- Persian Empire
The Persian Empire was a series of
Iranianempires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asiaand the Caucasus.
The most widespread entity considered to have been a Persian Empire was the
Achaemenid Empire(550–330 BC) under Darius and Xerxes (or Xerkes) — famous in antiquity as the foe of the classical Greek states (See Greco-Persian Wars) — a united Persian kingdom that originated in the region now known as Pars province (Fars province) of Iran.
It was formed under
Cyrus the Great, who took over the empire of the Medes, and conquered much of the Middle East, including the territories of the Babylonians, Assyrians, the Phoenicians, and the Lydians. Cambyses, Son of Cyrus the Great, continued his conquests by conquering Egypt. The Achaemenid Persian Empire was ended by Alexander the Great. However, the Persian Empire arose again during the Parthian and Sassanid Empires of Iranfollowed by Iranianpost-islimic Empires like Safavids, up to modern day Iran.
Most of the successive states in
Greater Iranprior to March 1935 are collectively called the "Persian Empire" by Western historians.
Virtually all the successor empires of Persia were major regional and some major
international powersin their day.
Median Empire (728 BC-559 BC)
Infobox Former Country
conventional_long_name = Median Empire
common_name = Media
continent = Asia
region = Near East
era = Classical Antiquity
government_type = |year_start = 728 BC
year_end = 559 BC
event_end = Cyrus the Great
p1 = Neo-Assyrian Empire
s1 = Achaemenid Empire
image_map_caption = Median Empire, ca. 600 BC
capital = Ecbatana
latd= |latm= |latNS= |longd= |longm= |longEW=
Zoroastrianism, possibly also Proto-Indo-Iranian religion
title_leader = King
footnotes = The Medes are credited with the foundation of the first Iranian empire, the largest of its day until Cyrus the Great established a unified Iranian empire of the Medes and Persians, often referred to as the Achaemenid Persian Empire, by defeating his grandfather and overlord, Astyages the shah of Media. The Median capital was
Ecbatana, the modern day Iranian city of Hamedan. Ectbatana was preserved as one of the capital cities of the Achaemenid Empire, which succeeded the Median Empire.
According to Herodotus, the conquests of Cyaxares the Mede were preceded by a Scythian invasion and domination lasting twenty-eight years (under Madius the Scythian, 653-625 BC). The Mede tribes seem to have come into immediate conflict with a settled state to the West known as Mannae, allied with Assyria. Assyrian inscriptions state that the early Mede rulers, who had attempted rebellions against the Assyrians in the time of Esarhaddon and Assur-bani-pal, were allied with chieftains of the "Ashguza" (Scythians) and other tribes - who had come from the northern shore of the
Black Seaand invaded Armeniaand Asia Minor; and "Jeremiah" and "Zephaniah" in the Old Testament agree with Herodotus that a massive invasion of Syriaand Philistiaby northern barbarians took place in 626 BC. The state of Mannae was finally conquered and assimilated by the Medes in the year 616 BC.
In 612 BC, Cyaxares conquered
Urartu, and with the alliance of Nabopolassarthe Chaldean, succeeded in destroying the Assyrian capital, Nineveh; and by 606 BC, the remaining vestiges of Assyrian control. From then on, the Mede king ruled over much of Iran, Assyria and northern Mesopotamia, Armenia and Cappadocia. His power was very dangerous to his neighbors, and the exiled Jews expected the destruction of Babyloniaby the Medes (Isaiah 13, 14m 21; Jerem. 1, 51.).
When Cyaxares attacked
Lydia, the kings of Ciliciaand Babylonintervened and negotiated a peace in 585 BC, whereby the Halyswas established as the Medes' frontier with Lydia. Nebuchadrezzar of Babylon married a daughter of Cyaxares, and an equilibrium of the great powers was maintained until the rise of the Persians under Cyrus.
