest Bevin: Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
- James Chuter Ede: Secretary of State for the Home Department
- George Henry Hall: Secretary of State for the Colonies
- Lord Addison: Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs and Leader of the House of Lords
- Lord Pethick-Lawrence: Secretary of State for India and Burma
- A. V. Alexander: First Lord of the Admiralty
- Jack Lawson: Secretary of State for War
- William Wedgwood Benn, Lord Stansgate: Secretary of State for Air
- Ellen Wilkinson: Minister of Education
- Joseph Westwood: Secretary of State for Scotland
- Tom Williams: Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries
- George Isaacs: Minister of Labour and National Service
- Aneurin Bevan: Minister of Health
- Sir Stafford Cripps: President of the Board of Trade
- Emanuel Shinwell: Minister of Fuel and Power
- July 1946 – Arthur Greenwood becomes Paymaster-General as well as Lord Privy Seal.
- October 1946 – The three service ministers (Secretary of State for War, Secretary of State for Air, and First Lord of the Admiralty) cease to be cabinet positions. A. V. Alexander remains in the cabinet as Minister without Portfolio. George Hall replaces A. V. Alexander as First Lord of the Admiralty, outside the cabinet. Arthur Creech Jones succeeds Hall as Secretary of State for the Colonies.
- December 1946 – A. V. Alexander succeeds Attlee as Minister of Defence.
- February 1947 – George Tomlinson succeeds Ellen Wilkinson as Minister of Education upon her death.
- March 1947 – Arthur Greenwood ceases to be Paymaster-General, remaining Lord Privy Seal. His successor as Paymaster-General is not in the cabinet.
- April 1947 – Arthur Greenwood becomes Minister without Portfolio. Lord Inman succeeds Arthur Greenwood as Lord Privy Seal. William Francis Hare, Lord Listowel succeeds Lord Pethick-Lawrence as Secretary of State for India and Burma.
- July 1947 – The Dominion Affairs Office becomes the Office of Commonwealth Relations. Addison remains at the head.
- August 1947 – The India and Burma Office becomes the Burma office with India's independence. Lord Listowel remains in office.
- September 1947 – Sir Stafford Cripps becomes Minister of Economic Affairs. Harold Wilson succeeds Cripps as President of the Board of Trade. Arthur Greenwood retires from the Front Bench.
- October 1947 – Lord Addison succeeds Lord Inman as Lord Privy Seal, remaining also Leader of the House of Lords. Philip Noel-Baker succeeds Lord Addison as Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations. Arthur Woodburn succeeds Joseph Westwood as Secretary of State for Scotland. The Minister of Fuel and Power, Emanuel Shinwell, leaves the Cabinet.
- November 1947 – Sir Stafford Cripps succeeds Hugh Dalton as Chancellor of the Exchequer.
- January 1948 – The Burma Office is abolished with Burma's independence.
- May 1948: Hugh Dalton re-enters the Cabinet as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. Lord Pakenham enters the Cabinet as Minister of Civil Aviation.
- July 1948: Lord Addison becomes Paymaster-General.
- April 1949: Lord Addison ceases to be Paymaster-General, remaining Lord Privy Seal and Leader of the House of Lords. His successor as Paymaster-General is not in the Cabinet.
Attlee's cabinet 1950–51
In February 1950, a substantial reshuffle took place following the General Election:
- Clement Attlee: Prime Minister
- Lord Jowitt: Lord Chancellor
- Herbert Morrison: Deputy Prime Minister, Lord President of the Council and Leader of the House of Commons
- Lord Addison: Lord Privy Seal and Leader of the House of Lords
- Sir Stafford Cripps: Chancellor of the Exchequer
- Ernest Bevin: Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
- James Chuter Ede: Secretary of State for the Home Department
- Jim Griffiths: Secretary of State for the Colonies
- Patrick Gordon Walker: Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations
- Harold Wilson: President of the Board of Trade
- Lord Alexander of Hillsborough: Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
- George Tomlinson: Minister of Education
- Hector McNeil: Secretary of State for Scotland
- Tom Williams: Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries
- George Isaacs: Minister of Labour and National Service
- Aneurin Bevan: Minister of Health
- Emanuel Shinwell: Minister of Defence
- Hugh Dalton: Minister of Town and Country Planning
- October 1950: Hugh Gaitskell succeeds Sir Stafford Cripps as Chancellor of the Exchequer.
- January 1951: Aneurin Bevan succeeds George Isaacs as Minister of Labour and National Service. Bevan's successor as Minister of Health is not in the cabinet. Hugh Dalton's post is renamed Minister of Local Government and Planning.