Median Kings were:
Deioces(Old Iranian *Dahyu-ka) 727-675 B.C. [ R. Schmitt, DEIOCES in Encyclopedia Iranica [http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/v7f2/v7f288.html] ]
Phraortes(Old Iranian *Fravarti) 674-653
Madius(Scythian Rule) 652-625
Cyaxares(Old Iranian *Uvaxštra) 624-585 [I.M. Diakonoff, “Media” in Cambridge History of Iran 2 ]
Astyages(Old Iranian *Ršti-vêga) 589-549 [I.M. Diakonoff, “Media” in Cambridge History of Iran 2 ]
Modern research by a professor of
Assyriology, Robert Rollinger, has questioned the Median empire and its sphere of influence, proposing for example that it did not control the Assyrian heartland. [ [http://www.achemenet.com/ressources/souspresse/annonces/Rollinger-Iran.pdf Robert Rollinger, The Median “Empire”, the End of Urartu and Cyrus’ the Great Campaign in 547 B.C. (Nabonidus Chronicle II 16)] ]
Achaemenid Empire (550 BC–330 BC)
The earliest known record of the Persians comes from an
Assyrian inscription from c. 844 BC that calls them the "Parsu" (Parsuaš, Parsumaš) [Cite book
edition = 2
publisher = Cambridge University Press
isbn = 0521228042
pages = 15
last = Hammond
first = N. G. L.
coauthors = M. Ostwald
others = John Boardman, D. M. Lewis (eds.)
title = The Cambridge Ancient History Set: The Cambridge Ancient History Volume 4: Persia, Greece and the Western Mediterranean, c.525-479 BC: Persia, Greece and ... C.525-479 B.C. Ed.J.Boardman, Etc v. 4
date = 1988-11-24] and mentions them in the region of
Lake Urmiaalongside another group, the "Mādāyu" ( Medes).cite web
title=Assyrian Identity in Ancient Times and Today
Journal of Assyrian Academic Studies
quote=Ethnonyms like Arbāyu "Arab", Mādāyu "Mede", Muşurāyu "Egyptian", and Urarţāyu "Urartian" are from the late eighth century on frequently borne by fully Assyrianized, affluent individuals in high positions. ] For the next two centuries, the Persians and Medes were at times tributary to the Assyrians. The region of Parsuash was annexed by Sargon of Assyria around 719 BC. Eventually the Medes came to rule an independent Median Empire, and the Persians were subject to them.
The Achaemenids were the first to create a centralized state in Persia, founded by
Achaemenes("Haxamaniš"), chieftain of the Persians around 700 BC.
Around 653 BC, the Medes came under the domination of the
Scythians, and Teispes(Cišpiš), the son of Achaemenes, seems to have led the nomadic Persians to settle in southern Iran around this time — eventually establishing the first organized Persian statein the important region of Anšan as the Elamite kingdom was permanently destroyed by the Assyrian ruler Ashurbanipal(640 BC). The kingdom of Anšan and its successors continued to use Elamiteas an official language for quite some time after this, although the new dynasts spoke Persian, an Indo-Iranian tongue.
Teispes' descendants may have branched off into two lines, one line ruling in Anshan, while the other ruled the rest of Persia.
Cyrus II the Great(Kuruš) united the separate kingdoms around 559 BC. At this time, the Persians were still tributary to the Median Empire ruled by Astyages. Cyrus rallied the Persians together, and in 550 BC defeated the forces of Astyages, who was then captured by his own nobles and turned over to the triumphant Cyrus, now Shahof a unified Persian kingdom. As Persia assumed control over the rest of Media and their large empire, Cyrus led the united Medes and Persians to still more conquest. He took Lydiain Asia Minor, and carried his arms eastward into central Asia. Finally in 539 BC, Cyrus marched triumphantly into the ancient city of Babylon. After this victory, he set the standards of a benevolent conqueror by issuing the Cyrus Cylinder, the first charter of human rights. Cyrus was killed in 530 BC during a battle against the Massagetaeor Sakas.
Cambyses II(Kambūjiya), annexed Egyptto the Achaemenid Empire. The empire then reached its greatest extent under Darius I (Dāryavuš). He led conquering armies into the Indus Rivervalley and into Thracein Europe. A punitive raid against Greecewas halted at the Battle of Marathon. A larger invasion by his son, Xerxes I(Xšayārša), would have initial success at the Battle of Thermopylae. Following the destruction of his navy at the Battle of Salamis, Xerxes would withdraw most of his forces from Greece. The remnant of his army in Greece commanded by General Mardoniuswas ultimately defeated at the Battle of Plataeain 479 BC.
Darius divided his realm into twenty-three satrapies (provinces) supervised by
satraps, or governors, many of whom had personal ties to the Shah. He instituted a systematic tribute to tax each province. He took the advanced postal systemof the Assyrians and expanded it. Also taken from the Assyrians was the usage of secret agents of the king, known as the King's Eyes and Ears, keeping him informed.Fact|date=August 2008
Darius improved the famous
Royal Roadand other ancient trade routes, thereby connecting far reaches of the empire. He may have moved the administration center from Fars itself to Susa, near Babylon and closer to the center of the realm. The Persians allowed local cultures to survive, following the precedent set by Cyrus the Great. This was not only good for the empire's subjects, but ultimately benefited the Achaemenids, because the conquered peoples felt no need to revolt.
It may have been during the Achaemenid period that
Zoroastrianismreached South-Western Iran, where it came to be accepted by the rulers and through them became a defining element of Persian culture. The religion was not only accompanied by a formalization of the concepts and divinities of the traditional (Indo-)Iranian pantheon, but also introduced several novel ideas, including that of free will, which is arguably Zoroaster's greatest contribution to religious philosophy. Under the patronage of the Achaemenid kings, and later as the "de-facto" religion of the state, Zoroastrianism would reach all corners of the empire. In turn, Zoroastrianism would be subject to the first syncretic influences, in particular from the Semitic lands to the west, from which the divinities of the religion would gain astral and planetary aspects and from where the temple cult originates. It was also during the Achaemenid era that the sacerdotal Magiwould exert their influence on the religion, introducing many of the practices that are today identified as typically Zoroastrian, but also introducing doctrinal modifications that are today considered to be revocations of the original teachings of the prophet.
The Achaemenid Empire united people and kingdoms from every major civilization in south West Asia and North East Africa.
Parthian Empire (250 BC–AD 226)
Its rulers, the
Arsacid dynasty, belonged to an Iranian tribe that had settled there during the time of Alexander. They declared their independence from the Seleucids in 238 BC, but their attempts to unify Iran were thwarted until after the advent of Mithridates I to the Parthian throne in about 170 BC.
The Parthian Confederacy shared a border with Rome along the upper Euphrates River. The two polities became major rivals, especially over control of Armenia. Heavily-armoured Parthian cavalry (
cataphracts) supported by mounted archers proved a match for Roman legions, as in the Battle of Carrhaein which the Parthian General Surenadefeated Marcus Licinius Crassusof Rome. Wars were very frequent, with Mesopotamiaserving as the battleground.
During the Parthian period, Hellenistic customs partially gave way to a resurgence of Iranian culture. However, the area lacked political unity, and the vassalary structure that the Arsacids had adopted from the Seleucids left the Parthians in a constant state of war with one seceding vassal or the other. By the 1st century BC, Parthia was decentralized, ruled by
feudalnobles. Wars with Romans to the west and the KushanEmpire to the northeast drained the country's resources.
Parthia, now impoverished and without any hope of recovering its lost territories, was demoralized. The kings had to give more concessions to the nobility, and the vassal kings sometimes refused to obey. Parthia's last ruler Artabanus IV had an initial success in putting together the crumbling state. However, the fate of the Arsacid Dynasty was doomed when in AD 224, the Persian vassal king Ardashir revolted. Two years later, he took
Ctesiphon, and this time, it meant the end of Parthia. It also meant the beginning of the second Persian Empire, ruled by the Sassanid kings. Sassanids were from the province of Persis, native to the first Persian Empire, the Achaemenids.
Sassanid Empire (226–651)
The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty ( _fa. ساسانیان, pronounced|sɒsɒnijɒn) is the name used for the fourth imperial Iranian
dynasty, and the second Persian Empire(226–651). The Sassanid dynasty was founded by Ardashir Iafter defeating the last Parthian (Arsacid) king, Artabanus IV(PerB|اردوان "Ardavan") and ended when the last Sassanid Shahanshah("King of Kings"), Yazdegerd III(632–651), lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the early Islamic Caliphate, the first of the Islamicempires. Ardashir Iled a rebellion against the Parthian Confederacy in an attempt to revive the glory of the previous empire and to legitimize the Hellenized form of Zoroastrianismpractised in southwestern Iran. In two years he was the Shahof a new Persian Empire.
The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian, named for Ardashir's grandfather) was the first dynasty native to the Pars province since the Achaemenids; thus they saw themselves as the successors of Darius and Cyrus. They pursued an aggressive expansionist policy. They recovered much of the eastern lands that the Kushans had taken in the Parthian period. The Sassanids continued to make war against Rome; a Persian army even captured the
Roman EmperorValerian in 260.