- March 1951: Herbert Morrison succeeds Ernest Bevin as Foreign Secretary. Lord Addison succeeds Morrison as Lord President. Bevin succeeds Addison as Lord Privy Seal. James Chuter Ede succeeds Morrison as Leader of the House of Commons whilst remaining Home Secretary.
- April 1951: Richard Stokes succeeds Ernest Bevin as Lord Privy Seal. Alf Robens succeeds Aneurin Bevan (resigned) as Minister of Labour and National Service. Sir Hartley Shawcross succeeds Harold Wilson (resigned) as President of the Board of Trade.
Clement Attlee published his memoirs, As it Happened, in 1954.
Francis Williams' A Prime Minister Remembers, based on interviews with Attlee, was published in 1961.
Attlee's other publications include:
The Social Worker (1920); The Town Councillor (1925); The Will and the Way to Socialism (1935); The Labour Party in Perspective (1937); Collective Security Under the United Nations (1958); Empire into Commonwealth (1961).
- Roy Jenkins, Mr Attlee (1948)
- Kenneth Harris, Attlee (1982)
- Trevor Burridge, Clement Attlee: A Political Biography, (1985)
- Francis Beckett, Clem Attlee (1997)
- David Howell, Attlee (2006)
- Nicklaus Thomas-Symonds, Attlee: A Life in Politics (2010)
Biographies of Attlee and of his Cabinet can be found in:
- Greg Rosen (ed) Dictionary of Labour Biography. Politicos Publishing. ISBN 1-902301-18-8
The entry on Attlee in the Dictionary of National Biography (DNB) was prepared by Maurice Shock, who as a Fellow of University College, Oxford (Attlee's alma mater), came to know Attlee personally in his later years.
Accounts of the period include:
Kenneth O. Morgan, Labour in Power 1945–51, Oxford University Press, 1984;
Greg Rosen, Old Labour to New, Politicos Publishing, 2005.
- ^ Conservative Party website – the postwar consensus.
- ^ "Rating British Prime Ministers". Ipsos MORI. http://www.ipsos-mori.com/researchpublications/researcharchive/poll.aspx?oItemId=661. Retrieved 2011-10-02.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac Beckett, Francis. (1997) Clem Attlee A Biography By Francis Beckett, Richard Cohen Books, ISBN 1-86066-101-7
- ^ a b c d e f g Howell, David. (2006) Attlee (20 British Prime Ministers of the 20th Century), Haus Publishing, ISBN 1-904950-64-7
- ^ Spartacus Schoolnet – Contains excerpt from Attlee's biography towards the bottom of the page.
- ^ "BBC – History – The Norway Campaign in World War Two". Bbc.co.uk. 2011-03-30. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/norway_campaign_06.shtml. Retrieved 2011-10-02.
- ^ Marr, Andrew: A History of Modern Britain (2009 paperback), p. xv to xvii
- ^ Hennessy 2006, p. 56
- ^ a b c d Labour in Power, 1945-51 by Kenneth Morgan
- ^ a b c d e f The Attlee Governments 1945-1951 by Kevin Jefferys
- ^ See, e.g., http://content.healthaffairs.org/cgi/reprint/8/4/52.pdf
- ^ a b The Longman Companion to The Labour Party 1900-1998 by Harry Harmer
- ^ Poverty in the United Kingdom: A Survey of Household Resources and Standards of Living by Peter Townsend
- ^ Social democracy & welfare capitalism: a century of income security politics by Alexander M. Hicks
- ^ "DOCK WORKERS (PENSIONS) BILL (Hansard, 11 May 1960)". Hansard.millbanksystems.com. 1960-05-11. http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/commons/1960/may/11/dock-workers-pensions-bill. Retrieved 2011-10-02.
- ^ To Build a New Jerusalem: the British Labour movement from the 1880s to the 1990s by A.J. Davies
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Thorpe, Andrew. (2001) A History Of The British Labour Party, Palgrave, ISBN 0-333-92908-X
- ^ Social Services: Made Simple by Tony Byrne, BA, BSc(Econ.), and Colin F. Padfield, LLB, DPA(Lond)
- ^ The Labour Governments, 1945-51 by Henry Pelling
- ^ a b The Labour Party since 1945 by Eric Shaw
- ^ "The Cabinet Papers | Farming and the Agriculture Acts". Nationalarchives.gov.uk. http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/cabinetpapers/themes/farming-agriculture-acts.htm. Retrieved 2011-10-02.