The Sassanid Empire, unlike Parthia, was a highly centralized state. The people were rigidly organized into a caste system: Priests, Soldiers, Scribes, and Commoners. Zoroastrianism was finally made the official state religion, and spread outside Persia proper and out into the provinces. There was sporadic persecution of other religions. The
Eastern Orthodox Churchwas particularly persecuted, but this was in part due to its ties to the Roman Empire. The Nestorian Christian church was tolerated and sometimes even favored by the Sassanids.
The wars and religious control that had fueled the Sassanid Empire's early successes eventually contributed to its decline. The eastern regions were conquered by the
White Hunsin the late 5th century. Adherents of a radical religious sect, the Mazdakites, revolted around the same time. Khosrau I was able to recover his empire and expand into the Christian countries of Antiochand Yemen. Between 605 and 629, Sassanids successfully annexed Levant and Roman Egyptand pushed into Anatolia.
However, a subsequent war with the Romans utterly destroyed the empire. In the course of the protracted conflict, Sassinid armies reached
Constantinople, but could not defeat the Byzantines there. Meanwhile, the Byzantine Emperor Heracliushad successfully outflanked the Persian armies in Asia Minor and attacked the empire from the rear while the main Iranian army along with its top Eran Spahbods were far from battlefields. This resulted in a crushing defeat for Sassanids in Northern Mesopotamia. The Sassanids had to give up all their conquered lands and retreat.
Following the advent of Islam and collapse of
Sassanid Empire, Persians came under the subjection of Arab rulers for almost two centuries before native Persian dynasties could gradually drive them out. In this period a number of small and numerically inferior Arab tribes migrated to inland Iran. [Zarinkoob, pp. 355-357]
Also some Turkic tribes settled in Persia between the 9th and 12th centuries. [Zarinkoob, pp. 461, 519]
In time these peoples were integrated into numerous Persian populations and adopted
Persian cultureand language while Persians retained their culture with minimal influence from outside. [Zarinkoob, p. 899]
Conquest of Persia by Muslims
The explosive growth of the
Arab Caliphatecoincided with the chaos caused by the defeat of Sassanids in wars with the Byzantine Empire. Most of the country was conquered between 643 and 650 with the Battle of Nihawandmarking the total collapse of the Sassanids. [A Short History of Syriac Literature By William Wright. pg 44] Yazdgerd III, the last Sassanid emperor, died ten years after he lost his empire to the newly-formed MuslimCaliphate. He tried to recover some of what he lost with the help of the Turks, but they were easily defeated by Muslim armies. Then he sought the aid of the Chinese Tang dynasty. However, the Chinese help did not avail and Arab muslimsultimately defeated the Chinese forces in the battle of Talas, a century after Yazdgerd's death. The Umayyads would rule Persia for a hundred years. The Arab conquest dramatically changed life in Persia. Arabic became the new lingua franca, Islam eventually replaced Zoroastrianism, and mosques were built.
In 750 the Umayyads were ousted from power by the
Abbasiddynasty. By that time, Persians had come to play an important role in the bureaucracy of the empire. [ISBN 1-84212-011-5] The caliph Al-Ma'mun, whose mother was Persian, moved his capital away from Arab lands into Mervin eastern Iran.
amanid Persian Empire
Samanids carved out a semi-independent state in eastern Persiato become the first native Iranianrulers after the Arabic conquest. Despite having roots in Zoroastrianism theocratic nobility, they embraced Islamand propagated the religion deep into the heart of Central Asia. They made Samarqand, Bukharaand Herattheir capitals and revived the Persian languageand culture. The Samanid rulers displayed tolerance toward religious minorities as Zoroastrianclerics compiled and authored major religious texts, such as the Denkard, in Pahlavi. It was approximately during this age, when the poet Firdawsifinished the Shahnameh, an epic poem retelling the history of the Iranian kings. This epic was completed by AD 1008.