- ^ The State and the Farmer by Peter Self and Herbert J. Storing
- ^ The Labour Party since 1945 by Kevin Jefferys
- ^ A Short History of the Labour Party by Henry Pelling and Alastair J. Reid
- ^ From plain fare to fusion food: British diet from the 1890s to the 1990s by Derek J. Oddy
- ^ "Powered by Google Docs". Docs.google.com. http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:YdHEFfT32noJ:campbeltowngrammar.org.uk/downloads/history/5_year/british_higher/labour-reforms/i-assessment/1945-1951_labour_government.doc+%E2%80%9CPrefab%E2%80%9D+classrooms+were+also+built+and+928+new+primary+schools+were+constructed+between+1945+and+1950&hl=en&gl=uk&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESgaOtfB49c9TMEFcKCx0vUvwvLMyzSWQ9JMXlhiobC4Nc_-tDp2dZDqxDPSU6ylDlCONx_3vjFQ7Fc3VaJMijATeUPQ9lRI_EbAVSjjKj4Wb-s5sWyh0gIQ-oyKgx9L9VZIEDfB&sig=AHIEtbTl0DuRvchpzLCqCLa8NHX25FRRPA. Retrieved 2011-10-02.
- ^ Labour in power, 1945-1951 by Kenneth Morgan
- ^ Ten Years of New Labour, edited by Matt Beech and Simon Lee
- ^ The Labour Party since 1945 by Kevin Jefferys
- ^ Andrew Pierce, "What Queen Mother really thought of Attlee's socialist 'heaven on earth'." The Times, 13 May 2006, p. 9)
- ^ Morgan, Labour in Power.
- ^ Gordon, Yefim, Mikoyan-Gurevich MIG-15: The Soviet Union's Long-Lived Korean War Fighter, Midland Press (2001)
- ^ See, e.g., Kenneth O. Morgan, Labour in Power (Oxford, 1984), especially Chapter 6.
- ^ The 1945-1951 Labour Governments by Roger Eatwell
- ^ The Times, 30 November 1951; p. 6; Issue 52172; col G: "The Resignation Honours: Earldom For Lord Jowitt".
- ^ Walter L. Arnstein, Britain Yesterday and Today: 1830 to the Present, Chapter 19, p. 363
- ^ Peter Hennessy, The Prime Minister: The Office and its Holders since 1945, Chapter 7, p. 150
- ^ Labour’s First Century by Duncan Tanner, Pat Thane, and Nick Tiratsoo
- ^ "December03". Btinternet.com. 1988-11-30. http://www.btinternet.com/~eastlondonpostcard/POM2004/Jan04.htm. Retrieved 2011-10-02.
- ^ 
- ^ "Harold Wilson". Number 10. http://www.number10.gov.uk/history-and-tour/harold-wilson-2/. Retrieved 2011-10-02.
- ^ "Lord Mandelson joins Lord Hennessy to unveil Clement Attlee statue". Queen Mary University of London. http://www.qmul.ac.uk/media/news/items/hss/46923.html. Retrieved 8 July 2011.
- ^ Brookshire, Jerry Hardman (1995), Clement Attlee, New York: Manchester University Press, p. 15, ISBN 071903244X, http://books.google.com/books?id=Tn27AAAAIAAJ
- Hennessy, Peter (2006), Never Again: Britain 1945–51 (2 ed.), London: Penguin Books, ISBN 0141016023
- Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Clement Attlee
- More about Clement Attlee on the Downing Street website.
- Clement Attlee at Find-A-Grave
- Archival material relating to Clement Attlee listed at the UK National Register of Archives
- Annotated bibliography for Clement Attlee from the Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues
- Works by or about Clement Attlee in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
Political offices Preceded by
Under-Secretary of State for War
The Earl of Onslow
Sir Oswald Mosley
Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster
The Lord Ponsonby of Shulbrede
Sir William Ormsby-Gore
Leader of the Opposition
Sir Kingsley Wood
Lord Privy Seal
Sir Stafford Cripps
New title Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
Herbert Stanley Morrison
Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs
Sir John Anderson
Lord President of the Council
The Lord Woolton
Leader of the Opposition
Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
27 July 1945 – 26 October 1951
Minister of Defence
A. V. Alexander
Leader of the Opposition
Parliament of the United Kingdom Preceded by
Sir William Pearce
Member of Parliament for Limehouse
1922 – 1950
Constituency abolished Preceded by
Member of Parliament for Walthamstow West
1950 – 1956
Party political offices Preceded by
John Robert Clynes
Deputy Leader of the Labour Party
Leader of the Labour Party
Peerage of the United Kingdom New creation Earl Attlee
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