affarid Persian Empire
Ya'qub, the founder of Saffarid dynasty, seized control of the Seistan region, conquering all of modern-day eastern
Iranand Afghanistanand parts of Pakistan. Using their capital (Zaranj) as base for an aggressive expansion eastwards and westwards, they overthrew the Tahirid Persian dynasty and annexed Khorasanin 873.By the time of Ya'qub's death, he had conquered Kabul Valley, Sind, Tocharistan, Makran( Baluchistan), Kerman, Fars, Khorasan, and nearly reaching Baghdadbut then suffered defeat. [Britannica, [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9064714 Saffarid dynasty] ]
Buwayhid Persian Empire
In 913, western
Persiawas conquered by the " Buwayhid", a Deylamite Persiantribal confederation from the shores of the Caspian Sea. Buyidswere a Shī‘ah Iranian [ [http://www.iranica.com/newsite/index.isc?Article=http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/unicode/v4f6/v4f6a015.html] ] [ [http://www.iranica.com/articles/v7/v7f4/v7f408.html Encyclopedia Iranica: DEYLAMITES] ] dynasty which founded a confederation that controlled most of modern-day Iranand Iraqin the 10th and 11th centuries.
They made the city of Shiraz (In the
Pars Provinceof Iran) their capital. The Buwayhids destroyed Islam's former territorial unity. Rather than a province of a united Muslim empire, Iranbecame one nation in an increasingly diverse and cultured Islamic world.
Turco-Persian rule (1037–1219)
The Muslim world was shaken again in 1037 with the invasion of the
Seljuk Turksfrom the northeast. The Seljuks created a very large Middle Eastern empire. The Seljuks built the fabulous Friday Mosque in the city of Isfahan. The famous Persian mathematician and poet, Omar Khayyám, wrote his "Rubaiyat" during Seljuk times.
In the early 13th century the Seljuks lost control of Persia to another group of Turks from
Khwarezmia, near the Aral Sea. The Shahs of the Khwarezmid Empirelater ruled.
Mongols and their successors (1219–1500)
Genghis Khansent ambassadors and merchants to the city of Otrar, on the northeastern confines of the Khwarizm shahdom. The governor of Otrar had these envoys executed. Genghis attacked Otrar in 1219, Samarkandand other cities of the northeast.
Hulagu Khan, finished the invasions that Genghis had begun when he defeated Khwarzim Empire, Baghdad, and much of the rest of the Middle Eastfrom 1255 to 1258. Persia temporarily became the Ilkhanate, a division of the vast Mongol Empire.
In 1295, after Ilkhan
Mahmud Ghazanconverted to Islam, he forced Mongols in Persia to convert Islam. The Ilkhans patronized the arts and learning in the fine tradition of Iranian Islam; indeed, they helped to repair much of the damage of the Mongol conquests.
In 1335, the death of Abu Sa'id, the last well-recognized Ilkhan, spelled the end of the Ilkhanate. Though
Arpa Ke'unwas declared Ilkhan his authority was disputed and the Ilkhanate was splintered into a number of small states. This left Persia vulnerable to conquest at the hands of Timur the Lameor Tamerlane, a Central Asian conqueror seeking to revive the Mongol Empire. He ordered the attack of Persia beginning around 1370 and robbed the region until his death in 1405. Timur is known for his brutality; in Isfahan, for instance, he was responsible for the murder of 70,000 people so that he could build towers with their skullsFact|date=January 2008. He conquered a wide area and made his own city of Samarkand rich, but he failed to forge a lasting empire. The Persian Empire was essentially in ruins.
For the next hundred years Persia was not a unified state. It was ruled for a while by descendants of Timur, called the Timurid
emirs. Toward the end of the 15th century, Persia was taken over by the Emirate of the White Sheep Turkmen("Ak Koyunlu"). But there was little unity and none of the sophistication that had defined Iran during the glory days of Islam.
Safavid Persian Empire (1500–1722)
Safavid Dynastyhailed from the town of Ardabilin the region of Azarbaijan. The Safavid Shah Ismail Ioverthrew the White Sheep (Akkoyunlu) Turkish rulers of Persia to found a new native Persian empire. Ismail expanded Persia to include all of present-day Azerbaijan, Iran, and Iraq, plus much of Afghanistan. Ismail's expansion was halted by the Ottoman Empireat the Battle of Chaldiranin 1514, and war with the Ottomans became a fact of life in Safavid Iran.
Safavid Persia was a violent and chaotic state for the next seventy years, but in 1588 Shah
Abbas I of Safavidascended to the throne and instituted a cultural and political renaissance. He moved his capital to Isfahan, which quickly became one of the most important cultural centers in the Islamic world. He made peace with the Ottomans. He reformed the army, drove the Uzbeksout of Iran and into modern-day Uzbekistan, and (with English help) recaptured the island of Hormuzfrom the Portuguese. Abdur Razzaq was the Persian ambassador to Calicut, India, and wrote vividly of his experiences there. [cite web
title=European Domination of the Indian Ocean Trade
The Safavids were followers of
Shi'aIslam, and under them Persia (Iran) became the largest Shi'acountry in the Muslim world, a position Iran still holds today.
Under the Safavids Persia enjoyed its last period as a major imperial power. In 1639, a final border was agreed upon with the Ottoman Empire with the Treaty of Qasr-e Shirin; which delineates the border between the Republic of
Turkeyand Iran and also that of between Iraq and Iran, today.
Persia and Europe (1722–1914)
In 1722, the Safavid state collapsed. That year saw the first European invasion of Persia since the time of Heraclius: Peter the Great, Emperor of
Imperial Russia, invaded from the northwest as part of a bid to dominate central Asia. Ottoman forces accompanied the Russians, successfully laying siege to Isfahan.
The Russians conquered the city of Baku and its surroundings. The Turks also gained territory. However, the Safavids were severely weakened, and that same year (1722), the Afghans launched a bloody battle in response to the Safavids' attempts on trying to forcefully convert them from
Sunnito Shi'asect of Islam. The last Safavid shah was executed, and the dynasty came to an end.
The Persian empire experienced a temporary revival under
Nader Shahin the 1730s and 1740s. Nadir checked the advances of the Russians and defeated the Afghans, later recaptured all of Afghanistan. He also launched successful campaigns against the nomadic khanates of Central Asia, and the Arabs of Oman. He also recaptured the territories lost to the Ottomans and invaded the Ottoman Empire. In 1739, he attacked and looted Delhi, the capital of MoghulIndia. When Nadir Shah was assassinated, the empire was ruled by the Zand dynasty. Iran was left unprepared for the worldwide expansion of European colonial empires in the late 18th century and throughout the 19th century.
Persia found relative stability in the
Qajar dynasty, ruling from 1779 to 1925, but lost hope to compete with the new industrial powers of Europe; Persia found itself sandwiched between the growing Russian Empire in Central Asiaand the expanding British Empirein India. Each carved out pieces from the Persian empire that became Bahrain, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Armenia, Georgia and Uzbekistanamongst other previous provinces.
Although Persia was never directly invaded, it gradually became economically dependent on
Europe. The Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907 formalised Russian and British spheres of influence over the north and south of the country, respectively, where Britain and Russia each created a " sphere of influence", where the colonial power had the final "say" on economic matters.
At the same time
Mozzafar-al-Dinshah had granted a concession to William Knox D'Arcy, later the Anglo-Persian Oil Company, to explore and work the newly-discovered oil fields at Masjid Soleimanin southwest Persia, which started production in 1914. Winston Churchill, as First Sea Lordto the British Admiralty, oversaw the conversion of the Royal Navyto oil-fired battleships and partially nationalized it prior to the start of war. A small Anglo-Persian force was garrisoned there to protect the field from some hostile tribal factions.
World War I and the interbellum (1914–1935)
Persia was drawn into the periphery of
World War Ibecause of its strategic position between Afghanistanand the warring Ottoman, Russian, and British Empires. In 1914 Britain sent a military force to Mesopotamiato deny the Ottomans access to the Persian oilfields. The German Empireretaliated on behalf of its ally by spreading a rumour that Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germanyhad converted to Islam, and sent agents through Iran to attack the oil fields and raise a Jihadagainst British rule in India. Most of those German agents were captured by Persian, British and Russian troops who were sent to patrol the Afghan border, and the rebellion faded away. This was followed by a German attempt, to abduct Ahmad Shah Qajar. This was foiled at the last moment.
In 1916 the fighting between Russian and Ottoman forces to the north of the country had spilled down into Persia; Russia gained the advantage until most of her armies collapsed in the wake of the
Russian Revolution of 1917. This left the Caucasusunprotected, and the Caucasian and Persian civilians starving after years of war and deprivation. In 1918 a small force of 400 British troops under General Dunstervillemoved into the Trans-Caucasus from Persia in a bid to encourage local resistance to German and Ottoman armies who were about to invade the Bakuoilfields. Although they later withdrew back into Persia, they did succeed in delaying the Turks access to the oil almost until the Armistice. In addition, the expedition’s supplies were used to avert a major famine in the region, and a camp for 30,000 displaced refugees was created near the Mesopotamian frontier.
In 1919, northern Persia was occupied by the British General
William Edmund Ironsideto enforce the Turkish Armisticeconditions and assist General Dunstervilleand Colonel Bicherakhovcontain Bolshevikinfluence (of Mirza Kuchak Khan) in the north. Britain also took tighter control over the increasingly lucrative oil fields.
Reza Shah Pahlaviseized power from the Qajars and established the new Pahlavi dynasty, the last Persian monarchy before the establishment of the Islamic Republic. However, Britain and the Soviet Unionremained the influential powers in Persia into the early years of the Cold War.
On March 21, 1935, "Iran" was officially accepted as the new name of the country. After Persian scholars' protests to this decision on the grounds that it represented a break with their classical past and seemed to be unduly influenced by the "Aryan" propaganda from Nazi Germany. In 1953 Mohammad Reza Shah announced both names "Iran" and "Persia" could be used..
ignificance of history of Persia
The role of Persia (Iran) in history is highly significant; In fact, the German philosopher
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegelconsidered the ancient Persians to be "the first historic people" and stated thus: "In Persia first arises that light which shines itself and illuminates what is around...The principle of development begins with the history of Persia; this constitutes therefore the beginning of history". [ Georg Hegelin " The Philosophy of History", (trans.) J. Sibree, Buffalo, 1991, p.173]
Richard Nelson Fryefurther verifies::"Few nations in the world present more of a justification for the study of history than Iran." [ Richard Nelson Fryein "The Golden Age of Persia".]
Persia in fiction
* The Persian Empire is the seat of power for the
sultan Shahryar, husband of Scheherazadein the "1001 Nights" — though the tales themselves span from China to the Middle East and even parts of North Africa.
Prince of Persia" is a puzzle and action-based video game series set in a mythological version of Ancient Persia.
historical fantasy" The Dragon of the Ishtar Gate" by L. Sprague de Campis set in Babylon during the last few years of Xerxes Ireign.
historical novel"Creation" by Gore Vidal, about a Persian diplomat who travels the known world studying religious beliefs on behalf of Darius the Great.
* The "
Prince of Nothing" books by R. Scott Bakker, set in a fictional land that draws influence from Hellenistic Greece, Scythia, and the Persian Empire.
Gates of Fire", by Steven Pressfieldand 300 by Frank Miller, about the Battle of Thermopylae.
Mary Renault's second book in her trilogy on Alexander the Great. " The Persian Boy", narrated by Bagoas set during Alexander the Great's reign of Persia.
Robert E. Howard's short story " The Shadow of the Vulture", featuring Red Sonya, is set in the Safavid Dynasty, as she seeks vengeance on an Ottoman sultan. It was published in "The Magic Carpet Magazine", a magazine that was known for their stories set in the Orient.
Godless Man", by Paul Doherty - An historical mystery, set during the reign of Alexander the Great (who is also a major character). Telamon, friend and physician of Alexander, must unravel the threatening murders by a high-ranking Persian spy only known as "the Centaur". Second part of a trilogy.
* "" by
Tommy Tenney, tells the story of Esther, Queen of Persia.
Gardens of Light" by Amin Maalouf
* "" by
Samuel K. Nweeya
* The Sassanid Persian Empire was featured as the ally of
Byzantiumin the jointly written six book long Bellisarius Sagaby David Drakeand Eric Flint.
Battle of Thermopylae, part of the Persian invasion of Greecein 480 BC, is dramatically retold in Frank Miller's comic book(and subsequent film) 300 and features such historical figures as Persian King Xerxes Iand Spartan King Leonidas I.
Jamshid and the Lost Mountain of Light" by Howard Lee- A children's book which draws heavily from Persian mythology
* Historical fiction "
Roxana Romance" by A. J. Cave chronicles the life of Roxana, wife of Alexander the Great, after the fall of the imperial Achaemenids.
History of Iran
Geography of Iran
* Science in Persia
List of kings of Persia
List of Iranian scientists
List of monarchies
Capitals of Persia
Prince of Persia(video game)
Wildlife of Iran
* Stronach, David "Darius at Pasargadae: A Neglected Source for the History of Early Persia," Topoi
Abdolhossein Zarinkoob, "Ruzgaran: tarikh-i Iran az aghz ta saqut saltnat Pahlvi" Sukhan, 1999. ISBN 964-6961-11-8
* Ali Akbar Sarfaraz, Bahman Firuzmandi "Mad, Hakhamanishi, Ashkani, Sasani", Marlik, 1996. ISBN 964-90495-1-7
* Daniel, Elton, "The History of Iran", Greenwood Press, 2001
* [http://www.iranchamber.com/history/historic_periods.php Iran Chamber Society (History of Iran)]
*Bailey, Harold (ed.) "The Cambridge History of Iran", Cambridge University Press 1993, Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-45148-5
*Wiesehofer, Josef: "Ancient Persia"
*J. E Curtis and N. Tallis: "Forgotten Empire: The World of Ancient Persia"
Pierre Briant: "From Cyrus to Alexander: A History of the Persian Empire", Eisenbrauns: 2002, ISBN 978-1-57506-0310
* Richard N. Frye: "The Heritage of Persia"
* A.T. Olmstead: "History of the Persian Empire"
* Lindsay Allen: "The Persian Empire"
* J.M. Cook: "The Persian Empire"
* Tom Holland: "Persian Fire: The First World Empire and the Battle for the West"
* Amini Sam: "Pictorial History of Iran: Ancient Persia Before Islam 15000 B.C.-625 A.D."
* "Timelife Persians: Masters of the Empire (Lost Civilizations)"
* "Houchang Nahavandi, The Last Shah of Iran - Fatal Countdown of a Great Patriot betrayed by the Free World, a Great Country whose fault was Success, Aquilion, 2005," ISBN 1-904997-03-1
* Farrokh, Kaveh: "Shadows in the Desert: Ancient Persia at War", Osprey: 2007, ISBN 978-1-84603-108-3
* Brosius, Maria: "The Persians: An Introduction", Routledge:2006, ISBN 978-0-41532-090-0
* [http://www.farsmovie.com/eng/index.htm Iran, The Forgotten Glory - Documentary Film About Ancient Persia (Achaemenids & Sassanids)]
* [http://www.collage.ws/gallery01.html Persia’s collage]
* [http://www.spentaproductions.com/cyruspreview.htm In Search of Cyrus the Great: Spenta Productions - a Documentary Movie about Cyrus the Great]
* [http://www.jazirehdanesh.com/find.php?item=1.601.897.en Persian Innovations]
* [http://www.iraninfo.dk/iranske-dokumentar-film-iranian-documentaries/persepolis-recreated-filmen-om-genskabelse-af-perse.html Persepolis Recreated - Reconstruction of Persepolis MOVIE DOCUMENTARY]
* [http://www.chn.ir/en Iran’s Cultural Heritage News Agency (CHN)]
* [http://ancientneareast.tripod.com/Persia.html The History of the Ancient Near East]
* [http://fax.libs.uga.edu/DS272xB4/ Persia] , by S.G.W. Benjamin, 1891
* [http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/asbook05.html Ancient History Sourcebook: Persia]
* [http://www.persiandna.com/history.htm PersianDNA] History of the Great Persian Empire and the Ancient Zoroastrian Religion.
* [http://www.ichodoc.ir/ Iran Cultural Heritage Organization Documentation Center] (Persian)
* [http://www.to-miras.ir/ Iran Cultural Heritage Organization Technical Office for Preservation and Restoration] (Persian)
* [http://www.rcccr.org/ Iran Research Center for Conservation of Cultural Relics]
* [http://www.chn.ir/ Iran Cultural Heritage News Agency] (Recommended)
* [http://persepolistablets.blogspot.com/ Persepolis Fortification Archive Project]
* [http://www.persepolis.ir/ Persepolis Official website]
* [http://www.persiansarenotarabs.com/ Persians Are Not Arabs]
* [http://oi.uchicago.edu/OI/MUS/PA/IRAN/PAAI/PAAI.html Oriental Institute Photographic Archives] (Nearly 1,000 archaeological photographs of Persepolis and Ancient Persia)
* [http://www.payvand.com/news/06/mar/1212.html Publication of Old Maps of Persia (Iran) in The Netherlands]
* [http://www.irantravel.biz/ Iran Cultural, Natural and Historical Attractions]
* "Persian Wars", [http://www.isidore-of-seville.com/herodotus/10.html Herodotus on the Web] .
* "Weaponry of Ancient Persian Armies", [http://www.farhangiran.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=category§ionid=5&id=38&Itemid=62 "Farhang-e Iran"] .
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